The war also had great effects on the presidencies of Lyndon Johnson ND Richard Nixon. After the death of President John F. Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon 8. Johnson was appointed president of the United States. Johnson felt that the U. S. Should stay involved in Vietnam to prove the U. S. Kept its commitments and could stop communism aggression. L BC further increased the number of advisors and equipment being sent to Vietnam, he wanted to declare war and destroy North Vietnam and Communism as soon as possible, even if he had to sacrifice his plans for a ‘Great Society. On August 4 the US Maddox and US Turner Joy both reported attacks from North Vietnam forces. Johnson decided to escalate the war. He ordered bombing of different North Vietnam targets. Congress soon authorized the Gulf of Tontine Resolution, which gave the president authority “to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. ” Johnson came up with a strategy to take control of Vietnam called Operation Rolling Thunder.
The operation would consist of bombing of North Vietnam, more air power, and increase the number of ground troops. In June 1965, U. S. Advisors were sent into combat. This would shift the U. S. “from helping the Vietnam people help themselves, to fighting a full-scale war on and over the land mass of Asia. ” In January of 1968, the Vetting and North Vietnam prepared for a major attack. This was a major turning point in America’s public opinion on the war. They planned a surprise attack, hoping the RAVE and US. Would have let their guard down.
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Every important city in South Vietnam was attacked, including the capital Saigon. The fighting lasted for about a month. America was able to witness much of this footage on the news. The outcome was a major military actor for South Vietnam, but it was a great political victory for North Vietnam. It made people begin to lose hope in winning the war, and to question the presidents tactics for the war. When the Pentagon announced the number of U. S. Casualties since the beginning of war, the number reached 15,058 killed, 1 09,572 wounded, and about $25 billions dollars spent each year. Resident Johnson knew his popularity was lost and decided not to run for reelection. On January 20, 1 969 Richard Nixon was inaugurated. A few months later he announced the removal of 25,000 United States troops by August of 1 969 and another 65,000 to be sent home by the end of the year. His planned was called “Optimization” which would bring “peace with honor. ” It was designed to turn over the responsibility of war to South Vietnam. The U. S. Would strengthen the South Vietnam army so they could fight without direct help from the U.
S. This would allow American troops to gradually come home. Optimization would also set up a self sufficient South Vietnam government. On April 30, 1 970, President Nixon informed the American people that troops would be sent to Cambodia. This outraged people even more. Nixon had remised peace, but was now bringing on more war. In 1971, Congress repealed the Gulf of Tontine Resolution as to limit the power of the president with the war. In January 1973, a cease-fire was negotiated.
On January 25, 1973, The Paris Peace Accords were signed ending the fighting between North Vietnam and the United States. U. S. Troops would be withdrawn, American Poss.. Would be returned home, and the South Vietnam regime would remain in power. This didn’t end the war, but got the and our 27,000 remaining troops and 540 Poss.. Out of Vietnam. Soon after the united States left, sighting resumed between North Vietnam and South Vietnamese weak army. May of 1 975, two years after Nixon pulled out of the war, South Vietnam surrendered.
Vietnam was reunified under a communist Vietnam regime. By the end of the war the United States suffered 57,000 casualties and 153,303 soldiers were wounded. The Vietnam War had many costs. Not only the billions of dollars spent, but also the thousands of American lives taken, and the effects it had on American society. The war cost Lyndon Johnson his presidency. Many programs promised to the American people were never fulfilled because of he demands from the war. The President’s power in waging war was limited.