First, there is anointing as a divine commission; and this is elated to ChrisГ¶ which appears five times In the New Testament (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38; 2 core 1:21 and Web 1:9). ChrisГ¶ OF 26 the sense of being specially appointed or commissioned by God (Web 1:9; Luke 4:18; CB. Luke 1 (Richards 1985:54). Of the five occurrences, it is used only once (2 Core 1 :21) to refer to the church. Significantly, the other four refer to the empowerment of Christ by the special bequest of the Holy Spirit for his earthly assignment.
In those instances, therefore, the use of oil or any external substance as the instrument of anointing is excluded. In the case of Christ, the anointing ay have taken place at the baptism when God overtly endorsed Journal of Adventist Mission Studies his ministry by the bestowal of the Holy Spirit and an audible affirmation (Matt 3:16-17; CB. Mark 1:8-11 and Luke 3:21-22). A second usage of the anointing motif in the New Testament is expressed by the word charisma. Charisma, as it is used in the Epistle of John (1 John 2:20, 27; CB. Core 1 :21), is in reference to the privileges of being a Christian. The major meaning arising from this passage is the magnificent anointing (consecration) of the believers as a community of Christ. This anointing, as in the ChrisГ¶ word group, is catcalled by the dawning of the Spirit in the life of each believer is alephГ¶. The word appears nine times in the New Testament and is used with various meanings. In the Gospel of Matthew (6:17), this pattern of anointing may refer to the application of oil, cream, lotion, and/or cosmetics to the body.
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In the Matt 6:17 passage Jesus instructs that fasting should be done pleasantly with the continuation of the bodily application of these substances; thus denouncing pretentious faith. Furthermore, Luke (7:38, 46; CB. John 11:z commendable act of the sinful woman who The major meaning arising from this usage is the magnificent anointing (consecration) of the believers as a community of Christ. And consequently, the church (Grandma 1964:572). John implies that at the point of conversion believers are endowed with the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit.
It is significant to note that as Engendered observes: “whereas in the TO only special persons were anointed for office, in the NT all believers receive the anointing by the Holy one (1 john 2:20) . .. And this Anointing abides in the believer” (Engendered 1979:129). The third word used for anointing in the New Testament 2/2009 stunned Jesus’ host by anointing IM with oil-?an act expected of the host who instead derided the woman and questioned the prophetic status of Christ. In relation to burial purposes, the intention of the women disciples of Jesus who came to anoint Chrism’s body after his death (Mark MM; Luke 23:56; CB.
Mark 14:8) captures this meaning in the New Testament. However, the fourth and most contentious pattern of the practice of anointing in the New Testament is related to its healing 51 purposes as recorded in Chrism’s instruction to his disciples and James’ prescription (Mark 6:13 and As 5:13-16). The Greek word alephГ¶ is the word used leaning in these two passages. In this regard, opinions on the understanding and the manner in which this practice should occur among Christians in contemporary Africa are diverse.
While some Christians contend that the theology of biblical anointing could be re-interpreted to accommodate all perceived disquiet of a Christian, others assert that anointing should be understood and practiced in the context of biblical occurrences. The purpose of this article therefore is to study the concept of biblical anointing with oil in As 5:1318, where there seems to be an elaborate procedure for the practice. The study of this passage is undertaken with a view to assessing the practices in Africa, especially Nigeria.
Thus, a synopsis and an evaluation of anointing practices in Nigeria will also be given, followed by a summary, and concluding remarks. Anointing in James 5:13-16 Is anyone among you in suffering? Let him pray. Is anyone among you cheerful? Let him sing psalms. Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up. And if he has committed sins, he will be 2 forgiven.
Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much. As 5:13-16 NOOK, emphasis supplied) The importance of this passage is very critical to the contemporary practice of anointing so it warrants an extended investigation in this study. However, the method used in the consideration of this passage excludes detail exegetical processes such as the literary unit, genre, structure, and textual be limited to a consideration of some key words: suffering, sick, anointing, and save to illuminate this passage.
Suffering and Sick James begins by counseling: “Is anyone among you in suffering? Let him pray. ” The Greek word translated suffering in As 5:13 is cheapskate, the third person singular of cheapskate. The word has been translated “trouble” (NIB), “suffering” (RSVP), and “afflicted” (KAVA). A careful study of this passage may reveal that James was not referring to physical ailments here but to certain external and emotional conditions that may cause discontent and grief to a person.
The meaning of cheapskate and its noun form cheapskates in the few occurrences in the New Testament (see 2 Tim 2:2; 4:5; ND As 5:10) is focused on suffering and afflictions that come to a Christian as a consequence Journal of Adventist Mission Studies of one’s faith. It is, however, probable that its usage in As 5:13 may include troubles or afflictions such as want, poverty, maltreatment, loss, misfortune, and such problems that are not related to physical ill-health since aesthetic in the next verse As 5:14) clearly addresses that.
To persons in such circumstances, James gives counsel that the person should resort too life of prayer. In fact, prayer is a very significant “basic expression of Christian faith and life” (Brown ND SuchГ¶unwise 1986:873) and SSTГhill indicates, may also mean “weak in faith;” “to doubt or hesitate” (Room 14:1; 1 Core 8:9, 11, 12), or to be deficient in dignity (1964:490-493). However, the most common expression for sickness or physical malady in the New Testament is the aesthetic word group (Milton 1956:1).
The word group occurs about twenty-eight times in the New Testament in reference to sickness; thus, it is my opinion that the idea of physical ill health rather than feeble strength or The idea of physical ill health rather than feeble strength or weakness of faith is what James is referring to in he passage. Can bring relief and comfort or the grace of God to carry on in the unpleasant experiences of affliction that may affect a believer (see 2 Core 12:8-10).
The second counsel given by James in this passage is addressed to the “sick” who should initiate an invitation to the church leaders to intervene on the person’s behalf As 5:14). The word used for sickness in this passage is the verb form of the noun aesthetic. Principally, the word has the main idea of weakness and could actually convey the idea of being physically weak such as in strength (Milton 1956:1). The word, as weakness of faith is what James s referring to in the passage.
It is also important to observe that the text As 5:14, 15) does not suggest an application of aesthetic to misfortune or adversity not related to physical ill health. In fact, such adversity or misfortune or trouble had been identified by James (5:13) and he had exhorted that those who are facing such adversity or misfortune should pray without symbolized by the presence of the elders in this passage. The fact that James chooses to identify such adversity with the Greek word cheapskate implies that 53 he does not have physical illness in mind even though certain ill lath can bring sorrow or adversity to the sufferer.
Anoint with Oil “Anoint” in the New Testament as observed earlier is largely a rendering of three different Greek words. In this text it occurs in the nominative plural of the aorist 1 participle (elephants) from the verb alephГ¶, which means to anoint with oil or with ointment. The word itself occurs about nine its usage is literal. The use of oil, obtained from olives (Level 24:2) for anointing and other purposes was quite significant among the ancient Jews. It was used in the preparation of food (1 Kegs 17:12, 13), as fuel for lamps (Exodus 25:6;
Matt 25:3, 4), as ointment for treating sores and wounds (Sis 1 :6), and for anointing the body (2 Sam 12:20; 14:2). Furthermore, oil placed upon a person being anointed at God’s direction was symbolic of the endowment of the Holy Spirit (1 Sam 10:1, 6; 16:13) through the use of holy anointing oil (Exodus 30:22-25). Oil was also used for the anointing of kings (2 Kegs 9:3; CB. 11:12) and priests (Exodus 29:7; 40:15). Thus the significance of oil was very familiar to the Palestinian Christians that James was writing to.
In the secular sphere, oil was (Anti. Xvii, 172 [vi. 5]) reports that Hero the Great, during his 4 last illness was bathed with oil with the hope of recovery. The Papyri, Phil, Plain, and the physician Galen all refer to the medicinal efficacy of oil. In fact Galen described it as “the best of all for paralysis” (Burdock 1981:204). Thus the prescription of the practice of anointing in James with oil As 5:14, 15) was in conformity with the general practices of the apostolic church and the early centuries of the Christian era.
Therefore, James’ exhortation was probably made in the contemporary context of the belief in the efficacy of oil for healing (Brunette 1986:119-121). But of what significance is this restriction to anoint the sick with oil? Various hermeneutics suggestions have been proposed for it. For instance, James Ropes suggests that James gave this exhortation for the application of oil for therapeutic purposes in order to counter the habit of Christians “seeking aid from superstitious, often heathenish, incantations and charms” in that era (Ropes 1916:305).
Others posit that the passage provides priestly authority to forgive sins and the practice of extreme unction for the dying as a means for the forgiveness of their stuns (Ropes 1916:306, 307). It is believed that the sacrament suffices in he uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church; the strengthening, peace, and courage to endure in a Christian manner the sufferings of illness or old age; person was not able to obtain it through the sacrament of penance; the restoration of health, if it is conducive to the salvation of his soul; the preparation for passing over to eternal life. Anointing the Sick 2004) However, the early church did not attach any sacramental efficacy to the ceremony of anointing, though it later used holy oil as a substitute for pagan magic in the attempt to heal the sick as opposed to the Catholic’s application of it as an extreme unction or a last rite of the church for the dying (Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary 7:540). Facially as a means of exorcism” (scalier 1964:230). This idea undoubtedly influenced by the cultural conviction of that time that sickness was attributed to demonic influence.
So in his interpretation of anointing in this passage he posits it has the character of a victorious action in expelling the demons. Another idea about anointing oil as used in this passage is that it is purely medicinal and literal. This is influenced by the belief that oil was commonly employed s a medication in ancient Palestine (Brunette 1986:119-121). In ancient thought, it was believed that anointing oil “can penetrate The early church did not attach any sacramental efficacy to the ceremony of anointing, though it later used holy oil as a substitute for pagan magic.
Concerning the role of oil for therapeutic purposes in the exhortation of James, some are of the opinion that the prescription more symbolic than medicinal and argue that it is probably a symbol of God’s protection and blessing on the patient (France 1986:712). Similarly, Ongoing Unknowing sees it as “representing the Holy Spirit to take over and ell the person” (Unknowing MM 33). Heathen scalier on the other hand sees the practice as “magic-medicinally and sees/2009 deep into the body and impart strength and health” (Sundry 1981:327).
Since the anointing oil was seen in a medicinal way, James, according to Richards, may have had this medicinal view in mind which if he were to be addressing the contemporary society would have said “treat with medicine and pray for recovery’ (Richards 1985:55). It is further argued that the usage of alephГ¶ in the literal sense as medicinal seems to be the more correct interpretation because the word, in its occurrences in 5 the New Testament, is quite literal (Ropes 1916:308).
However, this position is challenged in the sense that although the medicinal use of oil was common knowledge in the ancient world, it is hardly true that it was used as a cure for all kinds of ailments which is suggested in the case in James. Thus, the function of oil here may be more than its acclaimed medicinal properties (Gaston 1985:70-71). Finally, in our review of the positions on the significance of the olive oil in this passage, Herbert Kessler argues that the oil is not over him . And the prayer of faith shall save the sick. “