Compare how money, s opposed to barter, facilitates trade. SPACESHIPS-? Describe the environmental, economic, cultural and political effects of human migrations and cultural diffusion on places and regions. SUCCESS POP-? Explain how trade promoted economic growth throughout world Objectives: I can: read and research a topic to take a position in which to present, argue, and defend my position with evidence to support my claims on both sides of a topic in an academic controversy.
I can: write an essay on a topic taking a position in which to present, argue, and defend my position with evidence to support my claims based on analysis gain from my learning experience in an academic controversy. ; Take one side of the controversy and write an argumentative essay supporting that side. ; You may use the notes you took as a reference to write your essay. Overview: The time period covered in the story is the life of Percales, about 495 to 429 B. C. , but mostly the fifty years from 480 to 430 B.
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C. , the Golden Age of Athens. During this time, the city of Athens was at its most powerful both politically and culturally. It was more or less at peace after the destruction of the Persian Wars, and had a very strong navy; t had also become the leader of a group of states called the Delia League. The Athenians did not get along very well with the cities in the Peloponnesus area of Greece, particularly Sparta and Corinth and their allies; this was partly due to jealousy over Athens’ growing power.
Document Summary: These documents will allow students to glean and gather relevant information and evidence to support their position in answering the question: Who was Percales and why is he important to Greece? Students will answer the following questions along with their analysis of the documents to formulate their position and consensus on he topic of the essential question. Document 1: What is Plutarch aim in writing the Life of Percales? So far we haven’t heard a great deal about Percales himself: only some details about his ancestry and appearance.
How do those two things tie in with Plutarch ideas of virtue? Why does Plutarch believe that perfumers and pipers must be wretched human beings? Do you agree? What point is he trying to make about leading a virtuous life? Document 2: It might be fun to do a scene from “This is Your Life” with Percales and Angoras, but it might also be difficult at this point since we haven’t read much about the later life of Percales. You could keep it in mind for later, though! What were the things that Angoras taught Percales? What does the illustration of the man bothering Percales show about Percales’ character?
How were the two explanations for the ram’s horn different? How were they both right? Document 3: Was it necessary for Percales to take on the new attitude of superiority that he did? Think of a worker who is promoted to manager and who now has authority over his former co-workers and friends. What are some of the problems that could cause? Do you feel Percales was justified in becoming aloof and often sending someone else to make his speeches? Compare this to the style of leadership that Jesus showed (always available to talk to people, being a constant example for others, enjoying time with his friends).
To quote Plutarch: “Real excellence, indeed, is best recognized when most openly looked into; and in really good men, nothing which meets the eyes of external observers so truly deserves their admiration, as their daily common life does that of their nearer friends. ” If this is what Plutarch believes, then why does he admire Percales so much? Document 4: How did Percales get around the problem of not having a great deal of arsenal money to spend on what could be called “buying votes? ” Do you think politicians today do something similar? Do you agree with this way of influencing people?
Is there any other way to persuade people to support your cause? Outline Common’s fall from popularity, his attempt to make a comeback, and the peoples’ reaction. How is it that he still could not come back into full power over Percales? Why was it important that Percales… Good leader that he was… Should have at least one major political opponent? How did he respond to the selection of Discusses? What does it mean that he “made his policy subservient to their pleasure? Document 5: How did Percales handle the criticism that he had spent too much public money on the buildings?
How did the people react to his suggestion? How did a friendly… Or perhaps unfriendly… Spirit of competitiveness spur the Athenians on in the various areas of the fine arts? Can such competitiveness sometimes be a positive force for getting things done? (Think of examples. ) When does competition become a negative thing? Document 6: The first paragraph is very important, because it describes the rise of the Athenian empire under Percales. Read it slowly again, and pick out the ways that Athens had become powerful. How much of that power was directly in Priceless hands? How did this increased power change Percales?
Plutarch says of Percales: “he alone, as a great master, knowing how to handle and deal fitly with each one of them, and, in an especial manner, making that use of hopes and fears, as his two chief rudders, with the one to check the career of their confidence at any time, with the other to raise them up and cheer them when under any discouragement, plainly showed by this, that rhetoric, or the art of speaking, is, in Plat’s language, the government of the souls of men, and that her chief business is o address the affections and passions, which are as it were the strings and keys to the soul, and require a skillful and careful touch to be played on as they should be. ” Charlotte Mason had a horror of teachers playing on those particular strings in their students, in the sense of manipulating them by playing on their hopes and fears, or interfering in that part of their souls that was between them and God. In this sense, one could say that Percales was an expert manipulator of people.
He was logical, persuasive, skilled in rhetoric; so skilled that he could persuade an entire city to do as he thought best. With another such man in power, this could have caused disaster. (Think about Hitler? ) What was the one ingredient that made Percales stand apart? Describe Priceless system of managing his own money and business. Why did he choose to be so rigid and exact with his household and business expenses? How does Plutarch Justify both the lifestyle of Angoras, who left all his worldly goods behind him, and Percales, who held onto his large house and land? How does the last incident described illustrate the responsibility of those who do have wealth?
Document 7: Discuss this sentence: “But Percales curbed this passion for foreign inquest, and unsparingly pruned and cut down their ever-busy fancies for a multitude of undertakings, and directed their power for the most part to securing and consolidating what they had already got, supposing it would be quite enough for them to do, if they could keep the Lacerations in check” What was the inclination of the Athenians now that they had become powerful? What was Priceless vision? Which was more realistic? Was Percales Justified in buying off the inexperienced king Politicians with a bribe? Document 8: How is it typical of Percales that he resolved “to master them and take he town, rather with some cost and time than with the wounds and hazards of his citizens? ” How did he handle the over-eagerness of the Athenians? Track Percales’ actions during the original problem, then the siege and the aftermath. Is he continuing to live by his high ideals, or is he beginning to take power at the expense of other peoples’ freedom?
What do the final quotes say about his opinion of himself after these events; and (for discussion), is that necessarily a bad thing? (Is it reasonable that he assumed most of the credit for Athens’ victory? ) Document 9: How did Percales manage the people in this time of war? Explain how he anteed criticism and complaints. Is there something we can learn from that? Document 10: Comment on Priceless last statement to his friends. Is it true that no Athenian ever wore mourning because of Priceless decisions? If Percales is wrong, could his statement be caused by his weakened state of mind, or was that something he had always believed? Do you think, if it was true, that it should have been the thing he was most proud of?
Plutarch last paragraph says that the depth of Priceless rule and the wisdom of his policies were never fully appreciated until after his death. Even the seemingly unfair amount of power that he held suddenly appeared to have been a good thing, since it held back some of the trouble that lurked outside. Some people (for instance, the founding fathers of the United States? ) believe that power inevitably corrupts and that too much political power in itself is a bad thing. Was Percales the exception? Procedure (80 minutes): 1 . Introduction of lesson, objectives, overview of SAC procedure (1 5 minutes) a. Academic Controversy PPTP b. AC Handouts I. Handout 1 ii. Handout 2 iii. Handout 3 ‘v. Handout 4 v. Handout 5 v’. Handout 6 vii. Handout 7 viii. Handout A ‘x. Handout B 2.
SAC group assignments (50 minutes x 2 h class periods) a. Assign groups of four and assign arguments to each team of two. B. In each group, teams read and examine the Document Packet c. Each student completes the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2), and works with their partner to prepare their argument using supporting evidence. D. Students should summarize your argument in #3. 3. Position Presentation (10 minutes) a. Team 1 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 2 records Team Xi’s argument in #4. B. Team 2 restates Team Xi’s position to their satisfaction. Team 2 asks clarifying questions and records Team Xi’s answers. D. Team 2 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 1 records Team g’s argument in #4. E. Team 1 restates Team g’s position to their satisfaction. F. Team 1 asks clarifying questions and records Team g’s answers. 4. Consensus Building (10 minutes) a. Team 1 and 2 put their roles aside. B. Teams discuss ideas that have been presented, and figure out where they can agree or where they have differences about the historical question c. Decide which position has the strongest supporting evidence. D.
Write a thesis statement for your group’s position. E. Write three points that support your group’s position. F. Write two points that support the other side. Closure: Students will write on their group paper a summary describing: ; What you did well to understand the controversy and come to a conclusion of best evidence. ; What you could do better to make sure everyone understands the issues of this controversy. Make sure each group member understands the group decision and can explain what was decided and why. ; What position has the best evidence? What evidence supports that position? ; What were the weaknesses of the other side?
Assessment: I can: write an essay on a topic taking a position in which to present, argue, and defend my position with evidence to support my claims based on analysis gain from my learning experience in an academic controversy. ; Take one side of the controversy and write an argumentative essay supporting that side. ; You may use the notes you took as a reference to write your essay. Materials: ; Prize-?Age of Percales ; Documents DOCUMENT PACKET Document 1 Headstones… Life of Percales jealousy over Athens’ growing power. Here is one online map of Classical Greece: http://www. Texas. Deed/courses/classically/images/manpower. Jpg. ) Athens had a system of government which was unusual at that time: it was ruled by an assembly of all the male citizens (excluding slaves and foreigners), and that was called a democracy (government by the people).
There were ways, however, for some men to become more powerful than others, and one way was to be elected general of the army (at least one of them; Donald Kananga says that there were ten of them at once, all of equal power). (All male citizens made up the army Just as they made up the overspent. ) This is the position that Percales held for many years. He is considered the greatest statesman Athens ever had, though he was not the king, the president or even the mayor of the city. The men of Athens believed that everyone could and should contribute to the life of the city… Because the city wasn’t where they lived, they were the city, in much the same way as Christians say that the church is not a FCC lie building or denomination but the entire body of believers.
The goddess whom Athens was named, wore armor and was called the goddess of also in charge of wisdom and the arts. There is a legend that when Tat was destroyed in the Persian Wars, a tiny olive shoot (the olive was her sprouted on the temple site as a sign of hope and rebirth. The Athenian faith in that sign, and their efforts into building something both beauty in her honor. Plutarch story of Percales gets off to a bit of a slow start, reason for it; he is building up to a description of someone of imports introduction is meant to emphasize this. Oust for comparison: look at t chapters of the Gospels. ) He begins with a long section (shortened in t are using) discussing virtue. You may want to try writing your own defied eating Plutarch.
A dictionary will give some interesting variations on has meant in different times: the Random House College Dictionary m excellence and goodness, but also gives an archaic meaning of manly valor, and refers to the Latin root “IVR,” meaning man. Finally he begins Percales himself, describing his ancestry, appearance, and his most FAA personality traits. (How are the Gospels similar or different in this rest story continues, he will come back many times to those key points of P personality, and show how they contributed to his success and that of in Percales’ viewpoint, was really the same thing. Note on pronunciation: Percales is usually pronounced “Pair-a-cliche. ” We are inspired by acts of virtue with an emulation and eagerness that to imitation. In other things there does not immediately follow upon the and liking of the thing done, any strong desire of doing the like.
Nay, m the very contrary, when we are pleased with the work, we slight and SE workman or artist himself, as, for instance, in perfumes and purple day taken with the things themselves well enough, but do not think dyers a otherwise than low and sordid people. It was not said amiss by Antis people told him that one Seminar was an excellent piper, “It may be s retched human being, otherwise he would not have been an excellence King Philip, to the same purpose, told his son Alexander, who once at a meeting played a piece of music charmingly and skillfully, “Are you not son, to play so well? ” For it is enough for a king or prince to find leisure hear others sing, and he does the muses quite honor enough when he but present, while others engage in such exercises and trials of skill.
He who busies himself in mean occupations produces, in the very pap about things of little or no use, evidence against himself of his negligee indisposition to what is really good. Nor did any generous and ingénue t the sight of the statue of Jupiter at Pisa, ever desire to be a Aphid’s, that of Junk at Argos, long to be a Polycyclic, or feel induced by his plea poems to wish to be an Onscreen or Philters or Archbishops. But virtue statement of its actions, can so affect men’s minds as to create at once admiration of the things done and desire to imitate the doers of them. Fortune we would possess and would enjoy; those of virtue we long to exercise; we are content to receive the former from others, the latter we wish others to experience from us.
And so we have thought fit to spend our time and pains in writing of the lives of ammos persons; and have composed this tenth book upon that subject, containing the life of Percales, and that of Babies Maximum [see note below], who carried on the war against Hannibal, men alike, as in their other virtues and good parts, so especially in their mild and upright temper and demeanor, and in that capacity to bear the cross-grained humors of their felicitations and colleagues in office which made them both most useful and serviceable to the interests of their countries. Whether we take a right aim at our intended purpose, it is left to the reader to Judge by what he shall find here. Percales was of the tribe of Chiantis, and the township Scholar’s, of the noblest birth both on his father’s and mother’s side.
Xanthiums, his father, who defeated the king of Persians generals in the battle at McCall, took to wife Aggregate, the grandchild of Clientèles, who drove out the sons of Postscripts, and nobly put an end to their tyrannical usurpation, and moreover made a body of laws, and settled a model of government admirably tempered and suited for the harmony and safety of the people. Percales in other respects was perfectly formed physically, only his head was Mathew longish and out of proportion. For which reason almost all the images and statues [ http://bill. Ballpark. Net/archives/p01270/Plato/tour/percales. HTML ] that were made of him have the head covered with a helmet, the workmen not apparently being willing to expose him.
The poets of Athens called him “Chancellors,” or quill-head, from “chinos,” a quill, or sea-onion. NARRATION AND DISCUSSION: This section is difficult to narrate since it doesn’t have a real storyline. For this lesson, you may want to focus on these questions instead. What is Plutarch aim in writing the Life of Percales? So far we haven’t heard a great deal about Percales himself: only some details about his ancestry and appearance. How do those two things tie in with Plutarch ideas of virtue? Why does Plutarch believe that perfumers and pipers must be wretched human beings? Do you agree? What point is he trying to make about leading a virtuous life?
Vocabulary: emulation – effort or desire to equal or excel others sordid – morally ignoble or base; vile; the opposite of honorable Muses goddesses who ruled over various arts mean occupations – lowly, unimportant activities negligence – neglect ingenuous – innocent, naive; someone without much experience the nine Source: Excerpt from a study by Anne White, Embassies Online: Percales, http://www. Inflammableness. Org/Policies. SHTML Document 2 Headphone… The Vulcan Education of Percales On the old television show “This is Your Life,” someone famous was always reintroduced to childhood friends, army buddies, and other people that had an influence on his or her life.
Often the host would bring on the stage “your old third grade teacher, Mrs.. Peabody. ” You could almost see these supposedly mature, confident celebrities shrinking to eight-yearned size again in front of these little grey- aired ladies, expecting them to correct their grammar in front of a million people. Early teachers can have a great influence on us. (What teachers do your parents remember best? ) Even homelessness often have teachers outside of their own family who have helped to shape their thinking people at church or other adult friends, or even authors of books that have influenced us. (Maybe we should say that Plutarch is one of our teachers! Percales was influenced by several teachers, and two of them are discussed in this section Zen and Angoras. They each taught him certain skills and views of the world. Angoras in particular had a very strong bent towards reason and logic that would have done credit to Mr.. Spook. (If you don’t know who that is, ask your parents. ) TEXT: Percales was a hearer of Zen, the Leticia, who treated of natural philosophy in the same manner as Parricides did, but had also perfected himself in an art of his own for refuting and silencing opponents in argument; as Timid of Philip describes it,– Also the two-edged tongue of mighty Zen, who, Say what one would, could argue it untrue.
But he that saw most of Percales, and furnished him most especially with a weight ND grandeur of sense, superior to all arts of popularity, and in general gave him his elevation and sublimity of purpose and of character, was Angoras of Clanswomen; whom the men of those times called by the name of Onus, that is mind, or intelligence, whether in admiration of the great and extraordinary gift he displayed for the science of nature, or because he was the first of the philosophers who did not refer the first ordering of the world to fortune or chance, nor to necessity or compulsion, but to a pure, unadulterated intelligence, which in all other existing axed and compound things acts as a principle of discrimination, and of combination of like with like. For this man, Percales entertained an extraordinary esteem and admiration, and, filling himself with this lofty and, as they call it, up-in-the-air sort of thought, derived hence not merely, as was natural, elevation of purpose and dignity of language, raised far above the base and dishonest buffoonery’s of mob-eloquence, but, besides this, a composure of countenance, and a serenity and calmness in all his movements, which no occurrence whilst he was speaking could disturb, a sustained ND even tone of voice, and various other advantages of a similar kind, which produced the greatest effect on his hearers.
Once, after being reviled and ill-spoken of all day long in his own hearing by some abandoned fellow in the open market- place where he was engaged in the dispatch of some urgent affair, he continued his business in perfect silence, and in the evening returned home composedly, the man still dogging him at the heels, and pelting him all the way with abuse and foul language; and stopping into his house, it being by this time dark, he ordered one of is servants to take a light and to go along with the man and see him safe home. Nor were these the only advantages which Percales derived from Anagram’s acquaintance; he seems also to have become, by his instructions, superior to that superstition with which an ignorant wonder at appearances, for example, in the heavens, possesses the minds of people unacquainted with their causes, eager for the supernatural, and excitable through an inexperience which the knowledge of natural causes removes, replacing wild and timid superstition by the good hope and assurance of an intelligent piety.
There is a story that once Percales had brought to him from a country farm of his, a ram’s head with one horn, and that Lampoon, the diviner, upon seeing the horn grow strong and solid out of the midst of the forehead, gave it as his Judgment that, there being at that time two potent factions, parties, or interests in the city, the one of Discusses and the other of Percales, the government would come about to that one of them in whose ground or estate this token or indication of fate had shown itself. But that Angoras, cleaving the skull in sunder, showed to the bystanders that the brain had not filled up its natural place, but being oblong, like an egg, had collected from all parts of the vessel which contained it, in a point to that place from whence the root of the horn took its rise. And that, for the time, Angoras was much admired for his explanation by those that were present; and Lampoon no less a little while after, when Discusses was overpowered, and the whole affairs of the state and government came into the hands of Percales. * he was the first of the philosophers who did not refer the first ordering of the world to fortune or chance, nor to necessity or compulsion, but to a pure, unadulterated intelligence, which in all other existing mixed and compound things acts as a principle of discrimination, and of combination of like with like – Angoras taught that all things were formed and existed out of pure reason, a kind of spiritual intelligence that controlled the universe. This force of reason was called Onus in Greek, which is where he got his nickname. NARRATION AND DISCUSSION: It might be fun to do a scene from “This is Your Life” with Percales and Angoras, but it might also be difficult at this point since we haven’t read much about the later life of Percales.
You could keep it in mind for later, though! What were the things that Angoras taught Percales? What does the illustration of the man bothering Percales show about Percales’ character? How were the two explanations for the ram’s horn different? How were they both right? Hearer – student natural philosophy – the science of nature refuting – proving wrong elevation (and sublimity) of purpose – a desire to do great things; lofty ambitions buffoonery’s – coarse Joking mob-eloquence – talk that appeals to the mass of common people, reflecting the lowest intellectual level Source: Excerpt from a study by Anne White, Embassies Online: Percales, http:// www. Inflammableness. Org/Policies. HTML Document 3 Headphone… Percales in Power Charlotte Mason liked to talk about the importance of ideas. She said that a student’s job is to learn how to absorb true and right ideas and to reject wrong ones, rather than to accept wrong ideas and then try to make them seem right! What are some of the ideas you have learned from Plutarch or your other studies? Did you ever pick up a wrong idea about something that had to be corrected later? (If your younger brothers or sisters watch Mr.. Rogers on T. V. , watch along with them sometimes and e how he repeats the same simple ideas again and again for example, that it is all right to talk about feelings. We have read about Percales’ early education and the ideas that were sown in him of rhetoric (beautiful and persuasive speech), rational thinking and wanting to serve his people. In this section, Percales is now in his mid-twenties and has the opportunity to take on a position of high leadership in Athens. Although he is himself an aristocrat and has no real desire to see power given to the lowest classes of people (in his thinking, lower class men make irrational, emotional decisions), he sees that getting purport from the masses is his best offense against the even more aristocratic Common. His strategy works: he rises to the top and takes on a new and even more serious attitude befitting his position. Note on Characters: In this section, we are introduced briefly to Discusses, the son of Melissa.