Employee Food Safety Training 6-17 18 Many people are responsible for ensuring food safety – starting with the manager, producers, suppliers, shippers, distributors, handlers and receivers. As soon as the food arrives, the executive chef, souse-chef, manager or a well- trained employee will store and inspect the food correctly, following every mandatory and required step. Also, they should know how to handle the food properly in the kitchen. The kitchen and utensils have to be properly clean and sanitized before their usage. Every employee must respect all the safety standards and rules, which will explain later on into more detail.
Everyone’s challenge is to perform these individual action as well as possible”, and thus the food people eat should be handled properly to ensure it is free from physical hazards, microorganisms and hazardous chemicals. This manual will help to prevent fodder illnesses because it provides a roadman for positive and safe practices. This manual explains to the employees everything that should be done to prevent fodder illnesses; a guaranteed outcome should they follow its every aspect. It also is highlights food safety management system based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point HACK) fundamentals.
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By willingly creating or elaborating and applying a food safety management system such as the one in this Manual, it is possible to take actions to ensure that the food sold, or served in the restaurant will be safe. Instead of responding to fodder illnesses when it happens, it is possible to prevent them by taking functional steps in order to eliminate, prevent or reduce to create fodder illnesses and create a proper and safe environment for the staff or workers and the clients. Foundations for use Food safety hazards usually revolve around unsafe food. What do I mean by unsafe food?
Unsafe food is frequently affected by contamination, which is an aspect of a harmful substance in the food. Some hazards can be transferred into the food either by people or the environment while others that just occur naturally. Hazards can be divided into three categories, which are the following: 1. Biological Hazards: These hazards include illness-causing microorganisms. Another examples are plant, fungus and seafood toxins. 2. Chemical hazards: These hazards include sanitized, cleaners, polishes, toxic metals and machine lubricants. 3. Physical hazards: These are hazards by which accidental contamination occurs.
For example dirt, hair, bandages, broken glass etc. Also naturally objects such as bones of a fillet fish are also consider physical hazards. The five main risk factors that causes fodder illnesses define by the CDC are: 1 . Purchasing food from unsafe sources. 2. Failing to cook food adequately. 3. Holding food at incorrect temperatures. 4. Using contaminated equipment. 5. Poor personal hygiene. The people that are at a higher risk for fodder illnesses are the following: 1. Infants and Preschool-Age Children: Due to the fact that young children have not yet consolidated a mature immune system. . Pregnant Women: Pregnancy can have a partially negative impact on one’s immune system. 3. Elderly people: Because as they get older their immune system becomes weaker. Also due to changes in the body’s organs and systems can create an impact. For example stomach-acid production decreases, as people get older, letting more ingested pathogens to come in to the intestinal path. A change in the stomach and in the intestinal path lets the body to maintain food for longer periods and this process gives more time for the food to form toxins. 4.
Other people with immune system deficiencies: These people are at a Geiger risk of fodder illnesses due to the fact that they already have damaged immune systems. Usually these people are under medication or chemotherapy, which due to this it weakens their immune system therefore it is more complicated for them to recover from a fodder illness. The CDC defines a fodder illness outbreak as an occasion where two or more people get sick from the same illness caused by eating the same food. A fodder illness is confirmed when a laboratory analysis proves that a precise food is the source of the sickness.
Safe Food Handling Food handlers can contaminate food in many ways. The first way the employee can contaminate the food is if they have not dried their hands properly. Bacteria on their hands can be transmitted to the food. Secondly if the equipment is not properly cleaned and sanitized, there is a possibility the food will be contaminated due to cross contamination. Thirdly if the employee is not using a correct and clean uniform food contamination may occur. The final way that food can get contaminated due to unsafe food handling is if the food is not cooked at the correct temperature.
For example the minimum heat for cooking poultry is 165 Fahrenheit for 15 minutes. They must also store the food at the correct temperature. If it is not stored in a fridge which is 5 degrees Celsius or lower, food contamination can occur. Also if they sneeze or cough and touch food after without washing their hands again then they are contaminating the food. If food is left at the temperature danger zone between 41 Fahrenheit and 135 Fahrenheit (5 degrees Celsius and 57 degrees Celsius) pathogens will grow in that food, causing the food to become contaminated.
Also workers who suffer from viruses or bacteria within close range of the food can also contaminate the food. Employees can also spread the bacteria to the surfaces not necessarily the food but afterwards the food will be in contact with that surface this is also a type of food contamination. Employees must also follow the cooling procedure, which is to cool food from 135 Fahrenheit to 70 Fahrenheit within two hours or less, and then from 70 Fahrenheit to 41 Fahrenheit in four hours or less. They must also divide food into smaller portions for the cooling process, if this is not done correctly then food contamination occurs.
Workers while reheating food must know that this process should take two hours no more either less otherwise the food is not good and must reach the minimum temperature required for example leftovers or pre made food must reach 165 Fahrenheit in 2 hours and if reheating a commercially food made for the first time must reach 135 Fahrenheit’s in 2 hours. Components of a good personal hygiene program includes: 1 . Following hygienic hand practices 2. Maintaining personal cleanliness 3. Wearing clean and appropriate uniforms and following all the dress codes 4.
Avoiding certain habits and actions 5. Maintaining good health 6. Reporting illnesses to the manager Steps for proper hand washing: . The employee must wet his hands and arms with running water as hot as the worker can comfortably stand, which is at least 100 Fahrenheit. 2. The employee must apply enough soap to build up a good lather. 3. The employee must scrub hands and arms constantly for at least 1 5 seconds. Farther than the wrist including the exposed portions of the arms and clean well under fingernails and between the fingers. 4.
The employee must rinse well hands and arms under running hot water. 5. The employee must dry hands and arms with a single use paper towel or hand dryer. When leaving he bathroom they must consider using a paper towel to turn Off the faucet and to open the door. A fatherland’s attire plays an important role in the prevention of fodder illness. Therefore fatherland’s should: 1 . Wear clean hat or other hair restraint. This will keep hair away from food. Godlessness with facial hair should either shave or wear beard restrains. But preferably shave. 2. Wear clean clothing daily.
The type of clothing chosen should minimize the contact with the food and equipment and therefore should reduce the need for adjustments. Dirty cloth must be kept away from food and prep areas. . Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas. For example aprons should be removed and properly stored before using the restroom or taking out the garbage. 4. Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food and when working around food preparation areas. Jewelry might contain microorganisms and this will expose the food and the equipment around to any potential hazard while working.
This is also applied for any facial jewelry such as earrings etc. As well as for the own protection of the kitchen staff, since jewelry gets hot close to the kitchen and they can harm themselves. Policies regarding drinking, eating smoking and chewing gum or tobacco while preparing food. A drop of saliva can contain thousands of disease causing microorganisms. If an employee is drinking, eating, smoking or chewing while preparing food, saliva can be transferred to a fatherland’s hands or directly onto the food.
This is why employees should refrain from these activities while working with food or in areas with clean utensils. Employees must check with their local regulatory agency if they have a designated area where they can drink, eat, smoke or chew. Also employees must never be allowed to spit in the establishment. Single use gloves can help to keep food safe by creating a fence or a wall between the food and the hands. When buying gloves for footballers the manager should: 1 . Buy disposable gloves. Gloves used to deal with food are of a single use. 2. Buy gloves for different tasks.
Long gloves for example should be used for hand mixing salads. 3. Provide different sizes of gloves. Gloves that are to small will break and gloves that are too big will not stay on the hand. 4. Consider providing gloves made from latex alternatives. Maybe some footballer or customers may be sensitive to latex. 5. Focus on safety, durability and cleanliness. Make sure you buy gloves specifically designed for food contact. The fist thing that an employee should do while just arrived to work is to remove the jewelry and wash his hand and arms properly.
The Flow of Food Purchasing must be from an approved and reputable supplier that has been inspected and is in compliance with applicable, local, state and federal laws. You must make sure that your suppliers have good food safety practices. It is also very important to build a relationship with your suppliers and like this you may become familiar with their food safety practices. It is also very important to consider reviewing their last or most recent reports of inspection to make sure you are purchasing from a good supplier, the reports could be from (USDA) which is the U.
S Department of Agriculture or from (FDA) the Food and Drug Administration and the last party inspector that you could check with is (IGMP) Good Manufacturing Practices. The manager must arrange that deliveries arrives one by one and during the “off-peak” hours meaning not on busy hours. Suppliers must deliver the product when the employees have a lot of time to do inspections on the products. While achieving the products the manager or a well-trained employee must follow some standards and regulations for the inspection procedures, which are the following: 1 . Train employee must inspect deliveries properly.
The most dads Tate way is to assign the complete responsibility to specific employees for the receiving and the inspecting. They should be trained for the in order to check if the products have the correct temperature, they should also check expired code dates, if they are any signs of thawing and refreezing pest damage, fluid liquids in the food, check the odor on the food, if is fish or meat hey should also make sure the color is right and the smell, the fish must also have bright, clear and full eyes, if they are receiving live shellfish they must make sure that they are received on ice or at air temperature of 45 Fahrenheit.
Shucked products must be received at an internal temperature of 41 Fahrenheit or lower, and they must also contain and identification tags, which must remain, attached to the delivery until all of the shellfish have been used. They must also check that meat and poultry must have a stamp either by the USDA inspection stamp or the USDA grading stamp. Meat must e delivered at a temperature of 41 Fahrenheit’s or lower in order to be acceptable unless it has other problems such as bad odor or is not we package as it should be, For example beef needs to be bright cherry red; aged beef might be darker color but they must be vacuum-packaged.
The package must be intact and clean. They must also check that meat or fish when they touch it does not leave any imprints on it otherwise the product may not be fresh. Packaging products must not be broken, torn, or dirty. When receiving eggs they must contain a grade A stamp by the USDA, because this certifies hat the eggs have been graded for their quality under supervision by the federal or state law. Eggs should be received at 45 Fahrenheit or lower and the must be stored immediately after inspection.
For example the shells of the eggs must not be broken or dirty or have any odor – they must be perfect. Fresh fruit and vegetables have no specific temperature fix by the regulations except cut melons, tomatoes or any cut leafy greens. These must be received and stored at the temperature of 41 Fahrenheit or lower. Employees must reject fresh cut product when they have passed their expiration date and also f they are not at the right temperature. When receiving canned food they must not have any swollen ends, leaks or a flawed seal, rust, dents and missing labels.
Otherwise the product should be rejected. Checking expiration dates is also crucial. 2. Plan ahead for shipments. This means that the employees should have clean hands and arms, trucks, carts, dollies, thermometers etc. The must also make sure that there is enough space available in the storerooms for the shipment. They should also make sure that the refrigerator has enough space if not they should wash and break own and re-wrap the products to make some space for the new shipment. 3. Plan a backup menu in case you have to return food items.
For example if some products are not safe or did not meet the standards required, you may need to remove an item or product from the menu, so you must replace it for another item or you can try to arrange this item with another supplier. 4. Inspect and store each delivery before accepting another delivery. 5. The employees must have the right information available, which means that the receivers should have a purchase order or an order paper ready to check that al the products are there with the supplier’s invoice.
They must also check that everything is in order with the quantities, qualities upon the prices and they must make a record date and time of the delivery, plus product and Storing food also has several general guidelines that must temperatures. Be followed due to the variety of products that need to be stored. The guidelines are the following: 1 . Label food, food that is ready to eat must be label if they have been held for more that 24 hours. This label must include name of the food and the date that should be consumed, sold or throw away. 2.
Rotate products to ensure that the oldest inventory is used first, which are called FIFO (First In First Out). This means that the new product should be put at the back and the old product at the front due to the expiration date and using this more economical and safe method that ensures there will be no loss of product due to expiration dates. 3. Discard food that has passed its expiration date. TTS food (all ready to eat), which has been prepared in house, can only be stored by a maximum of 7 days at the temperature of 41 Fahrenheit’s or lower, when it passes this time then it must be discard. . Create a schedule to throw out stored food on regular basis. For example, if a specific product has not been sold or used by a certain date then it must be discard and then clean and sanitize the container and refill this container with new fresh product. 5. Store food in containers intended for food, they must be durable, leak proof and able to sealed or covered. Employees must never use empty food containers to store chemicals. 6. Keep TTS food at 41 Fahrenheit’s or lower or at 1 35 Fahrenheit’s or higher. Employees must store the delivery as soon as the product has been inspected.
They must also only cake the maximum amount of food that they can cook at one time. Then they must also accurately cool and store food as soon as is no longer needed. 7. Check temperatures of stored food and storage areas, they must be checked at the beginning of the shift. 8. Store food, linens and single use items in designated storage areas, they should be stored away from walls and with a minimum Of 15 centimeters off the floor. Never store food near chemicals or cleaning products. Store dirty linens in a clean and washable container and remember always away from food to prevent cross contamination. 9.
Keep all outrage areas clean and dry, this means floors, walls, shelving in refrigerator, freezers, dry storerooms and the heated of the holding cabinets must be always perfectly clean on daily basis. If they are any spills or leaks must be cleaned immediately to prevent contamination on the food. Most of establishments have several types of storage the most common ones are the following: 1 . Refrigerated storage is commonly used to hold TTS food at 41 Fahrenheit’s or lower. Refrigeration helps to slow down the growth of microorganisms and keeps them from growing to levels that are very high which are enough for causing illnesses. Frozen storage is used to hold frozen food at temperatures that will keep the food frozen. Employees must know that freezing does not kill all microorganisms, however it does slow down their process of growth. 3. Dry storage it is used to hold dry and canned food. This is done in order to keep the quality of the food; this storage should be kept at the right temperature and humidity levels. They must always be clean, be well ventilated and well lighted. Managers should also always monitor storage areas. This is very important because if the storage is inaccurate this can affect food safety.
Refrigerator storage, which notations ready to eat food, whole fish, ground meat, whole meat and poultry. It would be stored in the following way from top to bottom. First on the top shelve would be the ready to eat food, on the second one would be the whole fish, in the third shelve would be the whole meat, then the ground meat and in the last shelve would be the poultry. For the preparation of food the first step is to take the food out that was safely stored. Then food must never be thawed at room temperature because microorganisms are currently there and they can grow to high levels very fast.
In order to prevent this growth of agrarianism they are only four ways for thawing which are acceptable. These methods are the followings: 1 . Thaw food in a refrigerator at a product temperature of 41 Fahrenheit or lower. This method needs to be planned before hand. Lets say for example a turkey, which is big, can take a couple of days to thaw in a refrigerator completely. 2. Submerge the food under running potable water at a temperature of 70 Fahrenheit’s or lower. The water flow must be powerful enough to wash loose food particles into the overflow drain.
They must not drip water on other products or surfaces that has contact with food. Afterwards the employee must clean and sanitize the sink and the working area before and after thawing. 3. Thaw food in a microwave oven if it will be cooked immediately afterwards. By using microwave thawing usually starts cooking the product, therefore this method is not recommended unless the employee is going to continue cooking the food immediately. Large products such as turkey do not thaw well in a microwave. 4. Thawing food as part of the cooking process as long as the product reaches the required minimum internal cooking temperature.
The source of most cross contamination in a kitchen operation are raw meat, ultra and seafood. Employees should use the following safe methods while handling with these products: 1. Use clean and sanitized work areas, cutting boards, knives and utensils. Prepare these products separately from fresh produce. 2. Wash hands and arms properly (see page 6). If gloves are worn hands should be wash and the employee should change gloves before starting a new assignment. 3. Remove from refrigerated storage only as much product that as can be prepared at one time. 4.
Return raw, prepared meat to refrigeration or cook It as fast as possible. Remember to store these items ropey to avoid cross contamination. Minimum internal temperatures for cooking are the following depending on the food. Type of food Temperature Hold for in seconds or minutes Beef steaks 145 OF 1 5 seconds Roasts At least 4 minutes Ground meat 155 OF Poultry 165 OF Stuffing made with TTS ingredients Stuffed meat, fish, poultry or pasta 15 seconds Cook pork, seafood Partial cooking during preparation you must follow the following steps if the employee is planning to partially cook meat, seafood, poultry or eggs. 1 .
Do not cook the food for longer than one hour during the initial cooking. . Cool the food immediately after initial cooking 3. Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it. If refrigerating the food must be held at 41 OF or lower. 4. Heat the food to at least 165 OF before serving it or selling it. 5. Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for For cooling food, the first Step is to pass food into smaller service. Containers then it must be cooled from 135 OF to 70 OF within two hours and afterwards form 70 OF to 41 OF or lower in the next four hours. The total cooling process cannot be longer than six hours.
If it takes longer, the food just be thrown away because it is already contaminated. Once the food is properly cooled then the employee can store it on the refrigerator with a label that contains the name of the food the date and time that was stored. The key to serving safe food is to prevent time temperature abuse and cross contamination. Food servers can contaminate the food easily by handling the food contact surfaces of glassware, dishes and utensils. The following guidelines should be followed when serving food: 1 . Glassware and dishes should be handle properly. The plates, bowls, glasses or cups should not be touched.
Dishes should be carry by the bottom or the edge, cups by their handle and glasses by the bottom or middle. 2. Glassware and dishes should not be stacked when serving. This is because the surface of one item can cause contamination to the one above. Glasses should be carry in a tray. 3. Flatware and utensils should be held at the handle. 4. Minimize bare hand contact with food that is ready to eat. 5. Use ice scoops or tongs to get ice. Servers must never scoop ice with bare hand or use a glass since it could break. Ice scoops must always be install in a sanitary place. 6. Good personal hygiene.
Every server must have clean uniform, aprons and clean hands and arms. Servers should make sure that hot food has a shield to keep food warm and prevent cross contamination. They must also make sure that for each dish there is a different clean and sanitized utensil for serving that type of food and must be in a small plate in front of the food. The utensil must never be left inside the food because that will cause cross contamination to the food. They must also check the temperature and make sure that the machine where the hot food is is in proper working order and keeps a constant temperature.
Also cold food must have something on top to cover the food from contaminating. For example a client is serving food and coughs or sneezes. If the food does not have a protection on top it will get contaminated immediately because of bacteria. Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACK) They are seven HACK principles, which are: 1 . Conduct a hazard analysis, this means that you must check the menu of your restaurant to see if they are any potential hazards in the food that you served and identify the TTS food and check what type of food safety hazards could happen for each TTS food.