* Causes of the Civil War Long Term Causes * Social, Cultural Divide between North and South * Economic Divide between North and South * Political Divide between North and South: Collapse of Political System: Inability to Compromise * Slavery * Causes of the Civil War: Long Term Causes (from Colonial Times) * 1. Social and Cultural Divide between North and South * North: more urbanized, more diverse, more developed, more advanced infrastructure / transportation / communication systems, more cosmopolitan, more dynamic, more religious, greater emphasis on education, families….. South more rural, less diverse, less urbanized, less developed, plantations dictated social development…. * Causes of the Civil War: Long Term Causes * 2. Economic Differences * North more industrialized: more merchants, traders, shippers, manufacturing: more diverse economy: based on wage labor: supported Tariffs, BUS * South based on Plantation economy of tobacco at first and now Cotton: based on slave labor: suspicious of Tariffs and BUS * Causes of the Civil War: Long Term Causes 3. Political Divide between North and South * Historically, North placed more emphasis on Federalism, power of Federal Government and the Elastic Clause: Hamilton, Adams, Webster…1. 8. 18, BUS, Tariffs * South placed more emphasis on States Rights and Amendment 10: Jefferson, Madison, Jackson, Calhoun, 10th Amendment * North was more Democratic, South more Aristocratic.. * Causes of the Civil War: Long Term Causes * 4. Slavery “Slavery was not the only source of discord.
The two sections were very different and they wanted different things from their national government…Although there were serious differences between the sections, all of them except slavery could have been settled through the democratic process. Slavery poisoned the whole situation. It was the issue that could not be compromised, the issue that made men so angry they did not want to compromise …It was not the only cause of the Civil War, but it was unquestionably the one cause without which the war would not have taken place.
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The antagonism between the sections came finally, and tragically, to express itself through the slavery issue. ” (Bruce Catton, The Civil War) * Causes of the Civil War: Immediate Causes * Events of the 1850s, esp. after 1854, intensified these differences (Social / Cultural, Economic, Political, differences over Slavery) and further polarized North and South, propelling the Nation to Civil War in 1861 * Causes of the Civil War Short Term / More Immediate Events of the 1850s intensified these differences and further polarized North and South a. Details on Each Event: b.
Impact of Each / How did Each one Contribute to causing the Civil War * 1. Fugitive Slave Law – of the Compromise of 1850…review Compromise of 1820 and 1850 * 2. Abolitionist novel: Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852…. and other reactions to the Fugitive Slave Law * 3. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 …. * 4. Formation of anti-extension Republican Party in 1854 * 5. Kansas: Rival Legislatures: 1855…Shawnee v Topeka * 6. Bleeding Kansas and John Browne, 1855… Pottawatomie Massacre (after Lawrence attacks) * 7. Sumner vs Brooks (Butler), Senate, 1855 * 8. The Dred Scott v Sanford Decision, 1857 9. Kansas and “Lecompton Constitution”, 1857…split Democratic Party even more….. Buchanan * 10. The Economic Crisis / “Panic” of 1857 * 11. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates / “Freeport Doctrine”, 1858 * 12. John Browne and Harper’s Ferry, 1859 * 13. Lincoln’s victory in the Presidential Election of Nov. 1860 * 14. Events at Fort Sumter, April 1861 * 1. Opposition of Northern Public to new Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 * Part of Compromise of 1850 * Look back to Missouri Compromise of 1820 ??? at all three Compromises * Attempts to Compromise on the Question of Slavery Three Compromises on Slavery Missouri Compromise of 1820 * Compromise of 1850 * Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 * Expansion * Slavery became a divisive issue whenever the US expanded on to new lands to create territories and then states * Louisiana Purchase: Missouri * Mexican Cession: California * Louisiana Purchase: Kansas and Nebraska * Missouri Compromise * Missouri applied to become a Slave State in 1819 * The balance of 11 free and 11 slaves states would be altered ??? the North was not happy * Tallmadge, a Northern Representative, proposed that Missouri’s application should only be accepted if it agreed to * 1. ot allow any more slaves to be brought into the state * 2. gradually free all the children of existing slaves * After heated national and congressional debates the House passed the Amendment but the Senate rejected it (“Slaveocracy” / slave power was able to block it: 50% + of Senate votes needed) * Eventually, Northern and Southern representatives and senators agreed on a Compromise, brokered by Henry Clay of Kentucky * 1.
Missouri would be admitted as a slave state * 2. To restore the balance, a new free state, Maine, would be created (12/ 12) * 3. The line of latitude 36′ 30′ would become a dividing line for slavery ??? not allowed in the territories of the Louisiana Purchase above, but allowed in the territories below this line Effects of the Missouri Compromise Both North and South yielded something, both gained something; neither side was completely happy * But at least it delayed the potential Civil War for 42 years * If the Civil War had started at this time, the South might have won (North not yet heavily populated or industrialized) * The Missouri Compromise temporarily settled the Slave issue: but ultimately the issue could not be swept under the rug ??? the Compromise only ducked the issue / question…Jefferson said that the issue was like a “fire-bell in the night”, warning of the dangers to come…that would “burst on us like a tornado” * Compromise of 1850
Main Issue ??? should territories in the new lands acquired from Mexico be slave or free? Three Proposals 1. Wilmot Proviso ??? ban slavery in the new territories taken from Mexico. It passed in the House, twice, but was defeated in the Senate (Slaveocracy). Supporters (mostly from the North) formed the Free Soil Party (felt Democrats and Whigs were too silent on the issue); ran Van Buren as Pres.
Candidate in 1848; lost to slave-owning Whig, Taylor ??? (this Party later joined the Republican party) 2. Pro-Slavery South argued that since slavery was legal, Congress could not ban it in territories owned by all the states ??? settlers had the right to bring their property (slaves) with them to the new territory (Calhoun) ??? slavery should be protected in the territories 3. Popular Sovereignty ??? compromise solution ??? people of each new territory should decide for themselves. proposed by Stephen Douglas, Lewis Cass ??? “the father of popular sovereignty) seemed democratic ??? make it a local, not a national issue * California applied for statehood in 1849, as a “free state” ??? had population of 100,000 ??? from the gold rush (by-passed the territorial stage) * California’s application alarmed the South, sparked intense controversy and debate * The balance of 15 free, 15 slaves states would be disturbed (worried South, even though there was a Sth President, Sth majority in Cabinet, and on Supreme Ct, and Sth had equality in Senate) * Much of the state was below the line 36′ 30′ so shouldn’t laves be allowed, the South argued, according to the Missouri Compromise? * potential slave territory was running out: and this might set a precedent for the rest of the Mexican cession, esp. New Mexico, and Utah, where agitation had started for admission as non-slave * Other Issues Complicated the Debate: Banning Slavery in the District of Columbia (favored by North ??? embarrassment to visitors / ambassadors to witness slave auctions, slavery, in the nation’s capital) * Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 negated by Personal Liberty Laws of 1842 ??? people did not have to co-operate with apprehension of run away slaves (angered South, losing 1,000 escaped slaves a year, esp. to activities of the Underground RR / Harriet Tubman) * Boundary between Texas and New Mexico, disputed by Texas (again! * Henry Clay proposed a compromise, bundled, solution to all these issues at once in the same Bill (“Omnibus Bill”) * Rejected after 6 months of discussion: esp. by Calhoun, Taylor (supported by North / Webster esp. ) * But accepted later, in 1850, when unbundled, and after older politicians, Clay, Webster, retired, and President Taylor and Calhoun died. * New leaders were more flexible ??? Douglas, President Fillmore ??? than older ones ??? they got supported for each proposal individually * Terms of the Compromise of 1850 . California would be admitted as a Free State 2. New Mexico became a territory and Texas conceded in the border dispute in return for financial compensation 3. Utah territory was created and Utah (North of 36’30’) and New Mexico would decide on slavery through Popular Sovereignty. 4. The slave trade, but not slavery, was abolished in the District of Columbia 5. A new, stronger, Fugitive Slave Law, was passed; Required federal marshals to assist slave owners in recovering their slaves: northerners who assisted run away slaves were subject to heavy fines and jail sentences; could even be ordered to join the slave catchers * Fee arrangements for federal commissioners ??? resembled bribes: got $5 if slave was freed, $10 if not * No jury trials were permitted in deciding status of runaway slaves; fleeing slaves could not testify in their own ehalf * After it passed, to some, it seemed for a time like a second Era of Good Feelings had dawned, even though it was felt that the Nth got the better of the deal ??? talk of secession in the South subsided ??? many in Nth and Sth hoped it would be a final settlement to the slave issue…. But this was not to be * 2. Reaction to Fugitive Slave Law, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) / Expansion of Abolitionism Reaction of North Northern public was shocked by the new Fugitive Slave Law (“Bloodhound Bill”, “Man Stealing Law”): little co-operation with it: only half-heartedly enforced it * Support for Abolitionism and membership of Abolitionist Movement increased rapidly.. Meetings, agitation, speeches, literature…Uncle Tom’s Cabin (see previous notes for impact of this novel)… Underground railroad increased its activities * Northern states passed more Personal Liberty Laws ??? inc. xemptions from required assistance, denying use of local jails to Federal officials, and hampering enforcement – Mass. Made it a penal offense for any state official to enforce the new fed statue – Garrison, presiding over an abolitionist meeting declared: “we execrate it, we spit upon it, we trample it under our feet. ” Reaction of South South was bitter because the North refused to execute the new Fugitive Slave Law in good faith, which they argued was the only real gain for the South from the Compromise * Some wanted to add new territory now that the Compromise had closed off the lands of the Mexican Cession to slavery ??? interest in Cuba, in Nicaragua * In Nicaragua William Walker installed himself as president and legalized slavery before being overpowered * Cuba was the territory most coveted by Manifest Destiny supporters / esp. y Sth slave-owners in the 50s: had a large pop. of enslaved Africans ??? if carved into several territories it would restore the political balance in the Senate (Spain refused Polk’s offer of $100m and two Southern invasions were repelled) * Pierce had the Ostend Manifesto drawn up ??? if Spain refused to sell for $120m then the US should invade ??? but Northern politicians forced him to withdraw the proposal * The North instead coveted Canada, the South Cuba ??? conflict deadlocked and hindered expansion
But at least the Compromise of 1850 settled again, though only temporarily, the sectional conflict between North and South over the issue of slavery. At least the Civil War was delayed for 11 years, though beneath the surface tensions continued to smolder. In those 11 years the Nth increased in population, in industrial output, infrastructure…enabling it to win eventually…. the delay also added immensely to the moral strength of the Nth ??? thousands of moderates, not willing to fight, would change their minds because of the inflammatory events of the 1850s * 3. Kansas ??? Nebraska Act of 1854 Background Stephen Douglas, Senator for Illinois, wanted a transcontinental railroad to run west from Chicago / a Northern route, not along the Gadsden Purchase to the South * He had invested heavily in Chicago real estate and in Railroad stock, and would benefit financially if Chicago was the eastern terminus of the proposed Pacific railroad: and he would increase his popularity with the voters of Illinois…would bring a lot of business to the state and city * to promote the northern route, he felt it would be an advantage if the new territory ??? Nebraska – west of Missouri and Iowa was opened for settlement. To get the support of the Southern representative for his plan, he proposed that the new territory should decide the issue of slavery according to Popular Sovereignty, which he thought would please the South * But the territory was north of the line 36’30’.
Popular Sovereignty would violate the Compromise of 1820 * Even so, the South was not satisfied, feeling that the territory would become free soil (most people who moved there would be anti-slave) * The South wanted the territory divided into two ??? Kansas and Nebraska * Nebraska, west of free Iowa would most likely become a free territory: but Kansas west of slave Missouri, would likely become slave; would give them another slave state, and above 36′ 30″ * Douglas conceded – there were enough votes in Congress to pass the Compromise (many Northern Democrats were pro Popular Sovereignty); supported also by Pres.
Pierce: the Compromise of 1820 was repealed * Kansas Territory Changes Kansas ??? Nebraska Act * Divided the Nebraska territory into two ??? Kansas and Nebraska * Decisions about Slavery would be by Popular Sovereignty * The line 36 30 of the Missouri Compromise would be repealed Consequences Angry Nth Free-Soilers objected strongly: passions became inflamed in the House, some members carried revolvers or knives (bloodshed was just about avoided) * Northern public and Abolitionists were alarmed by repeal of Missouri Compromise ??? objected to power of “slaveocracy” ??? angry with Douglas, called him a traitor, a “judas” ??? determined to resist all future expansion of slavery * North was determined to resist all Sth future demands for slave territory All future compromise with the South would be more difficult, and without compromise there was bound to be conflict * Northern states retaliated by now outright refusal (from lukewarm cooperation) to implement the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, previously only half heartedly enforced. Two Compromises were thus destroyed (“wrecked”) ??? Compromises of 1820, and 1850 ??? by the Kansas-Nebraska Act………. Douglas “grossly underestimated” the effects of his actions * Sectional conflicts / tensions were intensified: the relationship between North and South deteriorated to perhaps its lowest point * In 1856 Kansas would become the battleground for sectional and party conflict * No other piece of legislation in congressional history produced so many immediate, sweeping, and ominous changes as the Kansas-Nebraska act. * It was one of the most momentous measures ever to pass Congress * 4. Formation of anti- extension Republican Party A new party emerged ??? Republican Party; began as an anti-extension party: composed of people of all parties who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act * Whigs (split and then died out) * Free Soiler’s * some Northern Democrats (split between North and South, and internally in the North), * Know Nothing Party (“nativism”). * A Sectional Party was emerging (only above Mason-Dixon line) while a National party, the Democrats, (and Whigs) was splitting * At first the Republican party was a one idea party – opposed the Extension of slavery into the territories / opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act: wanted to keep slavery out of the territories, and to restore the Missouri Compromise * But the South saw it as Abolitionist…added to the divide…. dded to the tensions * It added / adopted other policies as time went on ??? Higher Tariffs, support for Internal Improvements / American System, Homestead Act to give Western land for free or at a low cost, support of a Northern route for transcontinental railroad. * 5. Two suspect ??? rival territorial legislatures in Kansas Proslavery one based on fraud (outside voters) at Shawnee: an Antislavery one based on illegality at Topeka……. How? Kansas was settled earlier than Nebraska. North hoped it would be free territory, South was counting on it becoming slave territory Northern abolitionists financed groups to settle there (such as the anti-slave New England Emigrant Aid Company sent 2,000)….
South then sent groups of armed pro-slave settlers before the 1855 elections for a territorial legislature * During the elections thousands of ‘border ruffians” / pro-slavery Missourians, crossed into Kansas and voted illegally, early and often (1,500 inhabitants, but 6,000 voted): proslavery candidates won a fraudulent majority * The new pro-slave legislature, at Shawnee, proceeded to immediately enact a series of laws legalizing slavery and made it a capital offense to help a slave escape or aid a fugitive slave. * The outraged anti-slavery group, elected delegates to a rival legislature at Topeka and adopted a constitution excluding slavery: petitioned Congress for recognition as the legitimate legislature of Kansas * Tension increased between the two territorial governments ??? one based on fraud, the other illegal – and their supporters. Both sides became heavily armed: more guns arrived from the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher / “Beecher’s Bibles” * The tensions led to a miniature civil war in Kansas. * 6. Bleeding Kansas / John Browne * In May 1856, the pro-slave group assembled a huge posse of 800 armed men, consisting mostly of Missourians. They descended on the anti-slave town of Lawrence, looted and burned the town, killing 5 Free Soiler’s in the process * Abolitionist John Browne took it upon himself to get revenge: in an attack on Pottawatomie (“Pottawatomie Massacre”) he and his followers killed 5 pro-slave supporters (inc. mutilation): believed he was on a divinely inspired mission…. essiah type figure (deranged ??? 13 relatives were considered insane) * This “fiendish butchery” besmirched the free-soil cause and brought vicious retaliation from proslavery forces… * The incident was responsible for triggering dozens of incidents throughout Kansas, resulting in over 200 deaths over the next few months, earning the territory the name “Bleeding Kansas. ” * The Civil War in Kansas was a prelude to the national Civil War (1861) * 7. Sumner v Brooks, 1855. * The violence spilled onto the floor of the senate, showing how deep the sectional divide had become * Charles Sumner, Mass (senator), extremist opponent of slavery, delivered a two day speech titled “The Crime Against Kansas,” denounced the Pierce admin, the South in general, and included a very personal attack on Andrew Butler, Senator of South Carolina. Two days later Butler’s nephew Preston Brooks, a Congressman, attacked Sumner in the Senate with a cane, leaving him unconscious. * Sumner suffered slight brain damage and did not return to the Senate for 3 yrs. He was not replaced in that time ??? tactical – to keep memory of the event alive and win support / sympathy for the Northern position. * He became a potent symbol throughout the North – a martyr to the barbarism of the South. * Brooks became a symbol too. Censured by house, resigned his seat, returned to South Carolina, and stood successfully for re-election. Became a Southern hero. He was presented with hundreds of canes to mark his “brave gesture. * Copies of Sumner’s abusive speech were circulated ??? applauded in the North, greeted with hostility in the South * The Sumner-Brook’s episode is evidence of how deep was the antagonism between North and South, how inflamed passions were becoming (“Brooks blows were among the first blows of the Civil War”)… * 8. Dred Scott v Sanford, 1857 * The Supreme Court now projected itself into the sectional divide with one of the most controversial decisions in its history – its ruling in the case of Dred Scott v Sanford * Scott was a Missouri slave ??? had been “owned” by an army surgeon who, on military work, had carried Scott to Illinois, a free state, and to the Wisconsin Territory, a free territory * The case brought by Abolitionists claimed that Scott, since he resided in a free state and free territory, had become a free man. a test case) * By appeal (Appellate Jurisdiction) it went to the Taney Supreme Court. * The ruling was a defeat for Scott and support for the South’s argument that the Constitution guaranteed the existence of slavery. (Taney was a slave owner) Taney argued that * Scott was not a citizen of Missouri or of the US and hence could not bring a suit to the Federal Court. * Slaves or former slaves could not become citizens, and had no rights that white men were bound to respect. * Scott’s stay in Illinois had not affected his status as a slave / did not make him a free man: slaves are private property ??? slaves can be taken on to any lands / territories under Federal Govt. urisdiction (it did not challenge states rights to declare slavery illegal) * If Taney had stopped at that, the decision might not have been so divisive but he then continued to say that the original Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional since it deprived people of their property (slaves) on federal territory, and was therefore contrary to the Fifth Amendment…. so slavery could not be banned from any of the territories * So popular sovereignty was not valid / legitimate * Few judicial decisions have stirred as much popular excitement. Southern slaveholders celebrated the decision – the highest tribunal in the land had sanctioned the extreme Southern argument about slavery in the territories – and believed that the ruling not only permitted the extension of slavery in the territories but guaranteed it. * It further split the Northern and Southern Democrats… * Northern Republicans were infuriated * Promised to reverse the decision / alter composition of the Court. Claimed the ruling was only an opinion not a decision and was not binding * Southerners felt that they might not want to remain part of a union in which a Supreme Court decision (like the Constitution) was not respected * “The Supreme Court decision had make a bad situation worse”…was one of the opening “paper-gun-blasts” of the Civil War. * 9. Lecompton Constitution / Kansas; split in Democratic Party * In 1857 Kansas had a big enough population to apply for statehood. * The Proslavery group (Shawnee)??? the fraudulent one – organized a Constitutional Convention to meet at the town of Lecompton which drew up a Constitution – the Lecompton Constitution ??? to be voted on by the state * The Constitution did not allow a genuine vote on slavery: * Disgusted anti-slave group / Free Soilers (Topeka), now in a majority, were infuriated and boycotted the polls. The Constitution was accepted (with slavery): it was then sent to Congress for approval * Meanwhile, the anti slave group / Free Soiler’s wrote their own Constitution and also submitted it to Congress for Kansas to be admitted as a free state. * The new President, Southern Democrat Buchanan, supported the Lecompton Constitution * But Douglas was appalled at the fraudulent no-choice constitution, opposed the application. * Deep bitterness developed between Buchanan and Douglas, further splitting the Democrats * The only truly national party after the demise of the Whigs, linking the nation together, was now even more divided. * “With the disruption of the Democrats came the snapping of one of the last important strands in the rope that was barely binding the Union together”. Pg. 15 * The House voted to reject it, the Senate voted for ??? ultimately it was sent back for a re-vote with a genuine choice * Kansas would remain a territory until a new Constitution was agreed on (without slavery) – not until 1861 * 10. Economic Crisis / Panic of 1857 * In 1857 the country was struck by a short but severe depression, known as the “Panic of 1857” * Causes; 1. Abundance of gold from CA caused inflation 2. High demand for US goods in Europe declined after the end of the Crimean War of 1854-1856. 3. Years of over-speculation in land and railroads * Consequences 1. widespread unemployment, esp. in North.. 5,000 businesses failed within a year 2. urther division between North and South: South blamed North for the crisis (high tariffs) (North wanted even higher tariffs)… * Southern leaders found confirmation for their claim that their Economic system was superior to that of the free states…(Cotton was King) , that the slave system was a better system…Cotton still prospered during crisis but Nth grain sales fell * Smarting under previous Northern criticisms of Southern society, they loudly boasted of their superiority over the North. * This fatal delusion helped drive the overconfident Southerners closer to Secession, even to war. Felt they could survive alone without the North ??? they became overconfident. In the North, which was hardest hit – the depression strengthened the Republican party . Distressed economic groups ??? manufacturers, merchants, laborers, farmers… – came to believe that the hard times were the result of the unsound policies of the Democratic (Buchanan) administration, which they felt was much too influenced by Southern Democrats ??? had reduced tariffs to 20% (1857) * These groups thought that prosperity could be restored by a Republican administration * The Republican Party’s popularity increased because of its support for (all opposed by Southern Democrats): * Higher Tariffs * Internal Improvements / American System Supported Homestead Act of 1860 ??? give, not sell, 160 farms to pioneers (nominal fee of 25cents an acre) ??? killed / vetoed by Buchanan; South felt that territories would be occupied by anti slave / non-slave-owning farmers * 11. The Lincoln ??? Douglas Debates, 1858 * The 1858 race in Illinois for the Senate Seat * Douglas. D. (incumbent) vs Lincoln. R. (one term in House). Douglas had the more recognizable name, limitless personal financial resources. * Neither wanted slavery in the territories but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas favored Popular Sovereignty, Lincoln support Free Soil (anti-extension) – to be determined by Congress, not the settlers * Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates (7 total: mostly on slavery).. rash, Douglas was a great debater * Douglas accepted and the two candidates argued their cases before huge crowds.
Received great coverage in the press and gave Lincoln national exposure * Douglas accused Lincoln of promoting a war of sections, of advocating social equality of the races. Lincoln denied these charges. * Lincoln was particularly effective in making it appear that Douglas did not regard slavery as morally wrong. Douglas tried to avoid saying where he really stood on slavery ??? hedged. Lincoln wanted to expose how he tried to please both Nth and Sth. * In their second debate at Freeport Lincoln asked Douglas a crucial question to put him on the spot. Now that the Supreme Court had spoken, could the voters of a territory vote to exclude slavery * If Douglas said yes to win the Illinois voters, he lost the South (in the later Presidential election).
If he said no to win the Sth voters he lost Illinois. He basically replied Yes. * Territories could exclude slavery, regardless of Dred Scott decision ??? they could do it by electing reps who would not provide legal / police enforcement of slave property laws in that territory. Territories could get round the Dred Scott decision. * It won him Illinois (chosen by state legislature) now but lost him the presidency two yrs later. Douglas’s chances of winning the next Presidential election were ruined. * He had opposed the Lecompton Constitution and now in what became known as the “Freeport Doctrine,” he denied the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court…..
Southern Democrats completely turned against him…. widening the split in the Democratic party. * Lincoln became an attractive candidate for the Reps for the 1860 election…. he lost the seat but won a moral victory * 12. 1859 John Brown and Harper’s Ferry * Brown made another contribution to sectional conflict through plotting a slave rebellion in Oct. 1859….. still convinced that he was God’s instrument to destroy slavery, by whatever means necessary. * “Crackbrained scheme” – with encouragement and financial support from some extreme Eastern abolitionists, he led a band of 18 men, black and white, into Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there, distribute the guns to slaves in the area, and start a general slave uprising. But his plans failed…. federal soldiers killed 10 of his men, captured him, after his men killed 7 innocent people, wounded 10 ??? slaves did not revolt * He was put on trial, found guilty of treason, and sentenced to death, as also were 6 of his followers. * 17 friends and family members submitted affidavits to the effect that he was insane and appealed to the governor to pardon him. This appeal was turned down. * Great impact in South. Convinced them that their section was unsafe in the Union. Feared the possibility of a slave insurrection, supported by finance from the Northern Abolitionists. How could they stay in such a Union?
South accused Republicans of being behind the raid, that violent abolitionism was shared by entire North * But Lincoln and Seward condemned Brown as a criminal. * But South was outraged by the comments of Wendell Phillips, and Ralph Waldo Emerson who compared Brown with Jesus. * In the North some people glorified Brown as a saint, hero, or martyr. Demonstrations were held to protest his execution ??? Saint John Brown- minority * 13. Presidential Election of 1860- the most fateful in American History * Democrats split: Northern Democrats nominated Douglas, supporting Pop Sov. Southern Democrats nominated Breckinridge, supporting Dred Scott Decision, Pro-Slavery, Lecompton Constitution * Republicans, chose Lincoln over Seward (he had fewer enemies / Mr.
Second Best), advocating Free Soil, Anti-Extension (Anti Slave, anti-extension, but not Abolitionist ??? recognized States Rights): went to great lengths to insist that they offered more than just this one issue ??? supported high tariffs, a homestead act (Buchanan had vetoed Act of 1860 / 25c an acre for 160 acres), internal improvements, a transcontinental railroad for the Nth West, rights for immigrants. * South warned that election of Lincoln would split the Union ??? S. Carolina threatened to go out if the sectional Lincoln came in 1860 Election Result Lincoln (Republican) – 180 (of 303) Electoral Votes – 1,865,593 popular votes / 40% Breckinridge (Democrat South) – 72 Electoral Votes – 848,356 popular votes / 18% Douglas (Democrat North) – 12 electoral votes – 1,382,713 popular votes / 29% Bell (Constitutional Party- new party; middle of road group) – 39 electoral votes – 592,906 popular votes / 13% 1860 Election Result Lincoln did not win any electoral votes in the South: he was a Sectional President * Lincoln did not have a majority of the popular votes; a Minority President, in terms of the popular vote * Republicans did not have majorities in both the Senate and House of Reps * the election of Lincoln served as the final signal to many Southerners that their position in the Union was hopeless…an anti-slave president * Throughout the Presidential Election campaign, various Southern leaders had warned that if the Reps/Lincoln won, they would secede from the Union. Within a few weeks of Lincoln’s victory, this process of disunion began. * December 20th 1860: South Carolina, by vote of a special convention, seceded * By February 1st 1861, 6 more southern states seceded: Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas (all before inauguration, during lame duck period) * Meeting in Montgomery, Alabama, they declared themselves to be the Confederate States of the United States.. id not really expect to be oppose by North * They elected Jefferson Davis (former Sec. of War, Senator for Mississippi) as their President * Adopted a new Constitution which recognized slavery, prohibited tariffs, limited the president to a single non-renewable six year term, and recognized state sovereignty * Pres. Buchanan did not believe that he had the constitutional authority to stop them seceding by use of force (some wished that Jackson was back ??? called him spineless) * Why did they leave? * election of Lincoln, sparked other grievances, created an opportunity * Nationalism-felt they were a sub-nation * Freedom from Nth ??? tariffs etc Felt they were not doing anything wrong, entered union freely, should be allowed to leave it freely; US had seceded from Br, they were seceding from union Lincoln rejected the Crittenden Compromise * Sen. from Kentucky. Like Clay, hoped for Compromise. Proposed amendments to the Constitution to appease the South and prevent secession, preserve the Union. * Line 36 30 of Missouri Compromise to be extended across to the Pacific. Slavery in the territories was to be prohibited north of 36 30′, protected by the federal government below that line in all the states where it existed or future territories or states, who would decide for themselves by Popular Sovereignty when they became states * Lincoln rejected the Compromise – felt he had been elected on a mandate / platform that opposed the extension of slavery.
He would not abandon the Republican’s basic position – that slavery could not be allowed to expand in any new territory * Though gains for slavery in the territories might be only temporary, larger gains might later come in Latin Am (Cuba, Mexico) * 14. Events at Fort Sumter * Lincoln inaugurated, March 4th , 1861 * Confederated Forces attacked Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, April 12th , 1861 – after Lincoln decided to send supplies (only ??? not reinforcements) – forcing it to surrender * Lincoln then declared the existence of an insurrection and called for the states to provide 75,000 volunteers to put it down (April 14th , 1861) * In response to this, Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Arkansas Seceded ??? total of 11 * The remaining slave states, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri wavered to varying degrees, but stayed in the Union (Border States)