Throughout history, the mission of the police has been to protect and serve. Recently, in the past 10 – 15 years the police story has been a disruptive one, giving the public a negative view of the criminal justice system (CSS). It was Sir Robert Peel who established the innovative police so the negative perception by the public WOUld be changed to positive one. There are three essential components that are involved such as, strategy, police organizational structure, and mission. (Walker & Katz, 201 1, p. 25).
The plans made by Peel are still applicable nowadays to create integration plans that will lead to an enhanced interactions or communications between private security, institutional and society disciplines, courts, and law enforcement. Our primary objective is to improve the current policies, communications, budgets, technologies, and the cultural prospect of police agencies. To enhance the interactions between the private security groups and the general public, and between the public and the criminal justice associations.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Technological advances within CSS have come to the forefront, most notably communications, forensics, analytical abilities, ND computer technology. These advances have made the jobs of law enforcement officers easier, especially in terms of communications beјmen local and multi-jurisdictional agencies. Agency policies Code of Conduct Today, police officers and their supervisors are facing many issues. Some of these matters include the use Of force, deadly force, racial profiling, and other current police- related topics.
While all of these topics have problem areas, there are two main issues that traces on all the above problems, police ethics, and the code of conduct. Integrity, responsibility, honesty, and a good hearted are all words used to describe an officer who is ethical. Ethics looks to be a favorite topic to discuss today, mainly in the law enforcement turf. A police officer should characterize the highest level of ethical behavior in our communities, but society feels as though acceptable police conduct has changed excessively. Around the world, we have viewed or witnessed a loss of the publics confidence in police officers.
Most if not all dissatisfaction have attributed to many incidents in the last two years in the media. Nationwide, there has been attention to the standards, decisions, and police conduct. Men and women in law enforcement around the world hold the public trust. Police officers are sought to be hardworking, honest individuals who committed themselves to serve the public with integrity and high standards of ethical behavior. In spite of an increasing commitment to in many law enforcement agencies, a small fraction of police officers misuse the publics trust.
Stop against Racial profiling In today’s society, we live in a media- driven world. The media has a way of influencing the way people think towards particular topics. Racial profiling is a very touchy subject for most. It is known as the presence of ethnic or racial heuristics of determining if a person is likely to commit a particular type of illegal act or crime. For example the term “black man walking”. Due to racial profiling black men are looked at as drug dealing criminal thugs. It is the society that we live in and therefore we have no choice but to live with it.
The most common source of single- bias is that of the mind. Cognitive bias is typical, but mistakenly, is believed to be viewed as the most common source of racial prejudice. Whereas most officers may be ancient hypocrites, this is not a well-known cause of racial prejudice in police breaks. Even though discrimination against blacks has not declined, most law enforcement agencies forbid this kind of racism and reprimands officers once this is discovered. Bigot behaviors in these cases are prevented through education. It is true that most of us if not all of us have a tendency to group ourselves and others.
Once we do this, stereotypes by design, and unconsciously, become influenced behavior. Given the persistent media images of black men are violent and dangerous. It should not be surprising when officers make the decision to pull over, search, and their unconscious bias may influence them to focus more on the brown skinned race. These kinds of biases are typically played out by local police officers that do routine patrolling of communities and businesses and, therefore, have more discretion as to whom to stop and search. Unreasonable use Of Force This country, over the years, has witnessed many cases of police brutality.
This topic has become very controversial among the communities who have witness police brutality taking place in front of their residents. Every day police officers are faced with threatening situations that force them to act quickly. Police officers are trained to expect the worst and hope for the best. Police officers are given the power to take people’s right and lives away. With this kind of power comes a tremendous responsibility, this becomes a concern with the amount of discretion police officers have as to when to use force and lethal force.
The use of unnecessary force may be a huge issue and should be looked at by both the community and the police. The right to use force is a crucial factor affecting the role of a police office and is limited by law. A police officer cannot legally shoot to kill a person. To arrest a person is also restricted by law. An officer may only use force when performing his or her job. An officer may not use force to settle a domestic dispute. The authority to use force has effects that go beyond its actual use, and a police officer audience upon for help (Walker, Katz 2013).
Budget Within the police department, the budget for police operations is based on the tax base per citizen (taxpayers and population) as well as criminal activity. When taxpayers pay their taxes, they pay for city or township services to include: sewage, garbage disposal, street repair, as well as public safety to include police and fire departments. Sometimes the city projected budget is not enough to pay for services, and the city will propose a mileage to help supplement and continue to provide services.
Mileage’s are proposals that are placed on the ballot for citizens to vote on, which can increase the amount taxpayers would have to pay to continue the services that named on the ballot. Once the mileage is passed, citizens will experience an increase in their property taxes to help sustain their city-provided services. If the mileage is voted down, there is a possibility that the city will have to downsize its repertory and employees that often lead to layoffs and the elimination of services. State funds are available to supplement the cost Of public safety based on crime statistics.
When police officers complete police reports, information entered in the report regarding the types of crimes, location, and other demographics also entered. The demographic information reported to the state, and the state can determine whether it needs to increase or decrease funding based on the amount and types of crimes that are reported. Police funding from the state also determines the amount of calls for police services. These statistics are reported to other agencies like the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI).
Every year the FBI compile statistics (Uniform Crime Reports) that they receive from communities and create a listing of the different crimes reported to police (The Federal Bureau of Investigations 2015). Another way to fund the police departments is with court fees. When a defendant is ordered by the court, to pay fines, a percentage goes back to the police department. When a citizen is ordered to pay fines and costs related to a traffic related offense, the majority of those funds go back to the police department. If a citizen is written a citation for an offense other than a traffic violation, under a “local or city code”.
The funds are divided between the police department, courts, and sometimes the general fund. However, if the offense written is under “state law”, the money from the fines and court cost goes to that state for which the citation was written. State Funded Traffic Data xi’s In the State of Michigan, the state release funds during certain times of the year for specific traffic offenses. During these times, there is an increase in the advertisement for “Click It or Ticket”. During the “Click It or Ticket” aiming, extra money is given to city departments to enforce settable laws.
Money for convictions goes to the police department from the state. The money is also given to the police department to pay for officers’ overtime and court cost for the “Click It or Ticket” detail. Another detail that is funded by the State of Michigan is “You drink, you drive, you lose”. This detail is to help eliminate drunk driving. (Officer R. Cooper, personal communication, June 19, 2015). Drug Forfeiture During drug raids if money and property are forfeited, it can be later used to in the police department budget.
During drug raids property in the form Of automobiles, electronics, jewelry, and real estate (houses and lots) can be forfeited. The owner is given a period to prove that their property was not purchased using drug money. If the owner cannot prove they purchased the property with clean money, the property can be auctioned off in a public auction for cash or turned over and used as city property. Police Personnel The police budget includes not only police officers’ salaries but to also pays for other police department support personnel. Included in the police department budget are civilian employees.
The Secretaries, radio dispatchers, jail guards, janitorial services, food services (for prisoners), vehicle maintenance crew, as well as information technology specialist (police computer support). Police Equipment Officers are required to utilize specialized equipment to efficiently and safely perform police duties. The need for this equipment and the maintenance is included in the budget. Equipment should include duty weapons, uniforms, bullet-proof vest, duty belt, handcuffs, computers, and police vehicles. Police Training Continued education for police officers is essential.
The budget should include the cost to educate officers on updates to the laws, this includes any specialized training that is require red for promotions or entering specialized units within the police department (Narcotics, Detective Bureau, and Crime Scene Investigator). The effectiveness of the security depends greatly on the operational budget given to an individual security system. The budget for a particular private organization can be outsourced from the private investors who can be persons or corporations. The budget is dependent on the organization’s size.
Besides, there will be an implementation period on suburbia and also a reoccurring consumption. A portion of the operational budget is making a decision to where the cost will be cut at the same time addressing the department’s necessities. It is uncommon if an establishment is on the budget. Mostly, an individual organization will be above on the budget because of the increasing price. There are three primary elements to which the budget has to be spent. Firstly, it is the contract services. The organization has the option to hire private security guards.
The security personnel Will be the one to establish and monitor the security cameras. Secondly, it is the Information Technology (IT) department. The IT used has to be protected for the relevant data. There is a need for different software and hardware to establish the security programs and also give protection to the data possessed by the organization. Lastly, it is the network costs and the training. Providing annual training to the employees and security personnel is necessary so they will be up to date on the latest technologies.
Apparently, the operational budget has been spent for the operation and safety of the organization. Unfortunately, there are times that costs have to be cut to suit he budget. This procedure can include outsourcing the services and also laying off the employees. The key to managing the budget is to be aware Of how to perform to a greater extent with less so that the organization’s need will be addressed while keeping the safety of the assets. Communication The most popular methods of communication in law enforcement are oral and written communication methods.
Effective communication is very crucial to probe reports written by officers of the law to confirm that just the guilty is punished, and the rights of the citizens are protected. Law enforcement has endeavored to guarantee that communication among the professionals of the public system and the citizens take abode in the most appropriate manner. Several areas of the criminal justice system integrate formal and informal communication. Officers deliberate on a case among each other; they communicate through email, memoranda or personal contact. The public has a right to be informed of what is happening in the communities in which they live.
We are all aware of the censorship within the departments, so not all information can be shared with the public as it could compromise their job. Department heads will rarely make an appearance in public to release any information about a case. Media serves a vital role in disseminating information to the general public. Most of the agencies have Public Affairs Officers (Pap’s), or Public Relations Officers (PRO’s) who communicate to the media and provide press releases. The sharing of information to the other agencies became a controversial issue after the attacks on 9/1 1 .
To enhance the communication and the exchange of information, the Joint Terrorist Task Force was established while putting protocols in place to avoid such incidents United States Department of Justice, n. D. ). A sole task force will not be productive in collecting and disseminating information compared to having different agencies work together such as the F-BI, and DEAD US Marshall, and local agencies. These agencies can share and disseminate information between other organizations utilizing the Law Enforcement Information Sharing Program (ELISE).
Taking strategic advantage of the existing information-sharing challenges of the law enforcement officers from local to federal levels is amongst the dynamics of the ELISE (The United States Department of Justice, 201 1). These processes are controlled from the top of the agency to the downward structure of the organization. On the issue of other agents within the system, cooperating with external and internal partners has critically increased the achievement of the community corrections’ duty of improving public safety by successfully handling criminals in the commonwealth.
For instance, with respect to upturn implementation and understanding of unified case management structures in the country, communication between community partners and criminal justice professionals is essential. Such new approaches to community supervision quire empowerment of partnership within the community (including the victim and offender). For a police association to be effective in serving the residents of its jurisdiction, it must take on surveys of the community and interact with the residents.
The studies help to establish their security desires, their feelings towards public safety, and their perceptions and expectations of police performance (Groaner 2004). Technology The effectiveness in terms of communication is possible because of technology, which has provided a positive result on the part of the law enforcement society. Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) has been very helpful o the fire dispatchers and the police in sharing information from the informant to the officers in charge of streets (Motorola Solutions, 2012).
This flow of communication allows the responders to arrive on the scene quickly thus, saving the lives of the victims. Being able to communicate with officers via radio and computer allows the officers to operate at a more efficient level. The computers mounted on the police cars are known as Mobile Data Terminals (Mat’s). The Mat’s are a very helpful way for the officers to gain access to databases, and obtain information from the assigned dispatcher thou the use of radio. Private security professionals will be given training and clearance for a particular level of safety since there are some secrecy laws on accessible data.
The investigators and the patrolman can make changes on their operations with the help of databases and computers. There is a need for the detective to be knowledgeable enough in gathering and handling the forensic evidence found at the crime scene. Forensic evidence is an essential proof in the past years with the employment of DNA samplings in the court. Fingerprints are considered to be most useful in solving criminal offenses that are now be shared out with DNA proof. Information from the DNA samples and fingerprints are preserved within databases for future use.
Fingerprint database or Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System or BASIS is capable of storing scratches, mark shots, physical descriptions for about 70 million fields and also fingerprint information (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2012). Combined DNA Index System (CODES) is a DNA database that can store DNA. The information will then be used to compare evidence of the previous and future offenses so the Alice can resolve the case (Department of Justice, n. D. ). For the investigators and police to perform their duties effectively, they can make use of this technology.
The private security officers and corrections officers who are part of the investigation should undergo training so that they cannot foul the evidence. The criminal justice experts nowadays can use new equipment that are non-lethal, such as the use of bean bag rounds, Taster’s, pepper spray, and rubber bullets as well. New tools like these can be helpful for the private security personnel and correctional officers. Cultural and subcultures aspects of organizations There are two different cultures of police agencies. The first originated from the procedures and policies that seer. E as guidance for their communication to other public and private security forces. The second occurs at the time the agencies make an interaction with the public where they execute their duties. A problem that exists within the internal culture is that agencies protest in sharing data with the other sections, private security forces, and public. The major event that revealed the problems was the attacks on the World Trade Center, Pentagon, and the downing of the aircraft in Janesville, PA. It was quickly realized that there was not enough power, technologies, knowledge and personnel to protect our nation.
The justice and security disciplines are not different, post 9/1 1 these disciplines have undergone a dramatic metamorphosis. The changing roles of private security, courts, correction, the legislative branch, and globalization are just a few examples of these changes. What is even more exciting is the future and the role that technology will play in how the justice and security disciplines will interact and operate. The interaction of the police with the society, in particular, the culturally diverse society is considered as one of the challenges of the law enforcement officers.
Police Community Relations (PC) pertains to the relationship between the police officers and the ethnic and racial societies (Walker & Katz, 2011, p. 372). PC is considered a significant concern in patrolling and it reveals existing troubles with the present cultures in law enforcement. The focus on varied disagreements is the unbalance of a race between the police officers and the minority societies where they are guarding. Thus, there is a communication disruption between the two parties as a result of the inequality.
The utilization of lethal force is among the most important problem of the PC. The belief that they allow the presence of undue force against the minorities occurs. Such assumptions lead to aggressions that cause riots at the same time building credibility problems on the part of the police officers from the minority and non-minority societies. As one way of securing the public and gaining their trust again. Police officers should establish strategic plans that will enhance the communications between the public and private security agencies and the minority societies.
Another significant portion of the tragic plan must pay attention to training programs that will enable the police officers to gain and develop skills that are necessary to prevent using excessive or lethal force. The schedule will have to include a remedial training plan for the law enforcement management for dealing with excessive or deadly force events after the occurrence of the incidents to lessen the issues from the public outrage. Establishing a cooperative relationship with the other private security firms, police departments, and minority populace is one of the elements of the strategic plan.
The police departments need to publish leslies and cooperative consensus addressing the nature of information to be shared. Added attention to recruitment is also a component of said plan. It is necessary that the police departments will plan recruitment campaigns addressing those minorities who apply for the jobs. Engaging the minorities in the police departments will make them more efficient as These minorities can be very helpful in bridging the communication disruption encountered during their interaction with racially diverse societies.
Conclusion After the 9/1 1, both the private and public security forces of the nation were able to realize there was no agency that had enough knowledge, personnel, technology and power to secure the country. Department of Homeland Security urged the public law enforcement agencies to cooperate with other services to secure the entire country from the external menaces and internal crimes (The United States Department of Justice (201 1).