Will Hilbert Mr. Meuller United States History- 8th 14 May 2011 Struggles with North Korea The United States has had many problems regarding North Korea both, during the cold war and post-cold war. They have been the longest standing adversary to the United States, and are the victims of countless U. S sanctions and diplomatic agreements. The first problems with North Korea start post world war two when the Korean Peninsula was split in two. The Soviet Union, arch enemy of the United States, was stationed in the North. This lead to the current political affiliations North Korea has today.
While the Soviets influenced communism in the North, the United States set up a capitalistic style government in the South. Having two arch enemies station so close lead to confrontation, and eventually the Korean War. This was the first glimpse of the cold war. For the Rest of the cold war Korea is quite, but post cold war their true identity is shown. One of the main problems regarding North Korea Post cold war is there nuclear program. Such scares as the 1998 testing of their Nuclear power by launching a missile that flew right over Japan.
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This directly went against the Agreed Framework. The Agreed framework was set up at a meeting between Jimmy Carter and Kim IL Sung. This Meeting was the first attempt to bring normalization to the two countries. While it worked in simmering down both sides before another war broke out, it failed to create a normalized relationship. The Six party talks were another attempt at both reducing the nuclear program of North Korea and normalizing the relationship of North Korea and the United States.
These were the first negotiations to include other world super powers such as China, South Korea, Russia, and Japan. These were all countries that could help the North Koreans and Americans to normalize. Currently the Obama administration is making progressive strides and is in progress to do what the last three decades of presidents have failed to do, start a normal relationship with North Korea. All of these attempts show sides of the United States that not many countries bring out and they are fear, the feeling of pressure to do something, and appeasement.
In the early 1990’s North Korea was greatly increasing its nuclear program this put pressure on the United States, so much so that President carter was on the brink of bombing sites in North Korea that were suspected of producing the Weapons of mass destruction. The President had a meeting with Kim IL Sung former leader of North Korea, and maintained not to reach war and backed away from such actions. Instead they create the Agreed Framework. This is an agreement that has many parts to it. The main focus was to stop North Korea’s Nuclear power plants.
This was in exchange for large sums of oil from the United States and an alternate power source known as light water reactors. Both sides agreed to take further steps to regain full normalization, North Korea would have to stay In the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and North Korea and the United States will work to make peace on the Korean Peninsula (Galluci and Sok Ju). This is showing the United States willingness to agree to terms. Appeasement is the best fit word to describe the United States diplomatic relationship with North Korea at this time.
The agreement was largely frowned upon by republicans at the time due to this reason; their thought was that these agreements made the United States look weak and was letting North Korea get the best of them. The United States at the time was seeing the potential of North Korea’s nuclear projects and out of fear was pressured to attempt to reduce their nuclear power, the only way to do that was to agree to North Korea’s terms and hope that both sides pulled up their end of the agreement.
The Agreed Framework succeeded in stopping a future war but, both sides were still not taking up all the agreements stated. The United States accused North Korea of selling advanced missile technology to countries such as Iran and Pakistan. Also in 1998 with no notification North Korea fired a missile that flew right over Japan into the ocean, this showed the world of North Korea’s advanced missile technology. Further more leaked information came to Washington that North Korea had a under ground Nuclear facility creating Nuclear weapons.
North Korea also accused the United States of not holding up some aspects of their agreement. The United States was not on schedule with the oil shipments or the building of the light water reactors. The United States also did not lift economic sanctions, that were promised to be lifted, and the United States military was building in south East Asia (Feffer). The amount of trust between the United States and North Korea is little to none this is due to both ends not living up to the agreed framework.
This causes the Government to ultimately freeze the Agreed framework and not finish the oil shipments or the building of the light water reactors. Both sides were acting out do to the fear and pressure each was imposing on each other. No agreements can work if both sides are scared of one another, which was the exact case in the Agreed Framework. The Six-Party Talks are the next major political attempt to stop North Korea’s progression of their nuclear power. This is George Bush’s attempt at normalization and nuclear proliferation pertaining to North Korea.
The Talks were summits that lasted from about 2003-2007 and included China, The United States, North and South Korea, Japan, and Russia. The first major step that occurred in 2005 when North Korea agreed to stop nuclear progression in exchange for aid, a promise that the United States will remain peaceful with North Korea, and both would make strives to normalization. This is a familiar agreement, because most of these ideals were stated in the failed Agreed framework. This failed in 2006 when North Korea again with no notification tested a nuclear device.
The next attempt came in 2007 North Korea again accepted terms set up at a summit. This agreement included, North Korea shutting down its nuclear facilities in Pyongyang and Yongbyon and North Korea declaring the true facts about all nuclear facilities. In return the United States would lift economic sanctions and the United States would lift North Korea’s name from the list of state sponsored terrorism (Chanlett-Avery and Taylor). These summits are the most progressive between the states. In summits the countries are again taking to appeasement.
Although throughout history appeasement has not been very effective (ex. The west appeased to Hitler and eventually back fired on the west) times have changed. The countries are trying to stop North Korea from becoming too powerful and launching a nuclear war that would wrack the Earth. North Korea is using brinkmanship in a way that they can get what they want from other countries through fear. The most recent administration, Barrack Obama, has had a fair share of difficulties relating to North Korea. They have a choice available to them …
At the point where it appears that they are, in fact, prepared to move forward on the kind of path that all of us want to see, then we’re going to be there ready to negotiate with??them. (Obama) The first roadblock that the Obama administration faces with North Korea is in 2009; yet again North Korea tests a nuclear weapon. Also at this time North Korea stops allowing inspections of nuclear facilities and pledges never to return to the six party talks set up by the Bush administration. In response to this the United Nations passed resolution 1874 which sets up several economic sanctions against North Korea.
Then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced a new approach to the situation in North Korea. She calls it “Strategic Patience”. This approach is again similar to others, appeasement, that are letting North Korea do what they want with in their country while leaving North Korea with the opportunity to return to negotiations at any time. The thought is that with the economic sanctions putting pressure on North Korea that eventually their economy will fail and then North Korea will return to the negotiations. (Chanlett-Avery and Taylor).
This is again a sign of fear and in a way a sign of stupidity. Without inspections and regulations of North Korea’s nuclear plants it gives a chance to further produce new and improved nuclear technology. Also this is almost leading North Korea to a boiling point, if in fact North Korea reaches the boiling point a world conflict could arise from it. With the current economic state of North Korea another point has arisen, in an attempt to regain economic stability, North Korea starts to supply middle Eastern countries with their nuclear technology.
This would create many problems for not only the United States but countries all around the world. These are all current problems that the United States faces with North Korea. Fear, pressure, and appeasement are all words to describe the United States relationship with North Korea post cold war all the way to present day. Starting with the Agreed Framework the United States has presented North Korea with countless opportunities to regain a normalized relationship.
The Agreed Frame work failed due to both sides failing to hold up their end of the agreements, both make moves against one another out of fear of one another. The Six Party talks are frozen and making no progress do to North Korea trying to send messages to the world by launching nuclear devices. This cause the United States to have a sense of fear, to know that North Korea is in a sense saying we don’t care about the negotiations and will just launch when they feel. Shows that North Korea listens to no one but themselves.
The Obama administration is at a stalemate with North Korea because; North Korea has stopped all talks and is refusing to let routine inspections of nuclear facilities continue. All of this is causing a great sense of anxiety and fear to run through out the modern world. “I am sure you have seen for yourselves and sensed how the Korean people feel towards the United States here in our country. “(Jong Il). What lies ahead in the future for these two countries is unknown; it has been very long and strenuous and looks as if it will remain as such.