Everything in the universe, except what humans have manufactured Evolution In biology, evolution can be defined as any change in the heritable traits (physical traits ex. Skin color, hair, eyes, etc of an organism) within a population, across generations . Life’s Levels of Organization Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass – consists of atoms which combine to form molecules Atom- Fundamental building block of all matter (living and nonliving things) Elements- Are made up of atoms Joined together chemically Cell- Smallest unit of life Organism – An individual; consists of one or more cells UNITY
Overview of Life’s Unity All living things have similar characteristics Require energy and nutrients Sense and respond to change Reproduce with the help of DNA Energy Sustains Life’s Organization One-way flow of energy through the biosphere and cycling of nutrients among organisms sustain life’s organization. Ex: water cycle, nitrogen cycle, etc.
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Energy- The capacity to do work Nutrient- Substance that is necessary for survival, but that an organism can’t make for itself DIVERSITY The millions of species on Earth vary greatly in details of body form and function Each species is given a unique two-part name that includes genus and species Ames Species- A type of organism Genus- Group of species that share a unique set of traits The unity of life is based on DNA and a common genetic code *The DNA is responsible for heredity and for programming the activities of the cell.
Evolution explains the unity & diversity of life. *Biological evolution by natural selection explains how life changes over time How Science Works Researchers make and test potentially falsifiable predictions about how the natural world works Generally, scientific inquiry involves forming a hypothesis (testable assumption) about an observation then making and testing predictions based on the hypothesis A hypothesis that is not consistent with the results of scientific tests is modified or discarded Common Research Practices 1 .
Observe some aspect of nature 2. Frame a question about your observation 3. Propose a hypothesis (a testable explanation of the observation) 4. Make a prediction – a statement based on a hypothesis, about some condition that should exist if the hypothesis is not wrong 5. Test the accuracy of the prediction by experiments or gathering information. 6. Assess the results of the tests (data) to see f they support or disprove the hypothesis 7.
Conclusions: Report all steps of your work and conclusions to the scientific community A Scientific Theory Scientific theory A hypothesis that has not been disproved after many years of rigorous testing Useful for making predictions about other phenomena Laws of Nature Law of nature Generalization that describes a consistent and universal natural phenomenon for which we do not yet have a complete scientific information Example: gravity Examples of Scientific Theories SCIENCE – Mankind’s ongoing, collective, and systematic attempt to accurately describe reality.