Core Periphery Model Explains why power and wealth tend to gravitate to core areas while leaving the periphery Ex. This happens at the local scale (Los Angels) AND the global scale (North America) Dependency Theory The theory that developed countries and powered elites exploit and subjugate other populations and regions to secure for themselves a continual source of resources and wealth Sigh: Economic reliance by the periphery on the core countries for technology, FED & demand for their exports Economic Sectors Primary Sector: Periphery/Olds Secondary Sector: Semi-periphery/Nils
Tertiary Sector: Semi-periphery & Core/Meds Quaternary: Core/Meds Gender Inequality Index (Gal.) Includes: -Maternal death rate & adolescent fertility -Education attainment & parliamentary participation v. Men -??Labor force participation v. En It is replacing the GEM and the GUI Sigh: Gender equality assists development and reduces population pressures (expanding population) Gross Domestic Product (GAP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given year (regardless of who produces it) Dividing the GAP by a nation’s total population ivies us the per capita GAP Human Development Index (HID) A measure of a country standard of living using Its per capita IN, years of education & life expectancy 1 .
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COED Countries (core) = . 879 2. Latin America & the Caribbean = . 704 3. Europe & Central Asia = . 702 4. East Asia & the Pacific = . 643 5. World = . 624 6. Middle East = . 588 7. South ASia – . 516 8. Sub- Sahara Africa = . 389 Import Substitution Industrialization (IS’) Deft: A development strategy whereby an OLD tries to promote its own industries instead of importing manufactured goods from the core Sigh: This form of reductionism was popular during the sass with socialist regimes A. K.
A. Balanced growth approach / Self-sufficiency approach Levels of Development Development continuum (from rich to poor) -MEDS v. OLDS -?? North & South -?? First, Second & Third World (outdated Cold War terms) -??Postindustrial, Nice & Preinstall -??Developed and Underdeveloped Measures of Development Deft: A country measure of development can be distinguished according to the economic, social and demographic factors of a country Sigh: Created indicators such as the HID and per capita IN
Millennium Development Goals Goals: -??Eliminate extreme hunger & monetary poverty -?? Universal elementary education -?? Improve maternal health -??Combat HIVE/AIDS, malaria, etc. -??Ensure environmental sustainability -??Creation of a global partnership for change Sigh: Olds had to honor human rights & root out corruption whilst Meds needed to give money & promote accountability Rows Development Model A five stage economic development from a traditional society to a consumer society 1 .
Traditional Society: High level of agriculture and capital devoted to nonproductive activities (Olds) 2. Preconditions of Takeoff: investment in innovative technologies and infrastructure increases, roads and irrigation (Olds) 3. Takeoff: Rapid growth comes from a few activities, textile, or food production, these industries become more competitive (Nice) 4. Drive to Maturity: Efficiency spreads to other industries and workers become more specialized (Meds) 5.
Age of Mass Consumption: Shift to heavy industry and consumer products (Meds) World Systems Theory Proposes that social change in the developing world is linked to the economic activities of the developed world Sigh: it argues that there are unequal power relationships among the core, semi-periphery, And periphery Asian Tigers South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore Sigh: Concentrated on producing a handful of manufactured goods (e. . Clothing, electronics) Cheap labor enabled them to sell products inexpensively to Meds Tarry The idea that a country should be self-sufficient and not take part in international trade Ex. India and China, historically constructed barriers to improve their domestic economy Calorie Consumption
A percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development Sigh: People in Meds generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in Olds barely get enough to sustain themselves Debt Trap Syndrome of always having to borrow in order to develop or even Just to “service” the interest on previous loans Ex. Many Olds pay between 20-40% of government revenue in interest payments Development The extent to which resources of a place have been brought to full use (e. G. Production or education) Sigh: often measure with HID or per capita IN Fair Trade