For the next few years, he worked there as a lawyer, earning reputation as “Honest Abe” and Irving clients ranging from individual residents of small towns to national railroad line 18611865 A. First Election: During the Election of 1 860, the regional tension was caused by the polar beliefs and ideologies of the north and south over slavery. The issue of slavery had heated the nation to the boiling point. Southern Democrats ha d felt so strongly about their heuristic of economic survival through agriculture. The South refused to accept Abraham Lincoln as their president.
Abraham Lincoln had won without a single electoral vote from the southern states. The in return felt it necessary to secede from a country in which its federal govern meet choose a national leader and representative without their cones NT or say. Second Election: Toward the end of a devastating civil war, the united States held its presidential election. Most had doubted Lincoln reelection because his presidency was renowned for harboring a civil war. No other democratic nation had ever conducted a national election during times Of war.
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And while there was some talk of postponing the election, it was never given serious consideration, even when Lincoln thought that he would lose. However, even after he was reelected, before he could carry out any of his plans, he was killed d by a gunshot wound to the head. Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Befriending(1 860); George B. McClellan(1864) Hannibal Hamlin; Andrew Johnson Republican Domestic/Political Happen inns Abraham Lincoln becomes president(1 861) 1 . Abraham Lincoln becomes the sixteenth president of the U. S. A. 2. He had won without a single vote from the south and would now have to address the civil war and secession.
B. Merrill Land Grant College Act(1862) 1 . This grant was originally set up to establish institutions is each state that would educate people in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and Other professions. 2. This educational resource allowed people to shift in class and apply themselves to more professions in their community. X. C. Homestead Act(1862) 1 . This law allowed for people, including freed blacks to claim land in the west. 2. It increased internal improvements and spread the population to the west and hastened settlement. D. Emancipation Proclamation(1863) 1.
A document freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates. 2. This act initially did not free a single slave, but it kept the border states loyal to the Union and helped keep Europe out of the war because they too would be against slavery. E. Wednesdays Bill(1 864) 1. It was a substitute of the Ten Percent Plan and was vetoed by Lincoln. 2. It required the oath allegiance by a majority of the state’s white males and new governments. F. Abraham Lincoln begins second term(1865) Lincoln has second term as president and was able to bring about the end to the civil war. 2.
This was extremely unlikely because many blamed for the war in the first place. G. President Lincoln assassinated(1865) 1 . Lincoln was shot to the head by John Wilkes Booth at a theater. 2. He never got the chance to take out his plans for reconstruction in his new term. Economic Issues A. Merrill Tariff Act(1861) 1. It gave land to states to establish higher institutions. 2. Sixteen colleges were funded by these land grants, including Cornell University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the university of Wisconsin at Madison. B. Greenbacks issued under Legal Tender Act(1862) 1 .
The Union government began printing legal tender notes as a currency that was not backed up by NY specie (gold or silver) to pay. 2. It led to severe inflation and inconsistent value fluctuations. C. National Banking Act(1863) 1 . It was supposed to establish a system of nation banks and come up with a common national currency. 2. It was an attempt to assert some degree of federal control over the banking system without the formation of another central bank. D. Freedman’s Bureau established(1 865) 1 . The government organization that aided displaced blacks and other war refugees. . It was the first federal agency in history that provided direct payments to assist the poor and to ester social welfare. Supreme Court Cases Foreign Policy Decisions A. Beginning of the War between the States(1 861) 1 . The south had seceded from the Union after Lincoln had won the election. 2. This was the first civil war for America. B. First Battle of Bull Run (1861) 1. The Union suffers a defeat at Bull Run in northern Virginia and the Union troops fall back to Washington. 2. The President now realizes the war will be long. C. Trend Affair(1861) 1 .
The Trend Affair was a diplomatic crisis that took place between the United States and Great Britain from November to December 861, during the U. S. Civil War. The British began preparing for war, after the South try to request the help for the war by banning exports forward materials to America and sending troops to Canada. Plans were made to attack the American fleet that was blockading the South. 2. On December 27, Seward sent a message to Britain officials in which he disavowed the actions of Captain Wilkes and announced that the envoys would be released. Armed conflict with Great Britain thus was averted.
After Mason and Slide were set free in early January 1 862, they traveled to Europe. However, their mission ultimately was a failure, as they were unable to convince Europe to support CSS. D. Battle of Monitor and Merrimac (1862) 1. The Confederate ironclad frigate Monitor had sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but was forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Merrimac, built by John Ericson. 2. The battle began a new era of naval warfare. E. Confederacy enacts first conscription law in U. S. History(1 862) 1 . Young males were forced to enlist in the war. 2.
This will lead to rebellion and people paying a substitute in for them. F. Battles of Shiloh, Fredericksburg, Intimae , Murderousness, and Fort Danielson(1862) 1 . General Lee, commander of the Northern Virginia Army, moved to strike Union territory in Maryland. A Confederate messenger dropped a copy of the battle plans, which was found by a Union soldier. The Union then learned that Lee’s forces were divided, so General Grant attacked. Intimae was a day long battle on September 17, 1862 at Intimae Creek in Maryland. 2. The battle ended in a draw and marked the first confrontation of the war to be fought on northern soil.
G. Enrollment Act of 1 863 passed by Congress (conscription)(1863) 1 . This law which enabled the military draft to be used on a federal scale in the United States for the first time – although the Confederacy had instituted conscription the previous year. It was passed at a time when the North had suffered a series of defeats and was short of men. 2. Opposition came from the fact that it was possible for the rich to effectively buy their way out of conscription by substituting other men in their place. It gave the government a concrete supply y of bloodied men to fight in war. H.
Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg(1863) 1. General Robert E. Lee arched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863. XIII. On July 1, the advancing Confederates clashed with the Union’s Army of the Potomac, commanded by General George G. Made, at the crossroads town of Gettysburg. At the cost of thousands of rebel casualties, Lee was forced to withdraw his battered army toward Virginia. 2. The Union Army won the Battle of Gettysburg, destroying Lee’s hopes of carrying the fighting further u p North and turning the tides of the war in the North’s favor. L.
Battles of Chancellorship, Chicagoan, and Missionary Ridge(1863) J. Atlanta Campaign (1864) 1 . The Atlanta Campaign was a series Of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864. 2. Sherman had effectively broken the back of the Confederate war machine and the loss of Atlanta had far more devastating effects on the South than anyone had expected. Within 6 months the Confederacy would surrender and begin the process of “reconstruction” began. K. Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg(1864) 1 .
The Wilderness Campaign was a group of battles in Virginia. The Union forces used their vast numbers to crush the Confederates under their sheer mass. 2. The Wilderness Campaign was Grant’s all out offensive against Lee. Grant went at Lee in Virginia with about 1 00,000 men, and fought ferociously. He suffered about 50% casualties, but so did Lee. Hampton Roads Conference(1865) 1 . The Hampton Roads Conference was a peace conference held between the United States and the Confederate States on February 3, 1865, aboard the steamboat River Queen in Hampton Roads, Virginia, to discuss terms to end the American Civil War. . The president also insisted on immediate reunification and the laying down of Confederate arms before anything else was discussed. In short, the Union was in such an advantageous position that Lincoln did not need to concede any issues to the Confederates. Robert M. T. Hunter, a member of the delegation, commented that Lincoln was offering little except the unconditional surrender of the South h. After less than five hours, the conference ended and the delegation left with n o concessions. The war continued for more than two months. M. Surrender at the city of Appointed Courthouse, Virginia(1 865) 1 .
General Lee attempted to halt the Union Army and break through Grant’s lines in Petersburg, VA. The Logion seized Petersburg on April 2, 1865 and then Richmond on the next day. Union forces cut Lee off from leading his remain Eng army to North Carolina. 2. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to Grant waving the white flag atop a hill overlooking the Appointed River in Virginia. General Grant later accepted General Lee’s surrender in the Appointed Coo art House. Major Conflict of Lincoln Administration Lincoln was not very liked because of his tenacity to preserve the Union, win the war, and end slavery.
He had propose and acted upon the Writ of Habeas Corpus by denying trial to those suspected of being SIN. ‘. Xv. XVII. Traitors and spies for the South. After his death, when his vice president, And Johnson had to take over, Congress was always on opposing sides with Johns on. It eventually led to the impeachment of Johnson. Social Happenings A. Draft Riots in New York City(1863) 1 . The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in response, in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing a least 73 people. 2. This showed how unwilling northerners were in participate Eng in the war against the South and the fight for slavery.
B. Sand Creek Massacre 1. Colonel J. M. Chauvinist’s militia massacred some four hundred Indians in cold blood-??Indians who had though HTH they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless. 2. When word spread to other Indian communities, it was agreed the at the whites must be met by force. Faced with a stalemate, Red Cloud and the united States agreed to the Treaty of Fort Laramie, which brought a temporary y end to the hostilities. Large tracts of land were reaffirmed as Sioux and Cheyenne Territory by the United States Government. Unfortunately, the peace e was shortlists.