Even during recent global conference held at Kyoto in Japan, India accepted the responsibility of reducing global warming and depletion of ozone layer by banning the use of color-flour carbons in cryogenic engineering within a stipulated period.
Even in the recent conference held in ROI-De-Jeanine, India declared solidarity by conforming to the standards as stipulated by United States Environmental Protection Agencies (US-EPA). Perhaps India was the foremost country in third worlds to implement rigorously pollution legislation both for air and water. We accepted the stipulated levels of the pollutants in act designated as ‘maximum permissible level’ to be implemented in successive stages in few years. Within India, Maharajah’s state was the front runner to enact Water Pollution and Control Act in 1962.
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This was followed by passing of Comprehensive Environmental Protection Bill for prevention of air pollution in 1983. Maharajah’s, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh were the first states in Indian union to have pollution control board with attached analytical laboratories. This was followed by the setting of series of laboratories in all remaining states of the nation. A legislation was passed. The grave tragedy of Opal in 1984 by accidentally releasing deadly poisonous gas such as methyl assassinate took a toll of more than 4500 people who were innocent and helpless.
With the growing civilization and with rise in traffic, auto-exhaust mission also takes a toll of people. Therefore government enacted ‘PUC’ act to check every vehicle periodically and control, release of hazardous gases like NO-KNOX , CO. And hydrocarbons in air. As a matter of fact, India did much more than any other developing country could do to control pollution. Even in controlling global warming and reduction of the Green House gases we were certainly ahead of developed countries like Canada, USA Australia.
General incentives were given by our government to design and develop indigenously pollution monitoring instruments within the country and make us self-sufficient. At moment, separate ministry looks after all problems related to pollution. In fact, all nations have their own ministry or department to implement effectively legislation related to control of pollution. We have passed act and prevented transportation of hazardous chemicals a big Environmental Pollution Analysis offence on express highways. The abatement Of noise pollution surrounding airports, hospitals was taken care by our legislation.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was rigorously followed during setting of new industries and environmental modeling has been used to array out future foresting of pollution and resorting to effective control measures of pollution. Basically, our environment is composed of atmosphere, earth, water and space. In absence of pollution, it remains clean and enjoyable. The interaction of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is continuing for years together. On account of the various activities of man, the composition and complex nature of environment gets changed.
These activities include industrialization, construction, transportation. Such activities, although desirable for human development ND welfare, lead to generation and release of objectionable materials into the environment thus turning it foul, and rendering our life miserable. The natural environment is clean, but due to multifarious activities of man it gets polluted resulting in what is called as environmental pollution. Our main aim should be to keep our environment clean, by curbing industrial activities.
However, in order to keep pace with the rapid industrialization world over, a developing country like India cannot afford to arrest its industrial growth. We can select such industrial processes, which would cause minimum or zero elution. Further, it is necessary to undertake pollution control measures, so as to enable us to keep our environment as clean as possible. Our environment is complex. It gets fouled when industrial activities grow. To comprehend this complex nature of environment, we need knowledge of all disciplines of chemical, physical and biological science.
To devise control measures, we need knowledge of engineering and technology. Environmental Science and Engineering is inter-disciplinary in nature. To understand atmosphere we need knowledge of physics and meteorology, while for owing hydrosphere and air we need knowledge of chemistry, the complex behavior of living organism can be really explained with a knowledge of the life sciences. The interaction in lithosphere can be best understood from principles of earth science, while the entire control mechanism can be devised only with intricate knowledge of engineering and technology.
In the process of measurement we collect enormous data, which can be interpreted and understood only if we are conversant with statistical analysis and computer programming and environmental modeling. Some concerted effort just be made to keep our environment clean. It will lead to betterment of our lives and peaceful coexistence on the earth. 1. 2 WHAT IS POLLUTION? Our next task to keep the environment clean is to measure the damage caused to it by pollution. Without understanding the extent of damage caused to our environment due to pollution, it may not be possible for us to clean it.
Such cleaning involves development of suitable control measures. Now these suitable control measures can be meticulously planned, provided we know what the level Of pollution is? Hence, to understand the level Of elution, we should undertake the analysis or measurement of pollution. This analysis or measurement is termed as Environmental Pollution Analysis, which will throw light on exact degree of pollution. It will guide us to recover valuable products from waste and help us to take appropriate control measures to minimize pollution.
With this objective in mind we should try to learn environment pollution analysis, so as to undertake the analysis, we must know the type of pollution. Environmental pollution is classified into various groups. For instance, pollution of air is termed as the atmospheric elution, the pollution of hydrosphere or water is termed as water pollution, while pollution due to disposal of waste water is termed as industrial effluents pollution. Similarly, indiscriminate dispersal of domestic sewage or collage is called domestic effluent pollution.