Feelings of Mistrust: Feelings of mistrust between Communism and the West began in 191 7 when the Communists first came to power after the 17 October revolution in Russia. This is because the Communists called for a world revolution which the USA feared would cause an end to Capitalism and Democracy Poor relations with the West continued when Britain, France, Japan and the USA sent funds and troops to prevent the spread of Communism during the Russian Civil War, fighting on the sides of the anti-Bolshevik White Armies After World War II, the USA and the USSR emerged as the world’s only two overpowers, both believing in different ideologies.
They also had the power to spread their ideologies to other countries Wartime Alliances Broke Down: After 1945, there was no common enemy (Germany) to keep the USA and the USSR working together so they both returned to the old relationship of mistrust and suspicion While the relationship was still alright, the West and the USSR agreed at the Yalta conference to temporarily divide Germany and its capital, Berlin, into four zones of occupation.
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When the war ended, the leaders of the Allied countries met again in Potsdam to finalist the discussion darted in Yalta Tensions began when the issue of who should be in charge of Poland was discussed. The Allies wanted free elections while the USSR wanted more land as it feared being attacked through Poland The poor relations between the USSR and the West at the Potsdam Conference were a sign that their wartime alliance had come to an end and that the Cold War had begun How did the Cold War affect Europe?
This portion Of the content deals with how the outbreak Of the Cold War affected Europe Europe was divided: Between 1 945 and 1948, Europe was divided into 2 sides – the Eastern European Communist countries and in the Western European Democratic countries The USSR expanded its control over the Eastern European countries by occupying them with Soviet troops so that the USSR could not be attacked through these countries. Stalin also set up Communist governments in these countries so that he could influence them to follow Pro-USSR policies.
These countries were known as satellite states The West viewed this policy as hostile and aggressive and criticized the USSR for not holding democratic elections and oppressing democracy in the satellite states Churchill described Europe s being divided into two spheres of influence by an “Iron Curtain” (an imaginary line between the Soviet satellite states in the East and the Democratic states in the West Germany was divided: Conflicts on how to administer Germany led to a crisis among Britain, France, the USA and the USSR in 1948 Despite making agreements at Yalta and Potsdam, In 1948, Britain, France and the USA joined their separate zones in Germany and created a new currency for their sphere of influence. This action helped West Germany recover faster from the damage caused by WWW.
The West also had democratic elections for West Germany. However, East Germany did not have all this as it was under a Communist party under Soviet control Seeing the progress made by West Germany, Stalin was afraid that Germany would grow strong again and be a threat to the USSR. He planned to seize control vested Berlin by blocking all road, rail and canal links be;en West and East Germany in 1948. The crisis became known as the Berlin Blockade. Stalin believed that he could force the British, French and Americans to leave the city by blocking all supplies Of food to West Berlin For the I-SIS, it was important to support West Berlin because it represented the enigmatic system.
The USA was also concerned that if it pulled out of West Berlin, the Soviets may have invaded West Germany Knowing that retaliation by troops would result in a full-scale war, Harry Truman (President of the ASSAI) deployed a fleet of planes to fly over the blockade and bring food and supplies to the West Berliners. The USSR could not do anything about the planes as shooting them down would be a declaration of war After 10 months, the USSR realized that it had not succeeded and ended the blockade in 1949. Following the blockade, Germany was separated into two countries West Germany and East Germany The Truman Doctrine (1 947): In order to prevent Communism from spreading, President Truman announced the plans for the Truman Doctrine.
According to the doctrine, the USA would help other democratic countries when they were threatened by Communism The Truman Doctrine (or Containment Policy) was to force Communism to remain within its borders by giving money, weapons, fuel and other incentives to countries in danger of being taken over by Communists Marshall Plan (1947): The Marshall plan offered financial help to Europe to help it recover from World War II and to build a prosperous and successful Western Europe which would resist Communism by giving loans, aid and goods The USA believed that with the Marshall Plan, the people of Western Europe would be more prosperous and less likely to support Communism Stalin forbade the Soviet satellites to accept the Marshall Plan As a result of the Marshall Plan, Western Europe recovered faster from the effects of WWW than Eastern Europe.
The Marshall Plan also heightened Cold War tensions as the USSR saw the Marshall Plan as an attempt to spread Democracy and Capitalism wrought the use of money The USSR set up COMMON (Council for Mutual Economic Co-operation) in response to the Marshall Plan and to encourage trade and co-ordinate the economic policies among the Communist countries NATO (1949) and Warsaw Pact (1955) were set up: The division of Europe into two spheres of influence and forced the USSR and the USA to seek allies through military alliances The USA built up their forces in Europe through NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in 1 949 to defend Europe from Soviet attack The USSR and all the Communist countries of Eastern Europe joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 How did the Cold War affect the rest of the world?
This portion of the content deals with how the outbreak of the Cold War affected the rest Of the world China joined the Cold War: Having defeated the Nationalists, the Chinese Communist Party took control of China and proclaimed the creation of the Peoples’ Republic of China in October 1 949 The USA then saw the Communist alliance between the USSR and China as a single, united enemy determined to control the world The USA was also afraid that the USSR would give China nuclear weapon technology as the USSR had recently tested its own nuclear weapons Japan became the Aqua’s main-Communist ally: Faced with the threat of Communism, the USA strengthened Japan’s economy and introduced democratic reforms in order to turn Japan into its main ally in the region. It also provided Japan With economic aid, new technology, new industrial equipment and lifted trade restrictions on the country. It also supported Japan’s entry into several world bodies (IMP, COIN, World Bank) The USA and Japan also signed the 1 952 US-Japan Mutual Security Treaty where the USA promised to come to Japan’s aid if Japan was attacked.
The treaty also allowed the USA to station troops in Japan Aqua’s One China policy: Due to their unfriendly relations, the USA adopted a One China Policy from 1945 to 1972 and refused to recognize the Peoples’ Republic of China (PRE). Instead, it recognized Taiwan (Republic of China – ROCK) as the legitimate government of China Increased US Support for anti-Communists in Asia: Communism in China also led the USA to search for other allies in Asia. In addition to forming alliances with Taiwan, the ASSAI also sent troops to support anti-Communist governments in South Korea (1950) and South Vietnam (after 954) An anti-Communist alliance to oppose Communist gains in Southeast Asian Was formed.
It was called the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATS) The USA also competed with the USSR in search for allies in the Middle East (Israel and other Arab States) and in Africa (Congo, Angola, etc) Case Study 1 : The Korean War (Can be used to study AS) This portion of the content deals with how the Cold War became a “Hot War” with the Korean War Circumstances leading to the Korean War: Korea was divided at the 38th parallel when Soviet troops took control of the North and American troops took control of the South upon the surrender of the Japanese in 1945. Free elections were supposed to have been carried out to reunite the Koreans under one elected government The USA and the USSR set up governments in both Koreans which supported their ideology. The USSR gave power to Kim II Sung while the USA gave power to Sandman Rhea.
North Korea became known as the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea (DEEP) while South Korea became known as the Republic of Korea (ARK) In 1949 both parties pulled out their troops but the USSR left behind a well- rained North Korean Army while the USA left behind a poorly trained and poorly equipped South Korean Army as it did not want the South to launch an invasion of the North. However, both Kim II Sung and Sandman Rhea claimed the right to rule over both Koreans and there were border raids and conflicts between North and South Korean soldiers Kim II Sung thought that he stood a good chance of unifying the two Koreans under Communist rule.
Emboldened by an announcement that South Korea was not mentioned in the IIS defense perimeter, Kim persuaded the Chinese and the USSR to allow him to invade the South. The USSR and the Chinese provided weapons and advisors to the North Koreans Course of the War: In 1 950, the North Koreans cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea to reunite it under Communist rule. The UN called for an immediate ceasefire but was ignored by North Korea A KIN force was assembled out of 16 countries and half the soldiers were from the ASSAI. This force was sent to fight the North Koreans The UN forces pushed back the North Koreans to the Yale River (border with China).
Chinese troops joined in the fight and the UN forces were forced to retreat South. The fighting continued for two years without a Lear winner although peace talks were underway In 1 953, both sides stopped fighting but no peace treaty was signed. Impact of the War: Korea: 2. 5 million deaths (85% civilian) damage (Korean factories, transport networks Of rails, roads and bridges) The 38th parallel remained a division between the two Koreans with the exception of a demitasses zone (DMZ) set up at the 38th parallel as a buffer between the two Koreans. This DMZ is filled with soldiers, barbed wire, land mines and is one of the most heavily armed places in the world.
Korean families are still separated although from time to time reunions are allowed hen relations between the two Koreans are cordial China: Its entry into the Korean War showed that it was a major military power and could match a world power like the USA It grew increasingly confident of its position in the world and demanded a UN seat which It obtained in 1971 ASSAI: Felt that the Korean War was successful in containing Communism Negotiated alliances with other countries in addition to NATO: UNZIPS (Australia and New Zealand) – 1951 SEATS (SE Asian equivalent of NATO) – 1 954 Built up the size of its troops in the Asia-Pacific by stationing troops in South Korea and Japan Japan: Became a key US ally in Asia and a model of American democracy for Asian countries It was also turned into a production and supply base for IIS troops in Korea during the war.