EOC???STUDY GUIDE 1)The six purposes of government are to: keep order, provide security, settle conflicts, set policies, make budgets, and interact with other communities. 2)Different types of government a. Representative Democracy ??? the citizens choose a smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf, but the people remain the source of the government’s authority. b. Dictatorship ??? a government controlled by one person or a small group of people who make all decisions. c. Federal ??? the sharing of power between the central and state governments. d.
Confederation ??? a group of individuals or state governments. e. Parliamentary ??? a system of government in which both executive and legislative function reside in an elected assembly. 3)Foundations of Democracy a. Individual worth b. Equality c. Majority rule and majority rights d. Necessity of compromise e. Individual freedom 4)Traditions of democracy in the US a. Philosophical Bases i. Limited Government ??? a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is prohibited by law; usually in a written consent. i. Representative government ??? a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the people’s representatives. The representatives form an independent ruling body charged with the responsibility of acting in the people’s interest. iii. Popular sovereignty ??? the belief that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. b. Historical Bases i. Magna Carta ??? (Great Charter) a charter of liberty and political rights obtained from King John of England ii.
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Social contract theory ??? the people give up some rights to a government in order to receive social order. iii. English Bill of Rights ??? one of the basic documents of the English constitutional law; a statement of certain negative and residential rights that citizens and/or residents of a constitutional monarchy ought to have. iv. Declaration of Independence ??? declared that the 13 colonies were “Free and Independent states” and that “all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved”; explained the justifications for separations from the British crown. . Articles of Confederation ??? congress could make decisions but could not enforce them; there was a requirement foe unanimous approval before any modifications could be made to the Articles; congress could not tax, they could only request money from the states. 5)US Constitution a. Connecticut Compromise ??? (the Great Compromise) was an essential agreement between large and small states that defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the US Constitution; proposed bicameral legislature. b.
Three-Fifths Compromise ??? a compromise between southern and northern states in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes. c. Commerce and Slave Trade compromise i. Commerce ??? it compromises the trading of something of economic value such as goods, services, information, and/or money between two more entities. ii. Slave Trade ??? the southern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between states, as well as other countries; in exchange the northern states agreed that Congress could not tax exports nor could they interfere with the slave trade before 1808. . Electoral College ??? a group of people who would be named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president; today voters choose electors not the legislature. 6)Federalists and Anti-Federalists a. Federalists ??? support the constitution b. Anti-Federalists ??? felt that the Constitution gave too much power to the national government and not enough to the states. 7)Bill of Rights a. R. A. P. S. b. Right to bear arms. c. Military. d. Can’t search without a warrant. e. No double jeopardy. f. Right to a judge, lawyer, and jury. g. Far and quick trial. . No cruel and unusual punishment or excessive bail. i. If the constitution gives you that rights, no body can say otherwise. j. Reserved, Implied, and Concurrent powers 8)Basic Principles of the US Constitution a. Popular Sovereignty ??? the notion that power lies with the people. b. Limited Government ??? a government structure where any more that minimal government intervention in personal liberties and the economy is prohibited by law. c. Separation of Powers ??? the split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. d.
Checks and Balances ??? a system in which each branch of government is able to check/restrain the power of the others. e. Judicial Review ??? the power of the Supreme Court to say whether the federal, state, or local law or government action goes against the Constitution. f. Federalism ??? a form of government in which power is divided between the federal/national government and state governments. 9)Federalism in action a. Delegated/Expressed powers ??? powers that congress has that are specifically listed in the Constitution. i. Ex. To raise and support Armies; necessary and proper. b.
Reserved powers ??? powers that the Constitution does not give does not give to the national government that are kept by the states. i. Ex. Marriage and Divorce laws, regulate education, and hold elections. c. Concurrent powers ??? powers shared by the state and federal governments. i. Ex. Impose taxes; Borrow money. BranchPurposeNationalStateLocal LegislativeCreate/Write LawsCongressGeneral AssemblyCity Council ExecutiveEnforce LawsPresidentGovernorMayor/City Manager Judicial Interpret LawsSupreme CourtState CourtLocal Court 10) 11) Checks and Balances in action a. Legislative vs.
Executive ??? impeach judges; override veto; reject appointments; refuse to approve treaties b. Legislative vs. Judicial ??? impeach judges; reject appointment of judges c. Executive vs. Legislative ??? veto legislation d. Executive vs. Judicial ??? appoint judges e. Judicial vs. Executive ??? declare presidential actions unconstitutional f. Judicial vs. Legislative ??? declare acts of legislation unconstitutional 12) Amending the Constitution a. Congressional Action ??? a vote of 2/3 of the members from both houses of Congress. 13) The Legislative Branch a. The House of Representatives and the Senate . HOR ??? 435 voting members; each represents a congressional district. SEN ??? 100 serving members; two from each state. c. HOR ??? 2 years; SEN ??? 6 years. d. Reapportionment ??? redistribution of representation in a legislative body. Gerrymandering ??? a district differing widely in size or population to give an unfair advantage to one party in the election. e. It is approved by one house and sent to the other. They can pass, reject, or amend it. In order for a bill to be come a law, both houses must agree to identical versions of the bill. f. Key Leaders of Congress and their roles i.
Speaker of the House ??? the presiding officer of the HOR; second in line of succession of the US President, performs administrative and procedural functions, and representative of his/her congressional district. ii. President of the Senate ??? the Vice President of the US; cast the tie-breaking vote for a bill. iii. President pro tempore ??? second-highest-ranking official of the Senate and Senator; acts during the absence of the President of the Senate and represents the senate at formal events. iv. Majority Leader ??? the floor leader of the majority caucus. v. Minority Leader ??? the floor leader of the second-highest caucus. i. Party Whip ??? ensures that members of the party attend and vote, as the party leadership desires. vii. Committee Chair ??? determines and provides to other party members of the committee the method for selecting subcommittee chairs. g. The elastic clause is a provision in Article I of the US Constitution, which addresses implied powers of Congress. h. Expressed powers are listed in the Constitution and limited by the Bill of Rights. Implied powers are not expressly delegated to Congress by the Constitution, but are implied by the government’s need to carry out all of its duties. i.
Strict construction refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits judicial interpretation. Liberal construction refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that does not limit judicial interpretation. j. The Supremacy clause establishes that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the US are the supreme law of the land. 14) The Executive Branch a. The main way a political party chooses their presidential candidate by an election. b. The winner of a presidential election determined by the number of electoral votes. . If no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes, the Senate chooses the President and Vice President. d. A president can serve a maximum of two 4-year terms. e. If the Vice president spot becomes vacant the Speaker of the House takes their place. f. The Constitutional duties of the President are: to carry out laws passed by congress; Commander and Chief of the Army and the Navy; to make treaties; appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers/Counsels, Supreme Court Judges, and all other officers of the US; fill vacancies in the Senate. g.
The War Powers Act allows the President to use military forces for 60 days without a formal declaration of war by congress. Also, it grants an extra 30 days upon request. h. Presidential elections are held the first Tuesday of November of the election year; held every 4 years. i. The members of the presidential cabinet are the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch, they advise and assist the president in his duties. j. A civilian career about public sector employee working for a government department or agency; this excludes the armed forces. k.
Administration is the officials and employees associated with the president. l. A bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity. m. Independent Executive Agencies are not part of the cabinet, but are not independent of the president. They deal with certain specialized areas within the government; NASA is one example. 15) The Judicial Branch a. Normally 9 justices serve on the Court at one time. b. Define: i. Majority opinion ??? a statement that presents the views of the majority of Supreme Court justices regarding a case. ii.
Minority opinion ??? a statement that presents the views of the minority of Supreme Court justices regarding a case. iii. Concurring opinion ??? a statement written by a justice who votes with the majority, but for different reasons. iv. Writ of habeas corpus ??? a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person. c. The president appoints federal court judges with approval of the senate. d. Court Decisions i. Marbury v. Madison ??? Midnight Appointees; Judicial Review ii. McCulloch v. Maryland ??? Cannot tax the Federal Government iii.
Brown v. Board of Education ??? Separate but equal. iv. Gideon v. Wainwright ??? Right to a lawyer if you cannot afford one v. Miranda v. Arizona ??? Miranda Rights vi. Tinker v. Des Moines School District ??? Passive/Silent Protest; Limited free speech in public school vii. Mapp v. Ohio ??? Illegal evidence; Due Process Clause viii. Bakke v. University of California ??? Affirmative Action; Case-by-case discrimination questions ix. Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier ??? Freedom of speech in public schools x. New Jersey v. TLO ??? Reasonable suspicion; Probable cause xi. Leandro v.
UNC ??? Equity and Funding in schools xii. Worchester v. Georgia ??? Native American Reservation rights e. Judicial Review is the power of the Supreme Court to say whether the federal, state, and/or local law or government action goes against the Constitution. 16) The Legal System a. Bill of Rights terms i. Libel ??? written untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation ii. Sedition ??? conduct or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a state or monarch iii. Grand jury ??? a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime iv.
Double Jeopardy ??? putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted v. Eminent domain ??? the right of government to take private property for public use. vi. Slander ??? spoken untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation. vii. Probable cause ??? reasonable grounds for making a search, pressing a charge, etc… viii. Exclusionary rule ??? a law that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence in a criminal trial. ix. Due process of law ??? procedures established by law and guaranteed by the Constitution. 17) First Amendment a.
Free Exercise Clause ??? you can be whatever religion you want. b. Established Clause ??? can’t establish a state religion c. Symbolic Speech ??? an action that expresses an opinion or idea non-verbally. d. Prior Restraint ??? government censorship of material before it is published. e. Right of assembly ??? the right to gather in groups for any reason, so long as it is peaceful; the right to form and join social clubs, political parties, labor unions, and other organizations. i. Right of petition ??? the right to express one’s ideas to the government; a formal request 18) Fourth Amendment a.
Probable cause ??? NUMBER 16, vii b. Supreme Court decision of search and seizure ??? No solider, government agent, or police officer can search your home or take your property without a good reason. 19) Equal rights for all American citizens; directed towards states; Equal protection of the laws; May not take a person’s life, liberty, or property without due process law. 20) Criminal law ??? a system of law concerned with the punishment of those who commit crimes. Civil law ??? the system of law concerned with private relations between members of a community rather than criminal, military, or religious affairs. 1) A plaintiff is a person or party filing a lawsuit. 22) A defendant is an individual or group being sued or charged with a crime. 23) A prosecutor is a lawyer who conducts the case against a defendant in a criminal court. 24) A misdemeanor is a less serious crime, with a less serious consequence. A felony is a serious crime, with a serious consequence. 25) When a case is appealed it is sent to a higher court. 26) The Criminal Justice process a. First court appearance ??? suspect appears before a judge; bail is set. b. Probable cause hearing ??? Grand Jury/Judge hears evidence and formally charges the suspect with the crime. . Arraignment ??? Defendant pleas not guilty and a trial date is set or plead guilty accepts a plea bargain. d. Plea bargain ??? and arrangement between a prosecutor and a defendant where by the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser charge in the expectation of leniency. e. The Court Trial i. Opening Statement ??? the first time the judge/jury hears the convicting evidence from the prosecutors counsel. ii. Examination of witness ??? a testimony from a witness from one side. iii. Cross examination of witness ??? questions asked by the opposing side to the same witness. iv.
Closing statement ??? the final statement from each side’s counsel; a last presentation of evidence. 27) Probation is the suspension of a jail sentence. Parole is to grant a prisoner an early release from prison, with certain restrictions. Economics 1)Scarcity is not having enough resources to produce all of the things we would like to have. Make wise choices when it comes to purchasing goods. 2)Opportunity cost is the cost incurred by the loss of potential gains from other alternatives when one action is taken. A trade-off is losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect. )The circular flow of economic activity is a simple economic model that shows the relationship between money income and spending for the economy as a whole. 4)The factors of production are essential elements of production; natural resources, labor, and means of production. 5)Three types of economic systems a. Capitalism ??? we the people own the factors of production. b. Socialism ??? the government owns the factors of production. c. Communism ??? the government makes all decisions. 6)A mixed economic system is an economy that contains both private and state owned enterprises. )The laissez faire theory of economic systems is “let it be”; minimal government interference. 8)N/A 9)A capitalist free enterprise economic system is on where businesses are privately owned and operated for profit. 10) The law of demand represents the amount of goods that buyers are willing and able to purchase at various prices. 11) The law of supply shows the relationship between the quantity of goods supplied by the producers of a good and the current market price. 12) 13) Income, elasticity for goods, complement, and substitute goods cause changes in supply and demand. 4) An entrepreneur is a person who starts his or her own business. 15) Monopoly ??? one company owns all factors of production; they can charge whatever price they want and people will pay. Oligopoly ??? a few companies own all factors of production for that good/service; they can charge just about any price they want. A competitive market ??? supply and demand are used to determine the equilibrium price; a free market place. 16) Advantage/Disadvantage a. Proprietorship ??? one person owns a business; the owner receives all of the profit but has to have enough money to start the business. b.
Partnership ??? two or more people own a business together; you don’t need to pay a Corporate Income tax but you have unlimited liability. c. Corporation ??? very easy to raise money but you must be granted permission from the government. 17) Diminishing Returns ??? supply; at which point is it not worth making one more of any single product. 18) Surpluses are having too much of a product; prices are too high. Shortages are not having enough of a product; prices are too low. 19) Capital is any already produced good available for use as a factor of production. 20) A bull market is a good stock market. A bear market is a bad stock market. 1) A bond is a government loan. 22) A dividend is a payment made by a company to its shareholders. 23) A charter is a government document granting permission for certain rights/loans etc. 24) A graph that tracks the usual ups and downs in business activity. 25) Price index is a numerical time series measure designed to help compare how the prices of some classes of goods and/or services taken as a whole measure the economy’s price level and the extent to which there is inflation. 26) GDP is the total market value of all final goods and services produced within a country; GNP is GDP after adjustments from inflation. 7) Inflation a. Hyperinflation ??? everyday the price doubles b. Deflation ??? general falling level of prices c. Disinflation ??? a decrease in the rate of inflation d. Stagflation ??? a combination of inflation and rising unemployment e. Reflation ??? an attempt to raise prices to counteract deflationary pressures 28) A fiscal policy is a government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through physical changes in the government spending/taxes. A monetary policy is a process by which the government manages the supply of money/trading in foreign markets. 29) Types of Taxes a.
Progressive ??? a tax that take a larger percentage of higher incomes than lower incomes b. Sale ??? tax levied on a product at the time of sale c. Excise ??? a tax charged on goods produced within a country 30) Principles of Taxation a. Clear straight forward b. Collect conveniently 31) How tight they control the supply of money and the cost of borrowing money/credit. 32) A reserve requirement is a certain amount of money that the Fed can use to manipulate the nation’s supply of money. 33) The discount rate depends on future cash flow. 34) The Fed is the Federal Reserve System; they are the central bank of the US (the bank’s bank).