Imperialism Study Guide Imperialism – one countries domination of the political, economic and/or social life of another country Reasons for Imperialism: Economic -?? raw materials for Industrial revolution, trade, cheap labor, new markets Political – nationalism (pride and prestige), national security,’border protection, military bases & source of troops Social – missionary (spread Christianity), social Darwinism (survival of the fittest applied to society; European society “the fittest); spread cultural values – racism/cultural superiority; white man’s burden (duty to civilize non-whites)
Forces enabling – maxim gun, railroad/steamships, cure for malaria, internal divisions, Industrial revolution Types of Imperialism Colony – Imperialist country Installs Its own government; most direct form of control (Vietnam) Protectorate – territory maintains Its own government with strong foreign influence (Egypt) Sphere of Influence – exclusive trading rights (China) Africa Berlin Conference 1884: Partitioned Africa – cultural/ethnic/tribal lines disregarded White Mans burden – duty of Europeans to civilize the rest of the world.
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Used to justify European colonialism “half-devil, half-child” = racist description of natives – unchristian, needing parental care Algeria Colonizer: France Motive(s):border protection/national security: place to settle unemployed from industrial revolution Resistance: 10 year war between Bad al Qatar (Algeria) and Charles X (France) Egypt Colonizer: Britain Motives: Suez canal – trade; geographic location – cut distance to India Resistance: Britain gradually gained control; Egypt became a British protectorate Libya Colonizer: Italy Motives: National Security Resistance: Ottoman Turk Colonizer: King Leopold II/ Belgium Motives: Natural resources (rubber, ivory), cheap labor
Effects: stripped land of natural resources (rubber trees, elephants), caused thousands of deaths due to brutality South Africa Colonizer(s) Dutch Afrikaners/Boers; Britain Motives: economic – gold, diamonds Major Events: Boer War: British, Dutch(Afrikaner,Boer), Zulu (Natives) fight for control of South Africa; British win Apartheid – strict system of racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa against black South Africans South African National Congress/African National Congress – created by black South Africans to end racial discrimination in South Africa and bring all Africans together. Nelson Mandela led the NC and spent 27 years in prison until becoming the first elected President of a democratic South Africa. Liberia Colonizer: None – remains independent *Settled by: Free Slaves from America Ethiopia: Colonizer: Italy tried but failed – remains independent Resistance: Emperor Moonlike II led resistance against Italy which ended Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia until after his death Reasons for Resistance: Natives felt they were being used as forced labor to help European economy Resented intrusion of Western cultures and religions Desired control of own destiny Effectives of Imperialism in Africa:
Positives: Modern technology Modern medicine Schools Development of infrastructure – roads, ports, railroads (used to transport raw materials to Europe) Negatives: Decline in traditional culture with increased European influence Ethnic & tribal lines disregarded causing long-term warfare Slave Trade effected African economy by depleting able bodied labor source Natural resources depleted Natives forced to work for low wages under harsh conditions Motives: Trade, natural resource (pepper, cinnamon, opium, indigo, cotton, textiles (muslin, calico), social – cultural superiority and missionary Major Events: East India Company – Rich, powerful trading company set up trading posts and ports in India. Created a monopoly on Indian trade. Expanded control in India through wars and commercial activity.
Gradually controllability and government functions. Seeps Rebellion – Indian soldiers (Seeps) rebel against British East India Company who imposed Christianity and European customs on them. Massacres on both sides lead British Parliament to end East India Company’s control. British victory (British representative to rule). Indian Nationalism – movement by Indians to gain ore control and eventually independence from Britain ; Indian National Congress – Indian business and professional leaders who are upset about food shortages, discrimination and other problems. Goals: democracy, equality, self-rule. Mahatma Gandhi – major political and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement.