African Americans started to develop their own way of life and were separating from whites and creating communities that included their own churches and schools, free of white intro. For white southerners the meaning of freedom meant that they had the power to control their own destinies without the north intervening. Southerners wanted to still have a slave like system that would keep African American workers tied to plantations legally.
March 1 865 Congress created Freedman’s Bureau to distribute food, create schools, and help poor whites. Issues of Reconstruction Political issues when Southern states rejoined Union because Democrats would be reunited This would Threaten Republic nationalistic legislation for railroads, tariffs, bank and currency. Many Northerners wished to see the South punished for suffering rebellion caused Republican split between Conservatives and Radicals.
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Conservatives wanted abolition but few other conditions for readmission Radicals led by Thatched Stevens and Charles Sumner wanted Confederate leaders punished, black legal rights protected, property confiscation. Moderates in between Plans for Reconstruction 1863 Lincoln proposed a lenient Reconstruction plan It favored recruiting former Whig to Republicans, amnesty to white Southerners other than high Confederate officials. 1863-Lincoln plan First states to enter back into the union under the 10% plan were Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee.
Radical republicans were not happy about Lincoln plan and easy acceptance of newly constructed states 1864-Wade Davis Bill proposed governor for each state, when majority of southerners took allegiance (Ironclad oath) constitutional convention could be held with slavery abolished, former Confederate leaders couldn’t vote. After Congress would readmit to Union. Lincoln pocket vetoed The Death of Lincoln April 14, 1865 while Lincoln was attending a play with his wife he was shot in the back of the head y John Wilkes Booth.
Lincoln Death produced hysteria in the North Northerners believed that Booth was part of a conspiracy with the leaders of the defeated South. John Wilkes Booth http://www. History. Com/videos/the-other-side-of-Lincoln lincolnsassassination#the-other-side-of-Lincoln-Lincoln-assassination Johnson and “Restoration” dervish of moderates and conservatives fell to Johnson 1865 Johnny’s plan for “restoration” was implemented plan offered amnesty to southerners taking allegiance oath Confederate officials needed special presidential pardon.
Like Wade-Davis Bill had provisional overseers, constitutional convention had to revoke ordinance of secession, abolish slavery, and ratify thirteenth amendment. Elect State governments, then readmission By end of 1865 all seceded states have taken allegiance oath and have new governments, waiting for Congress to recognize. Northerners were astounded that the newly formed states would elect prominent leaders like Alexander H. Stevens who was a former Confederate vice president.
Radicals refused to recognize Johnson governments because public sentiment more hostile Black codes 1865-1866 Southern state legislatures passed saws known as Black Codes The Black Codes were designed to give white southerners control over the freed slaves. The Black Codes forbade African Americans to Own or lease farms C] Take any job that wasn’t on a plantation or domestic servant C] Congress first response to the Black Codes was to extend the Freedman’s Bureau by widening powers to nullify agreements forced on blacks. April 1866 Congress passed the first Civil Rights Act. Declared African Americans to be citizens of the United States.
Also gave the Federal government the right to intervene in state affairs to protect rights of tizzies. Johnson vetoed both bills, but both were overridden The Fourteenth Amendment The Fourteenth Amendment defined: the first constitutional definition of American Citizenship and equal protection by state and federal law. All citizens born or naturalized entitled to “privileges and immunities” Imposed penalties to any state that denied suffrage to any adult male citizen. Congress offered to readmit any State that ratified the 14th Amendment. Only Tennessee would ratify the Amendment. All other former Confederate states refused.
Southern race riots helped lead to overwhelming Republican majority which were mostly radicals. In 1 866 Congressional elections, could now act over President’s objections The Congressional plan Radicals passed 3 Reconstruction plans in 1867, established coherent plan Tennessee readmitted, but other state governments rejected. Congress formed five military districts with commanders who registered voters for constitutional convention that must include provisions for black suffrage After constitution ratified it needed Congressional approval, state legislature had to ratify 14th Amendment. By 1868 7 of the 10 former Confederate
States fulfilled these conditions and were readmitted to Union Congress also passed, 1 867 the Ten ere of Office Act and the Command of the Army Act. Supreme Court case Ex apart Mulligan had declared military tribunals where civil courts existed unconstitutional Radicals feared same ruling would apply to military districts so proposed bills threatening court, court didn’t hear Reconstruction cases for 2 years Impeach meet of the President President Johnson was an obstacle to Radical legislation, yet tasked with administering Reconstruction programs. Radicals looking for a way to impeach and get Johnson out of office. 868 Johnson impeached for violation of Tenure of Office Act for dismissing Secretary of War Stanton despite Congress’s refusal to agree. The Reconstruction Governments In ten states recognized under congressional plans up to 1/4 of whites excluded from voting and office. These restrictions later lifted, but Republicans kept control with support of many southern whites called “scalawags” “Carpetbaggers” were northerners who moved South after war to take advantage of new opportunity Most republicans, however, were black freedmen who held conventions and created black churches that gave them unity and political self-confidence.