It began with President Lincoln, who did to believe the southern states had legally severed ties with the Union. Uncoil created the “10% plan” that said a state could be readmitted to the Union if 10% of the state’s voters pledged allegiance to the Union. However, the Republicans in Congress did not feel 10% was enough and created their own plan called the Wade Davis bill to require at least 50% of voters to pledge their allegiance to the Union. President Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill, which outraged the Radical Republicans.
After Lincoln was assassinated in 1 865, Johnson took office and continued to ark towards reconstruction of the Union. However, he did so when Congress was not in session. Therefore, Congress felt left out of the process. Although President Johnson was able to carry out Lincoln reconstruction plan, there were problems that arose. Some of the issues were too many confederates in politics and creation of the black codes, which restricted blacks from certain freedoms. Congressional or Radical Reconstruction lasted 1 0 years starting with the Reconstruction Acts of 1867.
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This plan to restructure the South, did not allow planters to have political or economic control. Martial Law was imposed and Military Governors formed new Constitutions, which were required to accept 13th and 14th Amendments, which abolished slavery, granted citizenship to slaves and equality under the law to all. All adult males were to vote, regardless of color, if they did not support the Confederacy. This final plan brought all the states back into the union. President Johnson was impeached in 1 868 due to the fact that Democrats and
Republicans did not favor him and he vetoed many congressional bills, such as the Freedman’s Bureau Bill, which gave blacks shelter, clothes, food, medical services, and education. He also vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declared all persons born in the United States were citizens, regardless of race or color. After Johnny’s impeachment, the 1 5th Amendment was ratified, which stated citizens of the United States had the right to vote, regardless of race or color. The end of Reconstruction in 1 876 occurred with the election of Rutherford B.
Hayes. Politically, reconstruction failed to the extent that President Johnson was impeached because he failed to include the Congress in the process of his reconstruction plan and continually vetoed Congress’s bills. However, it was successful to the extent that the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were passed and the confederate states readmitted to the Union. Economically, reconstruction failed to the extent that sharecropping was allowed to thrive due to southern politicians passing the black codes and the
Depression Of 1 873 causing the North to lose interest in the reconstruction. Socially, reconstruction failed to the extent that blacks continued to be treated unfairly even though the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments had been passed. However, it was a success to the extent that blacks were reunited with family, were able to vote, and get an education. In conclusion, many successes and failures made up the Reconstruction process. The most important success of all was that the Union was reunited again.