SICK and Burgess discussed these zoning patterns as possible concentric circles that had distinct purposes. As the problems of early urban life began to mount, people found themselves fleeing for the suburbs. As Burgess stated, stimulation can cause a domino effect of migration patterns. The urban issues may or may not have been the stimulation needed to initiate substantiation. Transportation issues (SICK, Gangs), congestion, high land costs, and a lack of land to build on and own (SICK, Angels) were main factors that turned people towards the “burs. ”
Social and economic issues also plagued wallets and induced isolation among the people in cities. Coleman stated that people in a city simply cannot act as a whole community, and Angels further emphasized that they could not find common consensus in order to act as a community. Frustration due to crowding caused tension, and shillelagh’s-like societies killed kinship ties historically known amongst neighbors, described by Angels and Young & Wolcott. Not only did isolation occur at a personal level, but also entire communities, such as Negroes, Jews, and Latino Americans, were segregated thin cities.
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Dubos and Burgess talked about this segregation, and Howard discussed in his essay that these communities needed “common ground” connecting them to help form one entire community. An investment in public transportation would have been miraculous at this time. Not only would it have allowed for workers to live further away, it would have also forced daily interaction between strangers. With the substantiation of people came the substantiation of industry, noted by SICK and Gangs. In their essays, they began to talk about government spending and its impact on population. Howard also touched on this subject.
Whether it was positive or negative varied among regions, but it was quickly seen that a change in the spending of a region impacted the cities in that region accordingly. Social disorientation (SICK, Coleman), alienation (SICK, Coleman, Angels, Young & Wolcott), and segregation (Dubos) all were the result from a change in the social organization of culture and social relationships in cities. Safety was also an issue in cities. Dubos and Jacobs talked about the citizen’s fear of crime and how it can lead to an absence of pedestrians on streets, which ultimately dads to more crime.
Cities at this time should provide financial aid to ailing businesses to promote the usage of streets, discussed by Dubos and Jacobs. A reduction of other urban issues could be made by a central conflict that unites the people of a community, discussed by Dubos and Gangs, and strict zoning, hypothesized by Burgess, Jacobs, and Howard. Central conflict, like the 9/1 1 Terrorist Attacks, united NYC as a community and, even further, the United States as a whole. Later, people felt a sense of “country restoration”, and Howard proposed a solution by creating the Town-country.
With the social interaction of a city and natural setting of a rural area, it seemed perfect. SICK, Angels, Dubos, and Young & Wolcott talked about the citizen’s prospect for advancement, and this was a proposed cure. Without the issues of a complete rural society, noted by SICK and Howard, the Town-Country seemed perfect. Ultimately, the issues surrounding a city were that the kinship ties of a united community were lost. As isolation grew, people needed to find a common consensus, uniting conflict, an assimilation of grouped communities, and the absence of material-based judgment.