Students learn the language within a concrete context so they will be able to communicate and show what they learn in a real situation expressing their own knowledges nd their ideas in the target language through dialogue and speech-this is also a good method for the teacher to colaborate with the studentsto understand their weaknesses and to deal with them all together to achive a good result in the class.
A comparison between the native language and the target language is supposed to help teachers to find the areas with which their students probably experience difficulty,this is expected to help students to overcome the habit of the native language. A questionnaire was sampled in Asim Vokshi school in 60 students. Key words: The Audio-Lingual method?communicating,colaborate. Table of contents 1. Introduction 1. 1 Purpose of the study 1. 2 Research question 2. Literature review 2. 1 Definition The Audio-Lingual method2. 2Why use The Audio-Lingual method? 2. Types of The Audio-Lingual method 2. 4 Types of learning and teaching activities 2. 4 Advantages of The Audio-Lingual method 2. 5Disadvantages of The Audio-Lingual method2. 6 Limitations 3. Methodology 3. 1 Preface to the main study 3. 2 Questionnaire 3. 3 Observation 3. 4 Data collection 4. Results 4. 1 Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Conclusion study 7. Recommendations 9. Appendix 6. Limitations of the 8. References Introduction The audio-lingual method is a style Of teaching used in teaching foreign languages through the process of listening and repeat.
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The Audio-Lingual method, is one of the methods used in teaching foreign languages. This method of teaching had its origins during World War II when it became known as the Army method. *Barker James L.
The audio lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly without using the students native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language-However the audio lingual didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar. Charles C. Fries,the director of the English Language Institute at the university of Michigan belived that learning structure,or grammar was the starting point for the student.
In other words it was the tudent job to orally recite the basic sentence patterns and grammatical structures. The students were given cenough vocabulary to make such drills possible. >RichardsJ. C. et-aI. 1 986. Despite being discredited as an effective teaching methodology in L Barker lecture on November 8,2001 at Brigham Young university,given by WilfriedDecoo>. audio-lingualism continues to be used today, although it is typically not used as the foundation of a course, but rather, has been relegated to use in individual lessons.
As it continues to be used, it also continues to gain criticism, as Jeremy Harmer otes, “Audio-lingual methodology seems to banish all forms of language processing that help students sort out new language information in their own minds. ” As this type of lesson is very teacher centered, it is a popular methodology for both teachers and students, perhaps for several reasons but in particular, because the input and output is restricted and both parties know what to expect.
Some hybrid approaches have been developed, as can be seen in the textbook Japanese: The Spoken Language (1 987″90), which uses repetition and drills extensively, but supplements them with detailed rammar explanations in English As mentioned, lessons in the classroom focus on the correct imitation of the teacher by the students. Not only are the students expected to produce the correct output, but attention is also paid to correct pronunciation. Although correct grammar is expected in usage, no explicit grammatical instruction is given.
Furthermore, the target language is the only language to be used in the classroom-Barker James L.
It was, in fact, the first approach which could be said to have developed a ‘technology’ of teaching and based on ‘scientific’ principles” (2000, p. 229). 2. 1 Definition of portfolio assessment Portfolio is the collection of student work that tells the story of the student’s efforts, progress or achievement in (a) given area(s). This collection must include student participation in selection of portfolio content; the guidelines or selection; the criteria for judging merit; and evidence of student self- reflection. Arter and Spandel, 1992) Portfolio can consist of a wide variety of materials: teacher notes, teacher-completed checklists, student self- reflections, reading logs, sample journal pages, written summaries, audiotapes of retellings or oral readings, videotapes of group projects, and so forth (Valencia, 1990). All of these items are not used all of the time. lt contains ‘pieces of evidence. ‘ The more relevant the evidence, the more useful it is for inferring a student’s level of achievement in a learning area.
Forster & Masters (19962) portfolio Goals Contents Illustrating Student Progress Student communicates orally to express personal preferences and exchange information. Audiotape of a biographical interview. Self-assessment of a dialogue on food preferences. Teacher observation checklist on small group practice/discussion of a fairy tale. Student presents ideas orally to classmates on a variety of topics. Self- assessment of a biographical monologue. Peer-assessment of a presentation on a traditional New Year’s meal in the target county. Video tape of poster board fairy tale retelling.
Student demonstrates progress in using appropriate question intonation. Audiotape of a biographical interview. Portfolios are only effective if you establish a fair and consistent way of scoring, recording, and grading them. The key to developing a reliable portfolio is to establish clear and detailed criteria. Criteria are statements of exactly what skill or knowledge the specified learner or group of learners is to master, what constitutes mastery, and how progress toward mastery is measured. Criteria provide the framework for planning instruction and evaluation.
In education, when criteria are used to frame instruction, they are alled objectives, goals, or learning outcomes. Criteria used to assess the impact of the instruction are referred to as evaluation measures, tests, instruments, and rubrics. Criteria for both the portfolio and the contents of the portfolio should be established before students undertake their assignments. Doing this ensures that students understand what is expected and that you are actually assessing what you intended to assess. If possible, students should help determine the criteria. This will further ensure clarity, and it will also invest them in the work. . 2Why use Audio-lingual method? The Audiolingual Method s aim is teaching new concepts, such grammatical patterns and vocabulary, through exercises. This method is used to develop speaking and writing skills because much of the input students receive through the tasks applied in the class, will make them capable to communicate their thoughts, ideas, or feelings. . It aims to improve students’ speaking achievement. Language items are presented to students in spoken form without reference tothe mother tongue so that they can learn language skills effectively.
The goal of the Audio- Lingualmethod is, via teaching vocabulary and grammatical patterns through ialogues, toenable students to respond quickly and accurately in spoken language. The dialogues are learnt through repetition . students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. The objective of the audio-lingual method is accurate pronunciation and grammar, the ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations and knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns.
Teaching is directed to provide students With a native-speaker-like model. 2. 3 characteristics of audio-lingual method Characteristics of the Audio-Methods: New material is presented in dialogue form; There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis taught one at a time; Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills; There is little or no grammatical explanation.
Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than by deductive explanation; Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in C] There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids; C Great importance is attached to pronunciation; C] Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted; C]SuccessfuI esponses are immediately reinforced; There is a great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances; II There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content. (adapted from Prator & Celce-Murcia 1979 2. Types of learning and teaching activities Dialogues and drills form the basis of audio-lingual classroom practices. Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and illustrate situations in which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspect of the target language. Dialogues are used for repetition and memorization-correct intonation are emphasized. After a dialogue has been presented and memorized, specific grammatical patterns in the dialogue are selected and become the focus of various kinds of drill and pattern-practice exercises. Richards, J. C. y T. S. Rodgers (1987). The Audiolingual Method. En Approaches and Methods in language teaching (pp. 44-63). Reino Unido: Cambridge University Press) 2. 4 Advantages of portfolio assessment . A comparison be?een the native language and the target language is su pposed to help teachers to find the areas with which their students probably experience difficulty: this is expected to help students to overcome he habit of the native language. If a method is related to a serious and reliable psychological approach with fundaments on pedagogy, it is a good method.
Students will not have another option but use the foreign language In this method it is desirable that students form a habit formation to use the target language with ease The more they repeat the easier they will speak the target language without thinking. 2. 5Disadvantages of the Audio-lingual method Basic method of teaching is repetition, speech is standardised and pupils turn into parrots who can reproduce many things but never create anything new r spontaneous. Pupils became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns fluently in natural speech situations. khoaanh. org Resource Center for English teaching and learning) Mechanical drills of early Audio-Visual approach criticised as being not only boring and mindless but also counter-productive, if used beyond initial introduction to new structure. (khoaanh. org Resource Center for English teaching and learning) Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse. Tendency to regard audio-visual materials as a teaching method in themselves, not as a eaching aid (khoaanh. org Resource Center for English teaching and learning) 2. 6 Limitations Portfolios take a long time to complete and assess.
Gathering all of the necessary data and work samples can make portfolios difficult to manage. PortfoIio assessments provide students and faculty with a direct view of how students organize knowledge into overarching concepts. As such, portfolios are inappropriate for measuring students’ levels of factual knowledge (i. e. , recall knowledge) or for drill-and-skill activities and accordingly should be used in concert with more conventional forms of assessment. Similarly, student work completed beyond the context of the classroom is occasionally subject to issues of academic dishonesty. 3.
Methodology This chapter covers an overview of the methods of the study. The study was conducted at “Ismail Qemali” high school. In this study participated about 100 students of high school. I tried to show the progress of the students during the portfolio assessment. The study was based on a questionnaire and observation. A questionnaire concerning learners’ progress was completed by a sample of 100 high school students of Ismail Qemali. Also, observed some of the activities that were part of the portfolio. The observations played an important part in identifying the students progress. 4.
Results Seventy percent of the students showed a notable progress during the portfolio . Thirty percent of the students showed less progress during the portfolio . 5. Conclusion The Audio-Lingual Method aims to develop communicative competence of students using dialogues and drills. The use of dialogues and drills are effective in foreign language teaching as they lead the students to produce speech. Repetition of the dialogues and the drills will enable students to respond quickly and accurately in spoken language. Through repetition students can use the target language automatically, and fluently.
Drills used in this method will allow the students to have practice and gives the opportunity to produce speech in the target language.. The use of dialogues and drills are effective in foreign language teaching as they lead the students to produce speech. 6. Limitations of the study Time of observation was not long enough to see the progress of the students during the year. I was not present at the previous works of the students.