The Second Industrial Revolution Despite considerable overlapping with the “old,” there is mounting evidence for a “new’ Industrial Revolution in the late 1 9th and 20th centuries. In terms of basic materials, modern industry has begun to exploit many natural and synthetic resources not hitherto utilized: lighter metals, new alloys, and synthetic products such as plastics, as well as new energy sources. Combined with these are developments in machines, tools, and computers that have given rise to the automatic factory. Although some segments of industry were almost completely mechanized in the early to mid-19th century automatic operation, as distinct from the assembly line, first achieved major significance in the second half of the 20th century. Ownership of the means of production also underwent changes.
The oligarchic ownership of the means of production that characterized the Industrial Revolution in the early to mid-1 9th century gave way to a wider distribution of ownership through purchase of common stocks by individuals and by institutions such as insurance companies. In the 20th century, many countries of Europe socialized basic sectors of their economies. There was also a change in political theories: instead of the laissez-fairer ideas that dominated the economic and social thought of the classical Industrial Revolution, governments generally moved into the social and economic realm to meet he needs of their more complex industrial societies. Toward a World Economy Rupee’s entry into the Atlantic and Pacific created an international exchange of goods, created a new world-wide economy including the Americas, and paved the way for the establishment of colonies.
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The ability of the West to dominate the seas allowed Western merchants to displace others from the world trade system, The Eastern particularly the so called Indian trade until the end of 15th Century was under the control of Islamic merchants. “It is possible that the first words spoken by Christopher Columbus on stepping shore in the New World were the Arabic greeting “As-salaam Alaskan”. Arabic had been the scientific language Of most Of humankind from the eighth to the 12th century. It is probably for this reason that Columbus, in his own words, considered Arabic to be “the mother of all languages,” and why, on his first voyage to the New World, he took with him Luis De Tortes, an Arabic speaking Spaniard, as his interpreter. Columbus fully expected to land in India, where he knew that the Arabs had preceded him.
He also knew that, for the past five centuries, Arabs had explored, and written of, the far reaches of the known world. They had been around the perimeter of Africa and sailed as far as India. They had ventured overland beyond Constantinople, past Asia Minor, across Egypt and Syria – then the western marches of the unknown Orient and into the heart of the Asian continent. They had mapped the terrain, traced the course of rivers, timed the monsoons, scaled mountains, charted shoals and reached China, and, as a result, had spread Islam and the Arabic language in all these regions. Later at the end of the 16th Century the earliest of the colonizers, Spain and Portugal declined in the face of later competition from England, France, and Holland.
Towards the “Revolution” During the improving stage of the market relations in European economies, the dominant mode was simple trade rather than production. However, a manufacturing industry was also growing up around the logic of mercantilism. The arguments of the political economists of the period were similar to contemporary arguments. In order to have a favorable balance of trade it is more profitable to produce and sell goods with higher capital input and technology while importing cheap raw materials and agricultural goods. During the whole 18th century growing number of peasants were obliged to grate to towns and contributed the increase of cheap labor reserve for the manufacturers.
Carbonization accompanied the industrialization of societies, and the proportion of populations living in cities grew as societies were transformed. At the end of the 1 8th century, throughout the world the overwhelming majority of all populations lived outside of cities. In Great Britain, the proportion of the population living in urban areas was 25 percent in 1831 , became more than 50 percent in 1851 , and had reached 77 percent by 1901. Industry shouldered by children! The term “Industrial Revolution” signifies accelerated developments of the genealogy and their applications to the Industry of England. Supporting an unprecedented increase in industrial production, this revolution reached its peaks, at the end of the 18th century and mid-1 9th century.
Although by some authors the term “revolution” is considered to be exaggerated, it is true that between sass’s and sass’s the quality of goods produced increased enormously and machine power began to replace the human power for the first time in the history. Workshops turned into factories, artisans to entrepreneurs and laborers to an alienated working class: the industrial proletariat. Output and distribution, passed the limits of local markets and the yields of a mass production began to be directed towards export markets. Briefly, industrial “revolution” was not a sudden incident but a transformation through time resulting with technical, economic, social, political and ideological alterations. If looked from another aspect, Industrial Revolution also would mean misery of the working people, including women and small children, laboring from early morning until night.
In 1833 the English Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: ; No child workers under 9 years of age ; Employers must have a medical or age certificate for child workers ; Children between the ages of 9-13 to work no more than 9 hours a day ; Children between 3-18 to work no more than hours a day. ; Children are not to work at night ; Two hours schooling each day for children Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law throughout the whole of the country.
However, the passing of this Act did not mean that overnight the statements of children stopped The “Revolution” besides creating unsupportable working conditions was also the alteration of all urban and rural areas, the human and physical environment for the creation of industrial areas and workers’ ghettos. Industrial revolution also goes together with the resistance of worker in the form of machine breaking which will be known as “Ululated Movements”, rise of working class organizations, trade unions and finally “Socialism” as an ideology and movement. New industrial techniques mostly originating in England during the early 19th Century spread rapidly in Northwestern Europe, France and the U. S. A. And during the second half of the 1 9th century to Germany, Italy and Austria. Interestingly, these newly industrialized countries, particularly the U. S. A. S compared to England gained a better momentum towards the end of the century. This was due to the application of the most recent and efficient technologies without the transformation cost of outdated units. That is, countries industrialization later reached higher rates of development, while previously advanced countries due to the cost of replacing the old plants became relatively slower in the race of modernization. Key development of industrial revolution The key development of the Industrial Revolution was the application of machine power to replace men and animals. Favorable supplies of natural resources and the spur of population growth helped to produce the first Industrial Revolution in Britain.
Industrialization built on the commercial advantages Europe enjoyed in the world trade network and the developments of the scientific revolution. The initial inventions, such as James Watt’s steam engine, that prompted the Industrial Revolution occurred in Britain. Each invention spawned new technological developments in related eyelids. Transportation and communication innovations allowed products, people, and information to be moved more rapidly. Improved agricultural production fed the masses of workers who moved to the cities. Industrialization involved a shift in the organization of labor and the emergence of the factory system with its specialization of tasks and greater discipline.
Industrialization also led to the creation of larger firms with greater access to capital and more advanced marketing techniques. Britain’s industrialization attracted imitators in the United States, Belgium, France, and Germany. The French Revolution promoted industrialization by sweeping away laws that restricted trade. Why England pioneered the Industrial Revolution? England of the 1 8th century by having the following particularities had more chance in fulfilling the above conditions. Geographical situation of England was an advantage with regards to sea transport and this helped the growth of British overseas empire to expand its market.
England’s “feudal class” and the “gentry” (landowners without feudal titles) had favorable and competitive attitude towards economic change and capital accumulation. Some authors for example, Max Weber, in his the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism) explain this aspect by the success of Protestant belief and ethics in England. Hence, throughout its history, political and institutional framework to facilitate the abovementioned aspects had also developed in England. On the Other hand, England had, in its territories, the necessary raw materials like coal and iron ore. England’s overseas superiority also helped to a better access and control of raw materials and a cheap labor besides the slaves in the overseas territories.
High population growth and “enclosure” pavements transforming peasantry to ‘Wage competing laborers” also reinforced this advantage. Moreover, England’s manufactured exports since the beginnings of the industrial revolution had been wool, cotton and hardware. If compared, for example to France’s silk and other luxury goods, England’s goods had a steady demand and a larger access to other markets. The brief outline below explains the necessary conditions of a leap forward such as the “Industrial Revolution”: 1 . Sufficient and accelerated capital Cumae lotion. 2. Availability and sufficient size of domestic and foreign market. 3. Access and control of raw materials . Free and cheap labor. 5. A political and institutional framework facilitating innovation.
England, as compared to the other countries was in a more advantageous state for the above mentioned preconditions. During the 1 7th and 18th Centuries England had began to monopolize overseas trade in such a way that all its wars resulted with the acquisition of a new overseas territory. Besides leading the North American, the South American and, most importantly, the Indian trades, England was also continuing to gain ground in the Mediterranean region. Lower prices besides better quality made possible by industrialized reduction increased the demand for English goods in foreign markets. English goods price and quality advantage had also caused the decline Of local industries of common goods in the Ottoman Empire as in other countries.
Remember the Turkish saying “Slackness mingling simile calls” (“Better to have English cord if you are to be hanged”) is a dramatic confession of quality that uninterrupted finishing causes less suffering. Positive and negative effect of the industrial revolution in the modern world The industrial revolution paved the way for modern society and the way our current economic system ores. If it wasn’t for the Industrial revolution we wouldn’t have skyscrapers, time zones, the Bridges, ELECTRICITY and many other liberties we take for granted. However there were major downsides to the industrial revolution as well. Amongst these there were the poor treatments of many laborers, the corruption of government etc. Andrew Carnegie was a capitalist in the Industrial revolution. He saw the value steel had and he revolutionized the process of making it.
His contributions to the process of purifying steel drove the value down to, for the time, an unimaginably cheap price. He is almost ingle handily responsible for allowing steel to replace iron as the number one material used in construction. Iron only allowed for around 6 stories to be built on a building. With the widespread availability of steel, buildings were able to be built 10 stories or higher. With the steel becoming so cheap, building a bridge that would be strong enough to stretch across the East River and connect Manhattan and Brooklyn became a realistic idea and the Brooklyn Bridge was built. Thomas Edison made a Business out of inventing. He hired geniuses to work on projects and develop new products for his Business that he would patent.
He and his company developed products that would harness the power of electricity (however he believed that alternating current was not the ideal form of electricity, which is the standard today) but his contributions to the advancement of the electrical machine is astounding. Many workers of this era where treated poorly and pushed to death. To compensate for this harsh treatment workers formed groups to fight back against their bosses and demand better treatment. Often these groups would go on strike and start riots. These groups became known as Unions, and many workers unions of the time are still around today. Their riots would often interrupt the delivery of mail which became a federal offense.
Up until this time the government lived by Social Darwinism, the government stayed out of Business affairs and nothing was regulated besides companies were not allowed to use slaves or become a monopoly. Once the unions caused strikes the government was forced to interfere which caused a chain reaction that led to the free-enterprise system we use today. This time period also encouraged bribery of government officials to favor the big business men in lawsuits. Men of great wealth would pay off judges and other government officials to get away with virtual monopolies. Railroads offered stock options to government officials that would vote for the government to donate money and land to the railroad companies to complete the transcontinental railroad system.
The use Of bribery ushered in an age Of corrupted politicians (more so than today). The spoils system became, once again, a common practice in politics. The spoils system is where government official’s promise sponsors government jobs if their sponsors will back them in campaign contributions. Even though there were terrible things that came about due to the industrial revolution, without it in our history the world would be a very different/ awkward place then were we are today. Effects of the industrial revolution on the Rest of the World (I. E Africa) The quick industrialization across Europe during the 19th century led to a great increase in goods produced as well as a demand for raw materials (Hibernia).
This demand, coupled with increased nationalist pride, led nations to seek colonies abroad in which to produce and trade goods (Hibernia). The main expansion for the European colonial powers occurred in Africa. By 1 914, the entire continent with the exception of Liberia and Abyssinia were controlled by European nations (Hibernia). England also took control of India and Hong Kong during this period of expansion. By the beginning of WWW, England had an empire which stretched across every continent in the world. Vast amounts of natural resources were extracted from these colonies, which aided the British industrial effort but left many of the nation’s bankrupt (Hibernia). In short, industrialization in Europe had far reaching consequences for the rest of the world.
While it made Britain the ultimate power for over a century, it can be argued that its rule over the world caused conflict and internal strife which continues to this day. Recommendation and conclusion Our industrial civilization is at a crossroads. Oil and the other fossil fuel energies that make up the industrial way of life are sun setting, and the technologies made from and propelled by these energies are antiquated. The entire industrial infrastructure built off of fossil fuels is aging and in disrepair. The result is that unemployment is rising to dangerous levels all over the world. Governments, businesses and consumers are awash in debt and living standards are declining everyВ??O’Hare. A record one billion human beings -?? nearly one seventh of the human race-??face hunger and starvation.
Worse, climate change from fossil fuel-based industrial activity looms on the horizon, imperilment our own species’ very ability to survive, “It is becoming clear that the Second Industrial Revolution is dying. What we need now is a bold new economic narrative that can take us into a sustainable post carbon future. A New Economic Narrative The great economic revolutions in history occur when new communication technologies converge with new energy systems. New energy revolutions make possible more expansive and integrated trade. Accompanying communication revolutions manage the new complex commercial activities add possible by the new energy flows.
In the 19th century, cheap steam powered print technology and the introduction of public schools gave rise to a print-literate work force with the communication skills to manage the increased flow of commercial activity made possible by coal and steam power technology, ushering in the First Industrial Revolution. In the 20th century, centralized electricity communication-??the telephone, and later radio and television-??became the communication medium to manage a more complex and dispersed oil, auto, and suburban era, and the mass consumer culture of the Second Industrial Revolution. Today, Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge to create a new infrastructure for a Third Industrial Revolution (TIER) that will change the way power is distributed in the 21 SST century.
In the coming era, hundreds of millions of people will produce their own renewable energy in their homes, offices, and factories and share green electricity with each other in an “Energy Internet” just like we now generate and share information online. “Internet technology and renewable 21 SST century. ” The establishment of a Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure will create thousands of new businesses and millions of jobs ND lay the basis for a sustainable global economy in the 21st century. However, let me add a cautionary note. Like every other communication and energy infrastructure in history, the various pillars of a Third Industrial Revolution must be laid down simultaneously or the foundation will not hold. That’s because each pillar can only function in relationship to the others.
The five pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution are (1) shifting to renewable energy; (2) transforming the building stock of every continent into micro-power plants to collect renewable energies on-site; (3) deploying hydrogen and other storage technologies in every building and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies; (4) using Internet technology to transform the power grid of every continent into an energy internet that acts just like the Internet (when millions of buildings are generating a small amount of renewable energy locally, on-site, they can sell surplus green electricity back to the grid and share it with their continental neighbors); and (5) transitioning the transport fleet to electric plug-in and fuel cell vehicles that can buy and sell green electricity on a smart, continental, interactive rower grid. The creation of a renewable energy regime, loaded by buildings, partially stored in the form of hydrogen, distributed via a green electricity Internet, and connected to plug-in, zero-emission transport, opens the door to a Third Industrial Revolution. The entire system is interactive, integrated, and seamless. When these five pillars come together, they make up an indivisible technological platform-??an emergent system whose properties and functions are qualitatively different from the sum of its parts.