One Idea in One line Selection of words Avoid Jargon’s Don’t use Abbreviations Write in Whole numbers If you listen to radio at least once in a while, you may remember a few programs. You remember them because you liked them. You liked them because they were interesting. You do not remember a majority of program because what is heard is fast forgotten. To make a program interesting, it has to be produced well. Radio production is very vast subject. Due to constant change in technology, the techniques of radio production keep changing. But the basics remain the same.

You may have he best ideas, the best of scripts and the best of voices; but if the program is not produced properly it will not be interesting to listen to. Qualities of Radio Producer: You need certain qualities or skills to be a radio producer. The qualities you need include the following: Observation: It means that you must have the ability to see and hear. You should have keen desire to know more about things. We may call this inquisitiveness. Unless a person is inquisitive, he or she cannot be a good radio producer. This is because you need ideas to produce interesting programs.

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Experiences: We have good and bad experiences in our life. People who have written stories, novels, poems and play draw their ideas mostly from their experiences. So from your own experiences or going through the experiences of others, we get ideas. You have just read about the experiences of others. How do you come to know about them? Well, you need to talk to others to find out and understand their experiences Conceptualize idea: You may get any number of ideas, but you need to turn them into concepts and then in to radio scripts. Creativity: What is creativity?

Are you creative? This is a quality which is found in almost everyone. But you need to be creative in putting together an idea in a manner which can attract people. Creativity would mean, doing something new or different. The same idea can be made into a radio program differently by different people. If everyone does it in the same way, they will all be the same and not interesting. Selection of words: You need the ability to use the right word at the right time in the right manner. Radio programmer depend on a good script and that depends on your ability to write well.

For this you need a very good knowledge or stock of words or a good vocabulary. You have to be using words in the appropriate manner. We shall deal with this aspect later. Elements of Radio Production: You have already studied about the ingredients of a radio format. Can you recall them? They are: (a) Human voice or spoken word. (b) Music (c) Sound effects The various elements of radio production flow from the above ingredients of a radio format. So let us look at the main elements of radio production.

Studio: In the previous lesson, you have learnt that the radio studio is a room where radio programmer are recorded. For producing a radio programmer, you need a ‘sound roof studio where human voice can be recorded or broadcast in the best manner. Microphones: For our voice to be recorded in a studio, we use a microphone. You might have used or at least seen microphones; they amplify or in other words, increase the volume of your voice. When you speak before a microphone, you don’t have to shout. You speak normally and it will be made louder if you use a loudspeaker to listen to.

When we think of radio, the microphone is the most important element using which you present your programmer. There are three types of microphones that are used in cording a radio programmer: Nun-directional Bi-directional Omni- directional Music: Music is the soul of radio. It is used in different ways on radio as already discussed in the earlier lesson. Film songs and classical music programmer are independent programmer on radio. Music is also used as signature tunes or theme music of various radio programmer. Let us see what music does to any programmer. A.

Music adds color and life to any spoken word programmer. B. Music can break monotony. C. Music is used to give the desired effect of happy or unhappy situations, fear or Joy. D. Music can suggest scenes and locations. For example, you have to create a bright early morning situation. This can be done by playing a pleasing note on the flute along with the sound of chirping birds. Artificial echo: If you enter an empty building or fort and shout, your voice will come back to you. This is called on echo. An echo is used in radio programmer. This is a technical input.

Human voice: The main stay in any radio programmer is the human voice. Think of the voice of an announcer or newsreader on radio. You often find them very pleasant and nice to listen to. That is because of the quality of their voice and the proper use of it. There re two aspects of the use of human voice in radio production. Firstly, there has to be a well written script to be spoken and then someone has to speak or read it before a microphone in a studio. Radio Programmer Production Now let us learn about the different stages of radio programmer production.

Whatever we do, there has to be a clear plan. In the case of radio production also, there is a well-accepted process of production which is carried out in three stages. Let us list them out. A) Pre-production b) Production and c) Post-production Pre-production As the title suggests, this is the first stage before the actual production. . An idea is born: This phase includes how a programmer is born as an idea and its conceptualization. The topic or subject matter is decided. 2. Plan of action: After the topic is decided, a plan of action is worked out.

Here the format of the programmer is determined I. E. Whether the programmer is a talk, discussion, interview, drama, documentary etc. Once that is clear, the right person for writing the script and the performers are decided. The plan of action would also determine the equipment for outside recordings that are required. The time and venue of the recording are also worked out. . The script: is examined to make it suitable for broadcast. It is examined according to the principles of writing for radio or in other words for the ear’. We will discuss this is detail in the next section. . Paper work: If people who are not working in the radio station are involved for writing or providing voice for the programmer, they have to be invited with an agreement to accept the Job or assignment. This type of agreement is referred to as a contract. Similarly, permission is often required to interview certain people if the programmer is based on such interviews. Therefore, as you can see, there is a lot of paper work at the pre-production stage. Production: This is the actual process of recording and editing a radio programmer.

Proper studios, microphones and computers are required to record and edit the programmer. Post production: Writing to inform people involved in the production is a major activity during this phase. The programmer has to be given publicity both on radio and in other media. This is done to ensure that people know about the programmer and also listen to them. The announcements for the presentation of the programmer are also written ND provided for the actual broadcast of the programmer. When it comes to writing a radio scripts, there are certain things that we should keep in mind.

When we refer to the language used in radio, we are not referring to any particular language like English or Urdu but the style of any language used in radio. Here in radio, you find that it is different from the language used in newspapers and magazines or what is referred to as print media. Language: For writing a radio program, you should consider the selection of language of your programmer. As I have discussed that the language of the radio script is not life script or print or electronic media. In radio you have to focus on the style of the language.

You will always found expression and emotions in a radio program, whenever you are writing a script for radio; make sure that you are using the listener’s language. You have to communicate in listener’s language so the purpose of the program should reach to its real meaning. Short sentences: Always write short and very simple sentences because in this way people can easily understand what you want to say. One idea in one line: Sometimes writer mix up to many things in a single sentence that makes the listeners infuse that what you are trying to say, so whenever you are trying to convey a specific message, be clear in your words.

Selections of words: Selection of words plays a very important role in your radio program, because what you are trying to convey lies in the appropriate selection. So, the word you choose should exactly denote to the real meaning. Use such words that can easily makes the picture in the mind of your listeners, because as you know that in radio program, you are unable to see the RIG through eyes, so your means a lot to make a picture in their mind. Avoid Jargon’s:

When you are writing a script you should keep this thing in your mind that listeners are not familiar with new medical and technical terms, so do not use difficult terms. Don’t use Abbreviation: Abbreviation sometimes confuse the listeners, because there are so many abbreviations and acronyms that have multiple meanings so while writing a radio script avoid using abbreviation , if in case, it is necessary to use then do explain it. Write in whole numbers: When you are talking about the percentage of any survey or etc. , always round off the big numbers Just to avoid confusion

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