A total of twelve ships sank or were beached in the attack and nine additional vessels were damaged. More than 160 aircraft were destroyed and more than 150 others damaged. The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day (December 8), the United States declared war on Japan. The day after the assault, President Franklin D.
Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan; Congress approved his escalation with just one dissenting vote. Three days later, Japanese allies Germany and Italy also declared war on the Ignited States, and again Congress reciprocated (Air Raid on Pearl). More than two years into the conflict, America had finally joined World War II. Domestic support for non- interventionism, which had been strong, disappeared. Clandestine support of Britain (e. G. , the Neutrality Patrol) was replaced by active alliance. Subsequent operations by the U. S. Romped Germany and Italy to declare war on the U. S. N December 1 1, which was reciprocated by the U. S. The same day. Like mentioned earlier, the attack was a surprise but U. S. And Japan were edging towards war for years. The U. S. Was unhappy with Japan because they had an increasingly belligerent attitude toward China. Their government believed that the only way to solve its economic and demographic problems was to expand into its neighbor’s territory and take over its import market; to this end, Japan had declared war on China in 1937.
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Before the attack Submarines of the Advance Expeditionary’ Force began their eastward event across the Pacific in mid-November, refueled and respelled in the Marshall, and arrived near AAU about December 5 (Hawaiian time). On the night of December 6-7 five midget (two-man) submarines that had been carried “piggy-back” on large submarines cast off and began converging on pearl Harbor. In pearl Harbor were 96 vessels, the bulk of the Ignited States Pacific Fleet (Air Raid on Pearl). Eight battleships of the Fleet were there, but the aircraft carriers were all at sea. The attack ended shortly before ten.
Quickly recovering from the initial shock of surprise, the Americans fought back vigorously with antiaircraft fire. Devastation of the airfields was so quick and thorough that only a few American planes were able to participate in the counterattack. The Japanese were successful in accomplishing their principal mission, which was to cripple the Pacific Fleet. They sunk three battleships, caused another to capsize, and severely damaged the other four. All together the Japanese sank or severely damaged 18 ships, including the 8 battleships, here light cruisers, and three destroyers.
On the airfields the Japanese destroyed 1 61 American planes (Army 74, Navy 87) and seriously damaged 102 (Army 71, Navy 31). The Navy and Marine Corps suffered a total of 2,896 casualties of which 2, 117 were deaths (Navy 2,008, Marines 109) and 779 wounded (Navy 71 0, Marines 69). The Army (as of midnight, 10 December) lost 228 killed or died of wounds, 1 13 seriously wounded and 346 slightly wounded. In addition, at least 57 civilians were killed and nearly as many seriously injured.
The Japanese lost 29 planes over AAU, one large submarine (on 10 December), and all five of the midget submarines. Their personnel losses (according to Japanese sources) were 55 airmen, nine crewmen on the midget submarines, and an unknown number on the large submarines.