A Critique of Zimbabwe’s Dual Legal System Assignment

A Critique of Zimbabwe’s Dual Legal System Assignment Words: 898

The ministry of mines and mining development manages the mineral sector in accordance with the mines and minerals act (chapter 21 :05); the mining (General) regulations, 1977; and their amendments. Mining operations also are regulated by sections of the environmental management act of 2002 (chapter 20:27) and its 2007 amendment, the explosive act, the Forest Act, the Parks and Wildlife Act, the Public Health Act, and the suppression of money laundering act.

The indigestion and economic empowerment act (chapter 14:33) of 2007 requires that 51% ownership of businesses in Zombie with a net asset value greater than $500,000 be acquired by eligible Seminarians, who are defined as “any person who, before the 18th April, 1980, was disadvantaged by unfair discrimination on the grounds of his or her race, and any descendant of such person, and includes any company, association, syndicate or partnership of which indigenous Seminarians form the majority of the members or hold the controlling interest. The indigestion and economic empowerment General) regulations (statutory instrument 21 of 2010) became effective in early 2010. In march, the ministry of Youth development, indigestion and empowerment published General notice 114 of 2011??indigestion and economic empowerment (General) regulations, 2011??which announced that businesses in the mining sector that had net assets valued at more than $1. 001 and that were less than 51% controlled by indigenous Seminarians had 45 days to submit indigestion implementation plans to the ministry for approval.

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General notice 114 also required that every indigenous majority-owned mining business would achieve the minimum indignation and empowerment quota (51% interest controlled by approved indigenous entities) by the divestment of shares or interest to designated entities by no later than September 25, 2011. Designated entities were defined as the national indigestion and economic empowerment Fund (Neff); the Zombie mining development corp.. Zinc); any company or entity incorporated by Neff or Lama to accept analogue’s company Interest or snares; any statutory sovereign wealth fund that may be created; or 1 in April 2009, Zombie moved to a multicultural monetary regime. Currency in use in Zombie includes the Botswana ala, the European Union Euro, the south African rand, the pound sterling of the United Kingdom, the United States dollar, and the Zambia cache. Any employee share ownership scheme or trust (or community share ownership scheme or trust) that appropriately complies with the regulations. T yearned, the Government continued negotiations with a number of mining companies concerning their indignation plans (ministry of Youth development, indigestion and empowerment,

The Reserve Bank of Zombie’s monetary policy statement of February 2, 2009, authorizes organizations that hold appropriate permits to export gold. Mining companies, which produced Pig concentrates and smelter matte in Zombie, directly shipped the Pig concentrates and matte to processing facilities in south Africa. As part of the budget process, the Government proposed to increase mineral royalties. Effective in January 2012, the royalty on gold was to increase to 7% from 4. %, and on platinum, to 10% from 5% (Commodity Online India Ltd. , 2011; Annual, 2012).

Production In 2011, production of cement, chromites, clays, cobalt, coke, copper ore, gold, nickel ore, Pegs, and silver was estimated to have increased compared with that of 2010. Production volumes of ammonia, coal, and granite were estimated to have decreased compared with those of 2010. Few companies, however, were operating at full capacity owing in part to the continuing high credit costs and the ongoing uncertainty concerning the pace of the indignation process in the mining sector (table 1; international monetary Fund, 012, p. 20).

Structure of the Mineral Industry domestic and international investment companies, domestic and international mining companies, Government-owned companies, mining cooperatives, multinational cement 44. 1 Zombie??2011 [advance release] companies, and small-scale miners managed mineral operations in Zombie. State- owned companies involved in the mineral sector included Mac, Zinc, and subsidiaries of state-owned industrial development corp.. Of Zombie Ltd. , which produced industrial minerals and mineral-based commodities. Commodity Review Metals copper Ana NIcKel. ??roll I to. Ported production AT auto B, u metric tons (t) of copper and nickel from the Empress refinery in 2011 compared with about 8,600 t in 2010. A prolonged suspension of smelter operations at Bcc Ltd. Of Botswana (where a planned 30-day maintenance period unexpectedly was extended from June until September) resulted in a reduced volume of imported copper-nickel matte that Rhizome toll refined for Sentimental GAG of Switzerland. The lack of copper-nickel matte input culminated in the suspension of refining operations at the Empress refinery from August 28 until October 26, although the cobalt circuit continued to operate.

Rhizome also reported difficulties with its pressure swing adsorption plant in 2011, which caused the company to import oxygen gas from South Africa for refinery operations (Uncommon, Pickering, and Passenger, 2012, p. 4; Rhizome Ltd. , 2012, p. 9, 13, 68). Binaural Nickel Corporation Ltd. ‘s nickel mines, smelter, and refinery remained on care-and-maintenance status in 2011. Binaural Nickel, which was a subsidiary of Manna Africa Pl, continued to plan for the restart of mining operations at the Trojan Mine in the town of Binaural.

Work continued on securing funding for the mining operation and on settling labor issues that remained from the suspension of mining operations in 2008. In February, Glance International Pl of Switzerland signed an agreement to purchase Binder’s nickel concentrate production, which was slated to reach about 7,000 t of nickel in concentrate in 2013 when the mine was expected to resume commercial operations. In 2011, about 4,400 t of ore and 1,300 t of waste were hoisted from the mine as part of the care-and-maintenance program (mucous, 201 la; manna Africa PL, 2012, p. -9). Iron and Steel and Iron Ore.

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