The problem was that each system collected, stored, and retrieved some of the same data. The data of each department were not consistent or compatible with other departments and the systems were costly and the information as inadequate.
The need for a comprehensive information system became evident. The result was the evolution of the concept of management information systems (MIS). MIS can be defined generally as an integrated, structured complex of people, machines, and procedures for supplying relevant data (information) from both external and Internal sources to lad managers for planning, staffing. Communicating. Controlling, and decision making. Increasingly, the concept has become dependent on a computer based network of collecting processing, storing, transmitting, and supplying outputs to the proper managers at the correct time.
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The heart of the integration of information needed in MIS is a data base. A data base is an organized repository of the organizations Information resources mainly internal and possibly containing some external data Including raw data and procedures. The idea Is that the data base consists of most of the data available In the organization and can be accessed by different managers for their varied uses. One manager may access the data base for planning, another manager may need data for controlling, and generally all managers may need to access the data base for decision making.
The rapid technological developments and the availability of varied computer hardware have been accompanied by the Improved availability of sophisticated software systems. This software has served as the Interface between the complicated computer hardware and the non;technical managers who needs the information contained in the computer. Yet managers still need to be knowledgeable of the improved potentials of new computer hardware and software, so that they gain the maximum service from these electronic wizards. Growth of MIS: encounter increasing complexity of business processes and changing scenario of management.
MIS development evolves from EDP systems. The EDP systems have rudimentary technology to handle clerical and supervisory operations in an organization. This is initiation stage. The advantages of compensation are gradually realized by most of the people in an Organization. This realization leads to proliferation of computer, networking technologies and computer based system applications within an organization. This is contagious stage. Next stage is typified by planning and control. As demand for compensation increases, a need is realized for cost-benefit analysis.
This is imperative to plan for future MIS in a cost effective manner Next stage of MIS development is integration of subsystems. This comes with realization of interdependence of inflow of data from various sources for valid information. Management plans to leverage existing subsystems to a unified system. Objective of a unified system is to obliterate data redundancy and facilitate communication of information amongst various departments. After creation of an integrated system, management focuses its attention to database administration.
Here impetus is on regulating data for accompanied communication. This stage is also referred to as architecture stage. Next to data administration stage an organization reaches a stage of MIS maturity. This is the state when MIS department is geared up to plan future MIS needs for the organization. MIS department future development plans emanate for feedback of The users of existing MIS. At this stage, users are in complete control of MIS and become aware of their system needs. Question 2: means of connecting a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world dedicated routers and servers .
When two computers are connected over the receive all kinds of information such as text, graphics voice, video , and imputer programs No one owns Internet, although several organizations the world over collaborate in its functioning and development . The high-speed, fiber-optic cables ( called backbones through which the bulk of the Internet data travels are owned by telephone companies in their respective countries . The Internet grew out of the Advanced Research Projects Agency’s Wide Area Network (then called established by the US Department Of Defense in sass for collaboration in military research among business government laboratories.
Later universities and other US institutions connected to it. This resulted in ARPANET growing beyond everyone’s expectations acquiring the name ‘Internet. ‘ The development of hypertext based technology (called World Wide web , WWW, or Just the Web provided means of displaying text, graphics, and animations, and easy search and navigation tools that triggered Internet’s explosive worldwide growth. Intranet, internet and extranet: Intranet is shared content accessed by members within a single organization.
Extranet is shared content accessed by groups through cross-enterprise boundaries. Is global communication accessed through the Web. The Internet, extranets, and intranets all rely on the same TCP/IP technologies. However, they are different in terms of the levels of access they allow to various users inside and outside the organization and the size of the network. An intranet allows for restricted access to only members of an organization; an extranet expands that access by allowing non-members such as suppliers and customers to use company resources.
The difference between the Internet and extranets is that while the extranet allows limited access to non-members of an organization, the Internet generally allows everyone to access all network resources. An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization’s information or operational systems within that organization. Extranet An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company’s intranet that is extended to users outside the company, usually via the Internet.
Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. Question 3: E-Business (electronic business) is using technology to improve your business processes. This includes managing internal processes such as human resources, financial and administration systems, as well as external processes such as sales and marketing, supply of goods and services, and customer relationships.
The way in which you manage your business relationships has not changed, but the way they are referred to when using e-Business tools has. They are becoming more often known as: business to business (BIB) business to consumer (BBC) (also known as commerce) government to consumer (GAG) Government to business (BIB). E-commerce: Often referred to as simply e-commerce the phrase is used to describe business that s conducted over the Internet using any of the applications that rely on the Internet, such as e-mail, instant messaging, shopping carts, Web services, UDDI, FTP, and DE’, among others.
Electronic commerce can be between two businesses transmitting funds, goods, services and/or data or between a business and a customer. Commerce (or electric commerce) refers to the buying and selling of goods and services via electronic channels, primarily the Internet. Online retail is decidedly convenient due to its 24-hour availability, global reach and generally efficient customer service. E-collaboration: E-Collaboration revise for workups enables workups of every size to collaborate and share information whilst in the office or working from remote locations, without the burden of system management.
Working in a collaborative environment sharing information is key to today’s business success. Just imagine having access to the latest changes of a report produced by the project team while working from a client site. The technology is available, however many smaller companies or consultancy groups settle for less competitive tools believing that only large corporations can afford the investment to build and operate such an environment.