Evolution Refutes the Argument of Design According to Aquinas, the argument from design claims that the universe has order and design that Is not made by humans. Things with order and design typically have an Intelligent cause. Therefore, the universe probably has an Intelligent cause. Hence, God exists. Darwin challenges the argument from design with his theory of evolution. I find Darning’s claims plausible based on his explanations of order and design and sufficient reasoning from his published book The Origin of Species in 1859 (Sober 61).
According to Charles Darning’s theory of evolution, tracing back the ancestry of any member of a species leads to members of other species. Note, however, the theory of evolution does not deny the existence of God nor deny the claim that God is the cause of original life forms. Life has been evolving over millions of years and continues to do so. The evolution theory shows they have evolved from each other, and we are all evolving now. There Is scientific proof of such evolution seen In comparative anatomy and fossils of creatures halfway between two animals.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Overall, Darwin asserts that all life on earth traces back to a common ancestor. He develops hypotheses on the mechanisms of random genetic mutations and natural selection. Darning’s theory contains two mall points. First, there Is an idea that all present-day life is related. Organisms we see were not separately created or come into existence independently. Rather, organisms are related to each other and have descended with modifications from species that lived before them. For example, you and I are related. I believe that if we go back far enough in time, we’ll find a human Ewing who is an ancestor of both of us.
If we go back even further in time to reach a common ancestor, the same is true of an ape and us. Therefore, the same is for any two present-day organisms. Present day species had evolved from earlier ones and new traits arose In the course of evolution. Evidence of the connection between traits and evolutionary ancestry is provided by our wisdom teeth. Almost all of us will visit an oral surgeon to have our wisdom teeth extracted. There’s no room In our Jaws for these rearmost molars, and removing them Is the best way to prevent dental starters.
And removal is harmless, because we don’t really need wisdom teeth. They’re pretty much useless. Biologists hypothesize that we have them because our apelike ancestors had them and we inherited them, even though we don’t need them. The presence in a living species of structures that have no current function, but that are useful in other species, demonstrates the shared ancestry of different species. The evidence that evolution has occurred does not tell us how life evolves which brings us to the second part of Darning’s theory: the idea of natural selection.
This dead tries to explain why some traits in organisms appear and become more common while other traits disappear. An individual’s likelihood of survival and reproduction depends on Its traits or characteristics. Individuals with advantageous traits survive longest and leave the most offspring. Therefore, by natural selection, advantageous traits are favored. Here Is an Illustration of how natural selection works. There Is a variation in traits where some fish are colorful and some fish are dull. Since the reproduction in which not all individuals get to reproduce to their full potential.
Therefore, colorful fish tend to get eaten by predators and survive to reproduce less often than dull fish do. The surviving dull fish have dull baby fish because this trait has a genetic basis in heredity. The more advantageous trait, dull coloration, which allows the fish to have more offspring, becomes more common in the population. If this process continues, eventually, most individuals in the population will be dull. In this scenario, natural selection occurs in a population of organisms when there is inherited variation in color.
Darning’s hypothesis was that small changes in a population (like the one I Just described) add up. Given enough little changes, the organism will become very different. One objection to the idea of natural selection is the argument that survival of the fittest implies that “might makes right” is a proper guide to behavior. However, this claim shows a fallacy by arguing that the way things are implies how they ought to be. It is like saying that if someone’s ankle is sprained, it should stay sprained. But “is” does not imply “ought. ” Evolution is descriptive.
It tells how things are, not how they should be. An objection is more commonly raised by Creationists or “intelligent design theorists” who are present day defenders of the design argument. Creationism is the idea that tracing back the chain of ancestry of any member of a species leads only to other members of the same species. Creationists commonly claim that God created each species separately. They have argued that evolutionary theory is only a theory, not a fact because hypotheses about the distant past can’t be proven with absolute certainty.
However, this objection does not succeed because even though evolutionary theory isn’t absolutely certain, nothing in science is absolutely certain. Science aims for high degrees of certainty, which can be reached. With stronger evidence, one explanation can be more plausible than its competitors. With creationism, you don’t have a better theory. While evolution isn’t proven it has a very strong background of evidence, creationism is basically “it happened because this book says it did” which couldn’t be further from scientific.
Evolution is the best theory we have, combined other theories (some of which are part of the theory of evolution) doesn’t challenge it at all. Biologists now regard the hypothesis of evolution as about as certain as any hypothesis about the prehistoric past could be. The idea that natural selection is the principle cause of evolutionary change is somewhat controversial, although it is still by far the majority view among biologists.