New inventions were products of the industrial age. One of the major inventions was first used by an American dentist which was an Anesthetic. It was a drug that prevented pain. Enclosure- Many landowners took over land formerly shared by peasant farmers. They mainly enclosed lands to fain more pasture for sheep. James Watt- Was a Scottish engineer who improved and made the engine more efficient. Smelt- Smelting was used to separate minerals from their ore. During 1709 Abraham
Derby used coal instead of charcoal to smelt because it was less expensive and more 2) Many events helped begin the Industrial Revolution. Some of the first must have been the repairmen of the Newcomer steam engine by James Watt and maybe the first Iron bridge ever done by Abraham Derby. 3) Some immediate effects of the Agricultural revolution were the enclosures of millions of acres and the loss of many farm Jobs. It also contributed to a rapid growth of population. 4) The growth in population really did contribute to the industrial revolution because since there was more people, more Jobs were needed which led to new chicanery being created.
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Section 2: 1) Capital- Capital is money profited by businesses. Over sea trades helped the British economy gain capital to Invest In enterprises. Enterprise- An enterprise is a business organization in areas that deal with transportation, goods, and services. Entrepreneur- Entrepreneurs are people who risk starting new businesses. Big role during the industrial revolution. Eli Whitney- Invented the cotton gin which is one of the most useful inventions of the industrial revolution. Turnpike- Private Roads built by entrepreneurs. Turnpikes were used to make profit y charging travelers toll or fee to use them.
Liverpool & Manchester- The first major rail line began from Liverpool to Manchester in England during 1830. 2) John Say’s “flying shuttle” and the rail roads in England were the key factors that led to the Industrial Revolution in Britain. 3) The increase in population contributed to demand for consumer goods because the more people in the environment then the more goods needed to support them. General economic prospering also contributed by being able to fund more consumer goods. 4) New machines helped the textile industry by being able to produce more sixties in a short amount of time. Section 3: 1 .
Arbitration caused the lower classes to live in tenements and the lower class needed to organize in labor unions in order to get fair wages. 2. The industrial revolution created the middle class and the lower class. 3. It affected the cities by creating slums which contaminated fresh water and spread diseases. It affected population distribution by making everyone move to the cities, this made it crowded, which affect population distribution poorly. 4. Created new Jobs for both classes, allowing a higher standard of living, however many laboring Jobs involving humans ere replaced by machines.
Section 4: 1 . Thomas Malthusian was a British scholar and was influential in political economy and demography.. Jeremy Beneath was a British philosopher, Jurist and social reformer.. Utilitarianism is a theory of normative ethics holding that proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility.. Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership. .Meaner of production is physical non-human inputs used in production.. Robert Owen was a welsh social reformer. . Karl Marx was a Prussian-German philosopher, economist, sociologist, Journalist, and revolutionary socialist..
Communism is a revolutionary social movement. . Proletariat is a term used to identify the lower class. . Social democracy is a political ideology. 2. It moved citizens from farms to cities and replaced Manual labor with mechanical labor. 3. Adam Smith advocated a capitalist economy. Thomas Malthusian believed unchecked population growth is exponential. David Richard believed the economy generally moves towards a standstill. 4. Utilitarianism makes it so you can become believes everyone should be on the same level. Chapter 19 Assessment: 1) Thomas Militias predicted that population would exceed the food supply. A member of the proletariat most likely lived in a small, crowded building called a tenement. 3) Investors in Britain were ready to risk their capital to invest in enterprise. 4) Those who advocated utilitarianism believed that the goal of society was to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number. 5) To smelt involves separating iron from its ore. 6) James Watt improved the efficiency and design of Newcomer’s steam engine. 7) The enclosure affected farmers by increasing the farm output. Profits rose and many farmers were Jobless and forced off their land by land owners. ) Three causes of he population explosion that occurred in the asses was the surplus of food which meant that more people could survive famine, people ate healthier, and there was an improvement in medical care. 9) England’s natural resources, good canals, stable government, and amount of engineers helped bring about the industrial revolution. 10) The Industrial Revolution helped transform the textile industry by providing new machinery to help create textiles.