Outline relevant legislation in relation to preparing, cooking and seen. ‘ins food. UP- Explain safe practices necessary in preparing, cooking and serving food in a health or social care setting. In this assignment I am going to be outlining and explaining safe practices necessary in preparing, cooking and serving food in a health or social care setting and relevant legislation in relation to preparing, cooking and serving food.
Safe practices of food preparation, cooking and service Hygiene Control When you are working in a hospital with food, it is highly important that hygiene is well controlled because food must be kept safe, otherwise patients could become ill, this IS normally done by; – Protecting food from contamination by harmful bacteria – Preventing bacteria from multiplying to dangerous levels – Destroying harmful bacteria in or on food by cooking – Disposing of harmful food safely. Trio. Coleman. [email protected]. O, The basic rules of food hygiene are outlined below; – Always wash your hands before touching food, particularly after going to the toilet, after touching animals, your own skin and hair and after touching raw food. – Always cover any break in the skin of your hands, or sores or spots, tit waterproof adhesive dressing (preferably a brightly colored one so it is noticeably if it comes off) – No smoking during the preparation of food or in areas where food or prepared or consumed. – Avoid preparing food if you have any illness (particularly skin, nose or throat infections and sickness and/ or diarrhea. – Do not allow animals into the food preparation area. – Cover food to protect it from flies and other insects. – Wrap all food waste and dispose of it in a covered waste bin. – Clean as you go. Wash surfaces with hot water and detergent. – Wipe spills up immediately tit kitchen tissue and place this is in a covered bin. – Serve food as soon as possible after preparing it. – Never allow raw food to come in contact with cooked food; common ways in which cooked food is contaminated from raw food are through the hands, knives and working surfaces. – Wear clean clothing and be clean yourself. Do not cough or sneeze over food. Temperature Control Bacteria can be found on many foods a lot of the time, but food handlers take precautions to ensure that the bacteria can not multiply to dangerous levels in food, as otherwise patients in a hospital would become seriously ill unassuming dangerous levels of bacteria. Control of temperature is very important in preventing bacteria from multiplying during cooking and storage of food. The Food Safety Temperature Control Regulations 1 995 set out the safe temperatures for the storage, heating and chilling of food.
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Body temperature (37 . C) is the temperature at which bacteria like to multiply so they will multiply effetely inside the human body. Method Temperature I Freezer -18. C-22. C I Refrigerator Legal requirement 8. C, good practice 5-6. C I Hot holding food Hot food must be maintained at a temperature of 63. C I Reheating food I Temperature of reheated food must reach a minimum of 82. C I Pest Control A food pest is any animal that can live on or in food, causing damage or contamination.
The main types of pests find in hospitals are: – Insects such as flies, cockroaches and weevils – Birds – Rodents such as rats and mice. Flies land on food and carry bacteria on their bodies. In addition, they defecate and vomit half-digested food onto the food. They also lay eggs and their dead bodies can be found in food. Cockroaches can deposit faces on food and spread bacteria, and small insects such as weevils live in stored food ND food product such as flour and cereals. Mice and rats carry bacteria and pass these on by either walking on the food or on work surfaces.
Mice have weak bladders and urinate on food. Food can be contaminated by droppings and feathers and by insects that they carry on their bodies. Evidence of a pest infestation might include droppings, damage, rat runs, egg shells, dead bodies and damage to building. Protecting premises where food is stored or prepared is the most important way Of preventing infection of or damage to food. The main staff at the hospital must ensure that the building id kept in DOD repair with no obvious points of entry for pests and all food handlers have a responsibility to report anything they think is abnormal.
Food pests like to keep warm, dark, damp undisturbed places so it is important for food storage in the hospital to be cool well lit, dry and clean places. Effects of unsafe practices Physical Contamination Physical contaminants include bones, shells or pips and stalks from food, food packaging, nuts or bolts from equipment, jewelry, hair, fingernails, plasters, dust, dirt, insects and their droppings and eggs. Some contamination can be prevented very easily by ensuring that food handlers eave their hair covered, have short, clean unvarnished fingernails and do not wear jewelry.
Proper maintenance and cleaning of buildings and equipment will help to prevent contamination by pests or parts falling off equipment, and proper preparation of food should ensure that bones and shells are fully removed before serving. Chemical Contamination Chemical contamination can be caused by cleaning chemicals if they are not kept separate from food and food preparation areas, and agricultural chemicals, e. G. On fruit and vegetables if they have been sprayed. They must be cleaned thoroughly or peeled before eating.
Leftover food or drink from metal containers should always be transferred to a non-metallic container and stored covered in a refrigerator. Acidic and salty food can attack the metal once a can is opened. All cleaning chemicals should be stored in a locked cupboard away from food preparation areas, and there should be a thorough rinsing stage during the washing up process to ensure that all detergents and sanctities are removed. K Biological Contamination Biological contamination is contamination by bacteria or viruses that multiply on the food to dangerous levels, or by moulds which cause toxins on food.
When they are eaten, they cause illness. Safe preparation, cooking storing and handling of food, together with regular and thorough hand washing, will help to prevent biological contamination. Some of the more common types of bacteria that cause food poisoning are outlined on the next page. Bacterial food poisoning Colostomies Friendless – is a bacteria found on raw meat, animal and human faces, soil, dust and insects. It occurs when food (usually meat) is cooked and kept warm for several hours before eating.
Symptoms of poisoning by this particular type of bacteria are abdominal pains and diarrhea, and they usually appear between 12 and 18 hours after eating the contaminated food. Most people get better within 24 hours, although older people have a chance on being ill for longer. Staphylococcus Erasures ? lives naturally on the skin and in the nose and mouth of most people where usually it doesn’t do any harm. But once it is in the wrong place, for example in food that hasn’t been handled without wearing gloves, it can cause illness.
It is also found in unpersuasive milk. Symptoms appear quite quickly, usually between one and six hours after eating the contaminated food, and include abdominal main or cramp, vomiting and low temperature but people normally recover very quickly. Comparable – causes the highest reported intestinal infection in England and Wales. It is found on raw poultry and meat, milk and animals, including pets. The symptoms are diarrhea, which is usually bloody, stomach cramps, nausea and fever and they can take from 48 to 60 hours to develop.
The illness lasts about a week but some people have no symptoms at all. The illness I caused by a very small number of organisms – one small drop of raw chicken blood might be all that it takes to infect someone. Bacillus cereus – is mound in cereals, soil and dust. Symptoms can appear after between once and five hours or 8 to 16 hours depending on the form of the food poisoning. It often occurs in people who eat a lot of take-away food as it is common in re- heated cooked rice which is served extensively in take-away outlets.
Symptoms include stomach cramps, diarrhea and vomiting but subside about 24 hours. Salmonella – is found on raw poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, animals, insects and sewage and causes stomach pains, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. It usually appears about 12 – 36 hours after eating contaminated food – often undercooked poultry. It usually lasts between four and seven days, but the very young and they very old that become ill with it and might require hospitalizing and antibiotics.
There are more than 2,500 different strains of salmonella. E. Coil – is a bacterium that occurs naturally in the bowel and helps to keep the digestive system healthy. The problems arise when it contaminates food that is then eaten. It occurs in human and animal digestive tracts, sewage, water and raw meat. Symptoms appear within 12 24 hours and include stomach pain, fever, vomiting, kidney damage or failure. Most recent outbreaks of E. Socio have occurred among children who visited petting farms and stroked the animals.
Good personal hygiene and through hand washing after visiting the toilet and when handling food helps to prevent E. Coil contamination. The Food safety Act 1 990 The food Safety Act is the main piece of legislation that governs the safety of food. The Act states that it is illegal to sell to keep for sale food that is unfit for people to eat or causes food to be dangerous to health, or is not acceptable content or quality, or is labeled or advertised in any way that misleads the consumer.
If prosecuted people who work with food must show that they eave taken all reasonable steps to avoid causing any of the above food problems. The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation 1995 These regulations cover the basic hygiene principles that business must follow and relate to staff, premises and food handling. They affect anyone who owns manages or works in a food business, whether it is a caravan in a lay-by selling tea, coffee and snacks or five star hotel.
The regulations cover the following: – the supply and selling of food in a hygienic way * Identifying possible food hazards * prevent harm to customers by controlling unidentified hazards * The organization of effective control and monitoring the procedures that ensure that there is no harm to avail to customers The Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995 * The stages of the food chain that are subject to temperature controls The temperature controls will allow flexibility * Which foods are exempt from specific temperature controls * Certain foods must be kept at a certain temperature HACK is universal food safety system.
It aims to protect food from contamination by: * There are critical points in the food handling process that might cause contamination therefore they need to be Identified * Be in nomad of the place to prevent microbiological, chemical and physical contamination of food * Monitoring the significant points to ensure that contamination does not occur.
This means that you must identify all potential hazards at each stage of food handling, from delivery of raw products to the serving of fully prepared food. The entire process is designed to ensure that any problems can be amended before they cause any discomfort or illness. As you can see in this assignment I have outlined relevant legislation in relation to preparing, cooking and serving food. Explained safe practices setting.