What is Educational Technology? Assignment

What is Educational Technology? Assignment Words: 1143

James Finn in 1963. Even in those early days, definitions of these terms focused on more than Just devices and materials. Settler notes that a 1970 Commission on Instructional Technology defined it as both “the media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional purposes … (p. 6) and “a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching.. (p. 6).

While today’s educators tend to think of educational or instructional technology as equipment-?particularly electronic equipment-?Settler 1990) reminds us that such a limited definition would have to change over time as resources change. Only about 20 years ago, Cubans history of technology in education since 1920 (1986) placed the emphasis on radio and television, with computers as an afterthought. If such a description were written now, the focus might be on the Internet, while 20 years from now, it might be on intelligent computer-assisted instruction or virtual reality or whatever these technologies are called then.

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As the 1970 commission concluded, a broader definition of educational technology that encompasses both tools and processes “belongs to the true” (Settler, 1990, p. 6). Therefore, in the view of most writers, researchers, and practitioners in the field, useful definitions of educational technology must focus both on the process of applying tools for educational purposes and the tools and materials used. As Muffled (1994) puts it, “Technology.. Is not a collection of machines and devices, but a way of acting” (p. 25).

Four Perspectives That Define Educational Technology If educational technology is viewed as both processes and tools, it is important to begin by examining four different historical perspectives on these processes and lolls, all of which have helped shape current practices in the field. These influences come to us from four groups of education professionals. Because each of these groups emerged from a different area of education and/or society, each has a unique outlook on what educational technology is, and each defines it in a slightly different way.

To some degree, these views have merged over time, but each retains a focus that tends to shape the integration practices it considers important. Perspective #1 : Educational technology as media and audiovisual communications -? This respective grew out of the audiovisual (VA) movement in the sass, when higher education instructors proposed that media such as slides and films delivered information in more concrete, and therefore more effective, ways than lectures and books did. This movement produced audiovisual communications or the “branch of By clarifier Theory NC messages that control technology’ tar. R,l the problem efficiency%/ studies and unarm, {teachers} and render,log’,:” to war The focus is on effective processes t using technologies and understanding the impacts of technology on learners and organizations. Areas of specialization may include distance learning, human performance technology, technology integration and management, media design and development, learning sciences, instructional design, change management, and communications processes. It should be noted that the field is not merely concerned with learning technical skills nor the simplistic use of technology for technology’s aka in teaching, a common misconception by non-educators. Practitioners in the field typically hold an advanced degree, Master’s or doctorate.

Official Definitions The Association for Educational Communications and Technology, the professional society for ET, defines it as: Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. As a field, educational technology emphasizes communication skills and approaches to teaching and learning through he Judicious use and integration of diverse media. Scholars in the field examine the uses of innovative media and technologies for education, examining all aspects from direct student learning to management and impacts on institutions.

As in all forms of applied technology, the field studies how theoretical knowledge and scientific principles can be applied to problems that arise in a social context. Practitioners in educational technology seek new and effective ways of organizing the teaching and learning process through the best possible application of technological developments. These activities rely upon a body of knowledge for successful and ethical implementation, rather than routine tasks or isolated technical skills. Research and Knowledge Base The field provides the research base for effective utilization of new media in education and by default is interdisciplinary in its approaches and theories.

This may include human-computer interaction and cognition, social and behavioral aspects of media in learning, or change and innovation theory among social and cultural groupings as the basis for research and study. The knowledge base for the field has en well documented by the discipline’s major professional organization, the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (ACT). While some programs refer to the discipline as instructional technology or instructional design, the I-JAM department has taken the more current terminology of “educational technology’ reflecting the aspects of the field that go beyond instructional development to include the wider social and behavioral impacts of technology on education. For a sense of the range of the field, check out the ACT web site. Each a much larger audience from greater geographic locations help disabled and alp students with busy schedules, freedom to work at home on their own time offer more classes at peak demand times of day and week, increasing flexibility in class scheduling decrease paper and photocopying costs, promoting concept of “green revolution” access to students of everything instructors present in the classroom train students to learn new technology skills they can use later in the work place Disadvantages instructors and students need training to learn how to use online technology difficult to motivate students, requires self-discipline and self-motivation

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