The Cherokee responded by forming heir own Constitution and went to court in 1831 to fight for their land. Chief Justice John Marshall and the other jurors decided that the Cherokee had the right to govern themselves, and the actions of Georgia were considered unconstitutional. Georgia ignored the court decision and President Jackson refused to enforce the decision. It could be argued that Jackson actions were justified because he was looking out for the interests of the Southerners. Another controversial issue Jackson was involved in was the Second Bank of the US.
Jackson did not like how the bank supported the industrial North hen it did not support expansion West, and that it had too much power-??politically and economically. As a result, Jackson explained his case for closing the bank to Congress. Much to his dilemma, Congress declared the Second Bank of the IIS constitutional. However, Jackson decided to take matters into his own hands and removed all the federal funds from the Second Bank of the US, redistributing the money to state banks, or pet banks. Jackson vetoed the re-charter bill that Congress tried to pass, and the charter for the Second Bank of the IIS expired in 1836.
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Something that Jackson was inked with is the creation of the spoils system. The spoils system was the promise of government jobs as a result of political support. Jackson promised exactly that to his supporters and removed about nine hundred and nineteen officials in exchange for his political supporters with no credentials or merit. During Jackson’s first presidency, he stepped over his boundaries of power when he refused to enforce the Supreme Court ruling that stated that the Cherokee had a right to the land they occupied in Georgia.
It is still debated whether Jackson said: “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it” [pentameter]. However, it was an accurate display of Jackson’s discontent with the decision and his unwillingness to do his job and enforce the law. The conflict began with the Indian Removal Act passed in 1830. The act stated that Jackson had the power to negotiate ‘treaties” with the Native Americans of the Deep South, which consisted of the “Five Civilized Tribes”-??the Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaws, and Seminole. However, efforts to remove the Native Americans from the Deep South began in 1814.
In 1 814, Jackson commanded the military forces that defeated part Of the Creek tribe. As a result, the IIS gained twenty-two million acres of land for Southern farmers who wanted to grow cotton. The declining Native American population east of the Mississippi continued, with Jackson’s nine “treaties” negotiated be;en 1814 and 1824, granting the US Native American land in exchange for land in the West. Eight years before the Supreme Court decided in favor of the Cherokee, they decided that the Native Americans could occupy land, but not claim land as their own.
The Supreme Court’s justification for the decision was that the Use’s “right of discovery” was period to the Native Americans’ “right of occupancy”‘. The response of the tribes was the restriction of land sales to white settlers. Another action the Native Americans took to prevent the American settlers from taking land away from them was assimilating into American society by changing their form of dress and life, earning the five tribes of the Southeast the “Five Civilized Tribes”. One of the five tribes, the Seminole, was targeted for their land and harboring fugitive slaves.
The Seminole refused to give up their land, and the First Seminole War lasted from 1817 to 1818. Many Seminole were oft dead in destroyed villages, and the Spanish decided to exchange Florida, which held large populations of Seminole, for five million. On the other hand, the Cherokee decided to form their own Constitution, modeled after the US Constitution. In the Constitution, the Cherokee called themselves a sovereign nation. Georgia did not honor the constitution of the Cherokee, so three years later, the Cherokee went to the Supreme Court and stated their case.
The Cherokee supported their stance with a Georgia law passed in 1830 that prohibited whites from settling on Native American territory. It was this court case-??Worcester v. Georgia-??that Jackson refused to carry out Supreme Court Justice John Marshal’s decision. Another one of Jackson’s breaches of power during his presidency was the shutting down of the bank when Congress wanted the bank to stay open. Jackson’s strong feelings toward the Second Bank of the US was because Jackson believed that the bank strongly supported the industrial North when there was no much focus on funding of expansion West.
He also believed that the Second Bank of the US and Nicholas Fiddle-??who was in charge of the bank-??had too much power. Jackson explained to Congress that the Second Bank of the US was unconstitutional because it only supported the wealthy Northerners and the bank hurt the rest of society. However, Fiddle, with the help of Henry Clay, rallied supporters from the Congressmen. As a result, Congress decided that the Bank was Constitutional. Jackson refused to accept the ruling and slowly weakened the Second Bank of the US by removing all federal funds and inserting them into pet banks.
When receiving the re- charter for the bank, Jackson told Martin Van Burden: “The Bank is trying to kill e, but I will kill it”. Jackson then vetoed the re-charter for the Second Bank of the US. In 1836, the Bank shut down, but Jackson’s actions had long-term effects. The pet banks, or State banks, printed a surplus Of money because there were no regulations. As a result, there was inflation and prices rose. The inflation led to the nationwide Panic of 1 837, which was a period of high unemployment and sky-high prices. Even though Jackson did not have the power to do so, he promised his supporters political favors during his election.
When he was appointed to his session, Jackson removed 919 government officials only to replace them with his political supporters with no experience. Jackson used this system when the people he worked with disagreed with his views. With his supporters working with him, Jackson would be able to pass things that he wanted. The system was labeled as the spoils system and used until the assassination of James Garfield in 1881 by a denied office seeker. Jackson-??the common man from Tennessee-??was known for his abuse of power when he became president. However, it could be argued that he was looking out for the interests of the many.
Jackson shut down the bank, even though Congress did not support his actions. Although, it could be reasoned that Jackson did so to provide equal opportunity for all people, instead of the wealthy, industrial Northerners. Even though Jackson did not respect the Supreme Court’s decision like he was supposed to, he was trying to look out for the interests of the Southern planters. Jackson did fire people only to replace them with political supporters, but he only did so because he wanted to pass things that he believed was right. However, Jackson was later tried for abusing his power.