General-purpose Map: map that contains many different types of information. Provide many types of information on one map. Most atlas maps, wall maps, and road maps fall into this category Thematic Map: map containing information on only one topic or theme Topographic Map: large-scale map showing both natural and human- made features 3. Verbal Scale: words are used to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and a specific distance on Earths surface Linear Scale: line divided Into units of distance (e. G. M) that represent the actual units on the ground Representative Fraction Scale: scale on a map given as a ratio of distance on the map to distance on the ground 4. Alphanumeric Grid: grid that uses numbers and letters to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map Latitude and Longitude: a spherical coordinate system that Is based on Imaginary lines drawn around the surface of the Earth (latitude: equator, longitude: Prime Meridian) Military Grid: a system of numbered lines is superimposed on a map and position is stated by quoting the numbers of the lines that intersect at the point in question 5.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Integrated software package for the input, management, analysis, and display of spatial Information. Links geographic locations to descriptive Information, e. G.. Linking a specific address to a specific person Global Positioning System (GAPS): satellite navigation system that is used to compute the exact latitude and longitude position of any place on Earth Remote Sensing: study of characteristics of Earth using photographs and electronic images taken from aircraft and satellites 6. False Colors: colors artificially added to satellite Images of Earth, to make tatters more obvious.
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These colors would not actually be seen from space. Red – growing Vegetation -Orange = sparse vegetation few growing things (I. E. , cities) Blue to Black = shallow and deep water Yellow White = clouds or snow Blue-Green to Grey = Physical Geography (pig. 110-pig. 179) 7. The layers of the Earth: core, outer core, mantle, and crust Know the Rock Cycle 8. Plate Tectonics: theory that states Earth’s outer shell consists of plates that move causing earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the formation of new crust Subsection: the sideways and downwards movement of the edge of the plate of the
Earth’s crust into the mantle beneath another plate The theory of plate tectonics and continental drift has often been doubted. What proof can you offer to support his theory? There Is a Jigsaw fit between South America and Africa. There are fossils of countries that can only be formed when a plate from one country is pushing against a plate form another country, so that means the plates are still moving. 9. How has Canada’s landscape changed through geologic history? Pre-Cambrian: Canadian Shield formed Paleozoic: Appalachian formed, coal bed formed Mesozoic: Rockies formed, age of dinosaurs
Cenozoic: Ice ages, volcanoes in Rockies 10. *Institution Mountains: Mountain Ranges covered in snow are separated by plains, that are also covered in snow Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands: Very flat, covered in swamp and forest Western Cordillera: Large Mountains that ranges up to 700 km. Separated by plateaus and valleys Interior Plains: Ranges from Arctic Ocean to Gulf of Mexico, called the Bread Basket because of all the wheat Canadian Shield: Very thin soil, lots of rivers and lakes, valuable minerals, forestry Great Lakes and SST. Lawrence Lowlands: Low elevation.
Most of the water is fresh (lakes, rivers). Very fertile soil Appalachian Mountains: Oldest highland region in North America that formed 300 million years ago. Glaciers separate the hills and valleys 1 1 . *Latitude: The distance north and south from the equator. Regions close to the equator are warmer since direct Sun rays produce more heat. Latitude determines if a region is hot or cold Ocean Currents: Ocean currents bring warm or cold water to new places. If the ocean current is warm then it will heat the air above it. If the ocean current is cold then it will cool the air above it.
Winds: Wind moves hot or cold air masses to other parts of the world. If there was no wind, our weather wouldn’t change Elevation: Refers to the height above sea level. The higher you re the colder it feels Relief: refers to landscape and physical features such as mountain ranges, hills and valleys. Mountains act like a barrier to air masses. As air moves up the mountain it cools, condenses and rains. On the other side as it moves down it warms and expands causing dryness or the Rain Shadow Effect Air Masses: Each air mass brings its own climate conditions to an area.
An air mass is a large volume of air that has different temperatures and water vapor content. Air masses can be warm, cold, et, or dry Near Water: In the summer water remains cooler than the land and when wind blows, it brings cool air over the land. In the winter water keeps its heat and when wind blows it brings warm air over the land 12. *Convectional Precipitation: is caused on hot summer days, when heated land causes the air above it to rise by convection.
As the air rises, it cools and condensation occurs Cyclonic Precipitation: happens when the leading edge of the warm air meets a cool air mass. The warm air mass rises above the cool air mass (subsection) Relief Precipitation: precipitation created when an air mass rises to Ross a mountain barrier 13. *Maritime climate: climate type that is strongly influenced by the looseness of an and precipitation is high (e. G. , Vancouver, Halifax) Continental climate: climate type that develops away from the influence of the ocean.
The annual temperature range tends to be large and precipitation is low (e. G. , Resolute, Calgary) Give examples of Canadian cities that have maritime and continental climate (or a mixture of both): 14. *Climate Graph (pig. 156) 15. Ozone: a distinct ecological region determined on the basis of physical, biological, and human factors Which ozone do we live in? Maximized Plains 16. *Who was the group of 7? A famous group of 7 people who painted the landscapes of Canada (Franklin Carmichael, Lawyer S. Harris Alexander, Young Jackson, Frank H.
Johnston, Arthur Lisper, J. E. H. MacDonald, Frederick H. Barley) Who was Tom Thomson? An unofficial member of the Group of 7. He died before the group formed How would you describe the paintings of other Canadian Artists’ depiction of Canada? How do the paintings reflect the different landforms regions? Industries and Environmental Issues (pig. 270-pig. 430) 17. Primary Industries: industries that deal with the production of primary products such as minerals that are mined or quarried, or an agricultural product that is harvested in its raw state (e. G. Farming, mining , fishing, and logging) Secondary Industries: industries involved in the manufacturing of some kind of product from the primary material into a finished product (e. G. , car manufacturing, computer manufacturing, clothing, construction, and beer making) Tertiary Industries: industries that provide services rather than goods. This is Canada’s largest industrial sector (e. G. , teaching, health care, travel agents, insurance brokers, and sales people) Quaternary Industries: highly specialized and usually expensive knowledge-based technological and support services (e. . , computer programmers, aids researchers, and space technicians) 18. *Factors that caused the collapse of the East Coast Fishery: Overflowing: The catch allowed by the federal government each year appears to have been too high Improvised fishing technology: After World War 2 people made technology better to catch more fish which made overflowing even worse Uncontrolled foreign fishing: By the late sass some countries such as Japan and Russia caught more fish than would have been allowed Destructive fishing practices:
When trawlers were trying to catch one type of fish, many other types of fishes would have been caught in the net too. These unwanted fish were usually Just thrown away Changes in natural conditions: Changes in environmental conditions have been blamed for the decline in the fish stock. Water temperatures have dropped and the seal population has been eating most of the important fish that we need 19. 3 different methods of logging: Clear-cutting: logging method whereby all trees in an area (except for very small ones) are cut at one time Cholesterol logging: method of logging, often used in paving some seed-bearing trees to regenerate the logged area Selective cutting: lumbering technique in which only trees of a certain type, size, and quality are cut Which is most destructive and why? Clear-cutting because it removes every tree. If people don’t replant the trees, less desirable species may grow.
As well, the exposed soil may erode, and the land may be damaged 20. *Ecological Footprint: measure of total human impact on an ecosystem Which factors are used to calculate E. F? Water use, clothing, stuff, shelter, transportation, fun, and food 21 . *Greenhouse Effect: absorption of heat energy by greenhouse gases and eradication into the atmosphere Global Warming: rise in the world’s temperatures as a result of increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere How does it contribute to climate change?
It causes some effects of climate change What are the consequences of climate change? Sea level rising, more storms, higher temperatures, and shorter winters Human Geography (pig. 186-pig. 264) 22. How are changes in population growth measured? Population growth rate. The way to find that out is to add the net migration rate and the natural increase rate together 23. *Describe Canada’s population growth patterns. Compare patterns from the past, the present, and the future: In the year 2000 Canada had a population of about 30 million people.
In the 100 next years it is said that the population will increase and in the year 2100 Canada would have a population of about 75 million people What challenges are we facing in terms of population growth? 24. *Push Factor: factor that causes people to emigrate from their country (e. G. , war, poor economic and educational opportunities, terrorism, and natural disasters) Pull factor: factor that draws immigrants to a country (e. G. , Job opportunities, freedom of speech and religion, and lower taxes) 5.
Skilled Worker Immigrant: category of Canadian immigrant with the ability to make a significant financial contribution through the establishment or purchase of a business or the making of an investment that create Jobs Family-class Immigrant: category of Canadian immigrant in which family members and close relatives of Canadian citizens or landed immigrants can be brought to Canada Refugee: person who migrates to another country out of fear of cruel or inhumane treatment (or even death) in his or her own country 26. Explain how skilled workers are evaluated on the point system: Age, education, engage, experience, arranged employment, and adaptability. They have to get a minimum of 75 points out of 100 to be accepted Canada’s population distribution is probably concentrated and its general settlement patterns is probably concession Acumen: permanently occupied or settled areas of a country Where is Canada’s acumen located? Within 600 km of the US border Where is Canada’s Camas located?
In the acumen Which Camas are the largest? World/Political Geography: (pig. 434-pig. 467) 28. *Infant Mortality Rate: the number of babies which will die in their first year, out f a population of 1000 live births. The higher the number, the less developed a country will be Birth Rate: the amount of babies born per thousand of the population per year. The higher the number, the more developed a country will be Death Rate: the amount of babies born per thousand of the population per year.
The higher the number, the less developed a country will be Arbitration: the percentage of the population that lives in urban areas. The higher the number, the more developed a country will be Agricultural Percentage: the amount of the working population that arks in agriculture. The higher the number, the less developed a country will be Life Expectancy: this is the average age to which everyone in a country is supposed to live. It is measured in years. The higher the number, the more developed a country will be Health: this is measured in population per doctor.
The higher the number, the fewer doctors there are and therefore the less developed a country will be Education: the amount of children who go to primary and secondary school (%). The higher the number, the more developed a country will be GNP/GAP: this is a measure f the average amount of income a person in a country and the amount of the country itself earns. It is measured in US. The higher the number, the more developed a county will be Economic Development Rate: this measures the rate of economic growth of a country.
The higher the number, the more developed a country will be Developed Country: country with a highly developed economy. Its citizens have high incomes, abundant food, good housing, and can afford many luxuries (e. G. , Canada) Newly Industrialization Country: countries in the transition stage between developing and developed countries. Newly industrialization countries typically have rapidly growing economies (e. G. , Brazil) Developing Country: country with a poorly developed economy.