The Vice President Andrew Johnson who is described as lacking Lincoln moral sense and political judgment, became President and followed the template while adding his own ideas to it. During Johnny’s presidency reconstruction proved to be a hardship that was difficult o establish in a way where everyone could be happy. Although reconstruction succeeded in achieving things that wasn’t before, ultimately it was a failure and a monumental disaster.
In general, many consider it an ineffective attempt for a number of reasons. First were the conflicting goals of the lawmakers where Johnny’s contradictory actions and disagreement with Republicans unleashed chaos. Second was the integration and treatment of the freed people. Third was the depression and corrupt republicans that led to the relentless hostility of the ex-Confederates.
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In the period of reconstruction the examination the Republicans succession of passing laws and conflicting goals with Andrew Johnson, the integration and treatment of the freed people, and the depression along with corrupt Republicans that led to the relentless hostility of the ex-Confederates will determine that these three things were the main factors in causing the failure of reconstruction, which suggests reconstruction actually failed at what it achieved to do such as restoring the South to the Union, giving full equality to freed people, and breakthrough economically.
President Johnny’s disagreement with the Republicans only brought about major damages. First was the failure to bring the defeated South to rejoin the Union hoping that they would accept postwar reforms. Then new southern state legislatures were created under Johnson’ reconstruction plan that moved to restore slavery in all but name with the enactment of Black Codes in 1865. Ultimately, Johnson joined forces with the ex-Confederate leaders, which of course further angered the people of the Union setting each other further apart.
Johnson passed the Black Codes in 1865, which was designed to force former slaves back to plantation labor. They inflicted severe penalties on blacks who did not hold full-year labor contracts and also set up procedures for taking black children from their parents and gave them to former slave masters. This angered the Congressional Republicans so they got Congress to pass the Civil Rights act of 1866 declaring formally enslaved people to be citizens and gave them equal protection and rights of contract, with full access to the courts.
Johnson wasn’t happy about this so he vetoed it; yes Congress was able to overturn his toes but this left the South bitter which led to violence and the burning of some black political leaders and their allies. This too led the passing of the 14th amendment, which protected anyone born in the IS. S. From harm this made southerners even angrier which would foreshadow what would come later. By passing the Reconstruction Act of 1 867 this added more hatred towards the republicans from the south by dividing the South into five military districts, each under the command of a U. S. General.
To reenter the Union former Confederate states had to let blacks vote but deny it to leading x-Confederates again Johnson tried to veto but was denied. The 1 5th amendment was also passed that protected all male citizens regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude to vote. This law also had limitations that would come into play later. Although the 15th amendment had been passed women were still not allowed to vote. The reasons were that women did not do through what the black men did or for frivolous reasons such as unsexing themselves leaving their children and neglecting their homes.
They did eventually get to vote but only in Wyoming. At large women till weren’t seen as equal and became a serious issue of national debate. The Republicans succeeded in passing laws that allowed slaves to be free, to vote, and protection from ex-Confederates along with diving the South and allowing women to vote. Even though they succeeded in doing all those things for a period of time, they failed to bring the South back to the Union and this just made the Republicans and South drift farther apart. The integration and treatment of freed people in the reconstruction era was poorly done.
Although freed people were allowed to vote they were still every limited. The Black Codes severely limited freed people, they weren’t allowed to own land, and the sharecropping system, especially the crop-lien system, placed many African Americans into positions of indebtedness, reminiscent Of the dependence Of slavery. Though new governments banned discrimination and gave blacks the right to vote, the deep-rooted prejudice of the white against blacks persisted and it was reflected in many legal practices that were allowed to continue.
For example, a series of laws called black codes enabled Southerners to exercise substantial control over free slaves. Blacks were obliged to sign yearlong contracts and whipping them was still permitted. In addition, blacks faced violent attacks from whites, who refused to accept the new laws. Freed slaves were not allowed to own land. Plantations were restored to white property owners. They did not get the “40 acres and a mule” that they hoped for and without land most freed people were poor and had to choice but to work for former slave owners, which was slavery just without the term slavery being used.
Meanwhile, the sharecropping system is basically a legal form of slavery that kept blacks tied o land owned by rich white farmers became widespread in the South. Northern suppliers took advantage of sharecroppers; they had to pay unfair interest rates, excessively high prices, and suffered from crooked bookkeeping, leaving more and more sharecroppers in permanent debt. Freed people were severely restricted even though they were granted all these rights. Black Codes, the inability to own land, and sharecropping was dehumidifying and embarrassing to freed people.
These things play a part in the failure of reconstruction because of whites incompetence allowed racism o pervade into society leaving them in poverty. The depression hit and the Republicans and people within the union would be exposed as being corrupt. The ex-Confederates, through relentless hostility and violence would bring racism back and take back what was theirs, the South once they saw this. The depression was sudden, severe, and its impact varied in different parts of the US.
Nation’s railroad company had to file for bankruptcy, framers suffered as crop prices plunged, and the South still recovering from the war, economically and socially remained fragile. The Republicans failed to anticipate the oppression and as a result of wasting money and large spending especially in the hands of corrupt officials they suffered. Republicans and people of the Union were involved in many scandals. Jay Cooke, supervisor of the Union fiances Was found to be involved in financial manipulation and Was even thought that this was the cause of depression. Next was the failure of the Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company.
This private bank worked closely with the freedman’s Bureau and Union army across the South. It was found that the bank directors put their money into risky loans and investments, hose turn out to be failures and freed people became poor. The Congress had the chance to step in but they refused to compensate for the 61 ,OHO depositors. Then, arguably the most notorious scandal, which involved the Credit Immobile, a fraud corporation set up by shareholders in the Union Pacific Railroad to secure government grants at huge profits with many of these people going to prison.
The depression and corrupt Union officials undercut the Republicans policy, especially in the South. While northerners attended to the scandals and unexpectedness of the depression, ex- Confederates seized power in the South and struck with a campaign of terror. The ex-Confederates first form UK-Klux-Clan group formed in 1 865, terrorized republicans, especially in areas where there were large amounts of black voters. Even with newly passed laws to suppress the Klan and ex- Confederates, it wasn’t enough since the clan had already done too much damage and gained enough power of the South.
The depression, corrupt Union officials, and violent ex-Confederates proved that sooner or later reconstruction would fail. The large sum of money lost was too much which as the opposite of what reconstruction set to do and the ex-Confederates rebellion was something that could’ve been avoided had they went through with stricter enforcement. To conclude, the conflicting goals of the lawmakers where Johnny’s contradictory actions and disagreement with Republicans, the integration and treatment of the freed people, and the depression and corrupt republicans that led to the relentless hostility of the ex-Confederates proved too much to handle.
The period of reconstruction the examination the Republicans succession of passing laws and conflicting goals with Andrew Johnson, the integration and treatment of the freed people, and the depression along with corrupt Republicans that led to the relentless hostility of the ex-Confederates was adamant in proving that these three things were the main factors in caused the failure of reconstruction, which suggests reconstruction actually failed at what it achieved to do such as restoring the South to the Union, giving full equality to freed people, and breakthrough economically.
The Republicans clash of ideas with Johnson was too much with no room for reconciliation. The Republicans succeeded in passing laws that allowed slaves to be free, to vote, and protection from ex-Confederates along with diving the South and allowing women to vote but the limited when looking at the larger picture. Even though freed people were granted all these rights they were severely confined even though they were allowed to vote.
Black Codes, the inability to own land, and sharecropping was humiliating to freed people and to what reconstruction set out to do. Also the Republicans failed recovery from depression massive amount of money spent beforehand it was nearly impossible. It also didn’t help that Republicans and onion officials were found money laundering, which possibly led to depression. The ex-Confederates capitalized on these occurrences to win back their land effortlessly.