Formative Assignment The aim of this assignment is to discuss the relevance of evidence based practice (EBPP) whilst practicing as a professional social worker. With reference to my chosen focus question, the qualitative stance has been chosen in the form of population, issue and outcome (POI). The specific focus question which I have chosen for this piece of work Is homelessness. Various research methods with be undertaken and explained, in order to discover three relevant papers which relate to the focus question. Evidence-based social care Is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current est. evidence in making decisions regarding the welfare of those In need. ” (Jackets et al. 1997) EBPP is relevant to social work because it is a methodical approach to making decisions that emphasizes formulating answerable questions. In addition, it allows professionals to interpret relevant research evidence, apply the best available evidence when working with clients and evaluate the chosen Intervention.
From a positive stance, evidence-based practice helps people to immerse themselves into day to day lives and cultures of others, this is called ethnography which can be dewed as a holistic approach. Hammerers and Atkinson (2007) state that ‘ethnography usually Involves the researcher participating, overtly or covertly, In people’s daily lives for an extended period of time’. (Hammerless and Atkinson, 2007). This involves the researcher to watch, listen, ask the participant questions and collect documents and artifacts.
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The two opposing models of research questions, quantitative and qualitative, can disclose varying outcomes when assessments are being conducted, due to the type of method used to dictate information. Qualitative approaches are more holistic based, In the sense that It sustains a better quality rapport between the professional and service user. Whereas, a quantitative approach Is more statistic based, which can be manipulated to confirm and, or dismiss theoretical hypotheses. Quantitative and qualitative approaches to research are often viewed as being contrasting as they are based on deferent epistemology. Hammerless, Scott 1996, reminds us of the key distinction between different methodological positions and Issues In using different research and techniques also that overarching methodological frameworks provide distinctive ways of approaching research’. Scott, D, Morrison, M, 2005) A combination of both research methods can provide the professional richer analysis, which Improves the researchers outcome and can enable appropriate emphasis at different stages of the research. From a social work stance, a qualitative question has been formed to discover the experiences of adolescents who are living on the streets.
This includes the population of adolescents, the outcome of experience and the issue which Is living on the streets. The qualitative question which has been chose specifically for this assignment Is What are the experiences of an adolescent living on the streets? Furthermore, qualitative papers were chosen as they fit the purpose of the topic homelessness interests me and the idea of carrying out in depth research to discover individuals experience on the streets was intriguing.
Additionally, having acquired research on homelessness prior to making a final decision on the focus question, it was discovered that ‘around 75,000 young people aged 16-24 experienced some form of homelessness annually – about one out of every 100 young people. ‘ 0 Ironware Foundation, 2008) This extreme statistic had a personal effect, coming from an adolescent’s perspective, hence the reason why additional research was chosen for this topic.
Research also revealed that the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse among homeless adolescents is significantly higher than in the case among the general population’ (Committee on adolescent health care services et al. 2009). This indicates the relevance of homelessness social needs and social services, as the vast needs could be identified if the homeless individuals were recognized, which in conclusion would lesson the statistic figures. Moreover, having explained my POI elements, the sensitivity when using the Boolean operators was apparent and therefore it was essential that I used specific and applicable key words.
When conducting my initial search using the Boolean operators, it was not a precise search, as sixty four results were found. The idea of trial and error, using the CHINCH database, when searching for specific Journals was practical and supported me to gain more precise and relevant Journals for my focus question. When the key words for the population were decreased, the results of the search where minimized. Limits were not needed in this search, as by using the CHINCH database, minimal results were gained straightforwardly.
This shows the key words which were implemented into my search method and the results which were gained: Population Issue Outcome Results Search 1 Young women, teenage girls, women. Homeless, living on the streets. Experiences 64 Search 2 Young women Homeless, living on the streets Experiences, perspectives. 20 Search 3 Young girls Homeless, living on the streets Experiences, perspectives. 4 Search 4 Young women homelessness Experiences 4 The final decision of the chosen three Journals was made on the basis that they were all similar in the relation to a qualitative approach and all had suitable ethological features which can be analyses.
If this research was to be completed a second time, the format used previous for this piece of work would not be changed, as suitable Journal papers were easily identified. However, if the research question was dissimilar it may be necessary to use a different research database. Summaries; paper The first Journal article which has been summarized is ‘Homelessness and Health in Adolescents’ by A Halfpenny, H Barman and C Forkful, at The University of Western Ontario in 2007. In the qualitative study, the purpose was to explore the homelessness amongst adolescents.
Specifically, the questions on which the study was based around include the experiences of the homeless, how health is perceived and how policies and gender shape their experiences when living on the streets. The design method which has been used for this qualitative research is a critical inquiry. This relates to the epistemological perspective, which states that knowledge within a critical theory framework is historically constructed and socially situated. Study participants who self identified themselves as homeless were recruited from a community centre that supports adolescents who were living on the streets.
In total six female and seven male participated in the research, aged between fourteen and nineteen. Individual and group interviews were undertaken, which were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim once the interview had taken place. The main findings of the study were that several participants believed that they were not able to change their current situation. One of which stated that without support and assistance from the Children’s Aid Society he would feel isolated, as no other support is provided from family or services.
It also reveals in the findings that the adolescents o aspire a better life for themselves, however it was common for the participants to have the inability to maintain stable employment or education. A multitude of factors combined contributed to the reason why the individuals were homeless including the suffering of sexual, emotional and physical abuse from parents. In conclusion, the research is very informative and it is apparent that the interviews were in-depth, due to the nature of the findings.
The Journal ‘perceptions of homeless young people with mental health problems’ by Derbyshire, et al (2006), is a qualitative study which souses significantly on the outlooks and experiences of young homeless people with mental health problems and linking this to their involvement with health and social care. The design method which has been sustained throughout this research study is the conduction of ten interviews with individuals aged between sixteen and twenty- four; seven females and three male participants.
The sampling criteria for this data collection insisted that the participants were experiencing homelessness, willing to engage, speak English and are experiencing mental health problems. The objective of he in-depth interviews was to discover the positive and negative factors experienced by the participants in relation to their involvement with health and social care services. To provide a more unperturbed environment for the participants, the hour long interviews took place within Steeling youth health centre, conducted by a mental health nurse and an experienced qualitative researcher.
Streetwise also helped with the recruitment of participants; therefore the surroundings were familiar to these individuals. With the consent of the participants, the interviews were audio-taped and then transcribed verbatim. The main findings revealed how the participants were part of a marginal’s group and by having a homeless status it was commonly stated that they were negatively labeled within health and social care provisions, both hospital and community and public and private.
Paper 3, Working with girls living on the streets in East Africa: professionals experiences’ had the objective to discover why the phenomenon of children living on the streets is a global and escalating problem. The context of this encouraged researchers to interview thirty-seven female careers who care for girls living on the streets. A alliterative approach was used to analyses transcribed data that was collected through narrative interviews, this data was then analyses using a phenomenological- hermeneutic approach. ‘Hermeneutic phenomenology is focused on subjective experience of individuals and groups.
It is an attempt to unveil the world as & Gad (2004), state that Hermeneutic phenomenology is the philosophical underpinning of choice in qualitative health research. The context of the interviews consisted of seven individual interviews and two group interviews, in both a narrative approach was portrayed. The outcomes of the interviews, with regards to the experiences of adolescents on the streets, were that the careers’ stated that the girls who live on the streets have a perception that they will have a seemingly bleak future.
This results in the homeless adolescent struggling for a better future against street culture and their own and other people’s stereotypes, values and beliefs. Concluding this Journal paper, the life experiences of the adolescents are being advocated by their care, therefore this could be seen as indirect information from the main source. Furthermore, an outlook on one’s life from a professional stance is even, which could be dissimilar in comparison to a homeless persons perceptions of life and access to services.
Critical Analysis Burns & Grove (2007), state that ‘critical analysis of research studies is one of the most important steps towards incorporation of evidence into practice’. Critiquing a research study is the process, in which an individual reviews the research topic, the research design, the underlying theoretical framework, the sampling technique, data collection methods, the analysis and conclusion. Improvements for the study can then be discussed in relation to the studies strengths and weaknesses; with preference to the limitations of the study.
Critical appraisal is a process in which the quality of evidence is assessed, evaluated or questioned, often using a critical appraisal tool; which help towards the development of consistency throughout the critiquing of research. By following this process, the gathered in-depth findings of the research can be critically analyses and considered in relation to alternative perspectives; including theory. The five stages of EBPP were initially implemented for the profession of medicine; nonetheless can easily be applied to the practice of social ark.
The stages consist of: asking answerable questions, finding the best obtainable evidence, appraising the evidence for its validity and applicability, applying the results of this appraisal in clinical practice and lastly evaluating performance of evidence-based practice (Newell, R and Bernard, P, 2006). EBPP in relation to qualitative research involves exploration into the trustworthiness of a study, by looking at honest and reliable findings and linking them to the design method and data analysis that was incorporated.
Furthermore, qualitative research is critiqued against elements of trustworthiness and the four key concepts which are credibility, transferability, dependability and configurability. Credibility refers to the research report and whether the researcher’s portrayal of the setting, methodology, findings and conclusion are accurate alongside the participant’s perceptions; with regards to the research question. In order for the researcher to be credible, an accurate representation of the partaker’s thoughts, feelings and actions must be precise when writing the research report.
Ladino et al. (2010) states that ‘all qualitative studies should indicate how much time was spent in he participants… Taking part in meaningful interactions with participants enhances credibility. Stubbier et al. (2011) states that triangulation is essentially a combination of methodologies used to study a particular phenomenon’. Method triangulation is an aspect which enhances the credibility of a qualitative study and should be used rigorously by the researcher to ensure veracity.
In papers one, two and three only one method was used to collect data which was to interview; this potentially does not make the papers as credible. Within qualitative studies, data should be collected at al appropriate points of time and levels of the person as this is a holistic approach, therefore more realistic results will be encountered (Stubbier et al. 2011). In papers one and three, the researchers use an ethnographic approach to data collection as they use semi-structured individual and focus group interviews.
The purpose of using combined methods is to contribute new thoughts and perspectives on the researchers understanding of the phenomenon under study (Morgan, 1997). Whereas in paper two, data was collected from a one-hour long individual interview including many open, focused questions. Individual interviews are beneficial as they have the aim to explore a subject in detail with the participant in a one-to-one setting and on a personal level, without distraction and opinions from other participants.
The semi-structured approach is when the researcher has a series of questions and topics in mind, however can also freely ask subsequent questions to prompt further discussion (Newell, R and surname, P, 2006). Conversely, focus groups can be particularly useful in health and social care research for various reasons such as homogeneous participants can influence each other to revived experience and information and the dominating member of the group may prompt conversation from a passive member. The use of focus groups as a self- contained method often leads to an emphasis on research design.
Focus groups typically add onto the information which is gathered through other qualitative methods including individual interviews (Morgan, 1997). In addition, group interviews can give the researchers the opportunity to observe the participants reactions to questions and interactions with other group members; these observations tend to be more accurate than what would be witnessed in an individual interview. Whilst paper one and three used combined methods of data collection, enhancing the credibility, they did not offer participant checks.
In paper two, the participants were offered the opportunity to review the transcripts, this strengthens the credibility of paper two, as the accuracy of the participants accounts can be verified, which overall adds to the trustworthiness of the research report. However, paper one does suggest the researchers inability to share findings with many of the participants due to the transient nature of a homeless adolescents lifestyle. Variety of participants. The participant quotes in the papers are discussed and expanded from a professionals point of view that looks significantly and empathetically at the homeless perspective of the individual.
Although in paper three, no participant quotations are included in the report, nonetheless are described within the findings section. Through sharing direct quotes from various participants in the findings section, this gives the reader a sense of data saturation (Pitney, W and parker,J, 2009). As cited in Stubbier et al. (201 1), Lincoln and Cuba (1985) have stated that ‘It is not the naturalist’s task to provide an index of transferability; it is his or her accessibility to provide the database that makes transferability Judgment possible on the part of potential appliers’.
Transferability refers to how individuals in similar situations in relation to the participants can make sense of the findings within the data collected. This element of trustworthiness is categorically used in qualitative research where the aim is to not generalize, but to consider the extent to which significant concepts identified may be transferable to other contexts (Eveready, H and Sharp, P, 2009). In both papers one and two, a rich thick description of the demographic details has en specified in the report and both include a similar sample size, setting, age, gender and ethnicity of the participants.
On the other hand, paper three only describes the sample size and gender and does not debrief on the setting, which makes It less transferable when individuals try to make sense of the data. The sampling technique used for papers one and two is the snowball approach which is a useful tool to gain information from hard-to-reach participants; enhanced relevance knowing that the papers are based on homeless adolescents. From a critical stance, the snowballing technique can be harmful to some participants if they UT other potential respondents in contact with the researcher and revealing their status.
Rubin and Bobbie (2010), state that the snowball sampling technique is the process of accumulation and is convenient when individuals with a status belonging too minority group are difficult to locate. Paper three proposes the convenience sample which is relevant to the study as the researcher will have found it easy to locate female workers who support homeless adolescents, by entering one workplace. A convenience sample is not seen to be very credible, as the sample is convenient for the researcher and is based on purely who s available at the time of the study.
This approach is highly limited, lacks diversity, and the validity of the findings may not be accurate, and however the convenience sample can be used to obtain information quickly and cheaply. Ritchie et al. (2013). Configurability refers to the extent in which the data in the research report can be confirmed. ‘Configurability means that the researcher has determined the accuracy or of configurability within a research paper is for the process of data analysis to be described in sufficient detail. In all three papers, there is a clear data analysis section which debriefs what analysis methods were used during the research process.
Paper one which is possibly the most conformable paper audio-recorded all interviews and then transcribed verbatim following the interview. By transcribing verbatim, this confirms substantially what the participants said, therefore gives a more accurate understanding, rather than only recording notes. Willing, C, (2013) states that note taking during an interview is not sufficient evidence, can be distractive due to lack of eye contact and is no substitute for a full recording, therefore it is recommended to renascence verbatim.
The interviewee’s and researcher’s belonging to papers one and two reviewed the transcripts and then a map of key issues were formulated and analyses using similar computer qualitative software programmer; Atlas-It and Novo. As cited in Holloway and Wheeler (2010), Lincoln and Cuba (1985) developed the concept of the audit trail, which is the detailed record of the decisions made before and during the study and a clear description of the research process.
Throughout each paper, the decisions made previously to the data collection are compared with the perspectives of the exponent’s, as well as the description of the research process. Papers two and three analyses the patterns, similarities, dissimilarities and perceptions that were discovered, in order to find explanations for the researcher’s prior understandings. This highlighted and conceptualized the respondent’s experience of homelessness and the content which was found can be compared to the researcher’s initial ideas and thought on the topic.
Regarding paper three, the text was analyses using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach (Recover 1976). A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach is the philosophy of the nature of understanding a particular phenomenon and the scientific interpretation of phenomena appearing in text (Stubbier et al. 2011). This approach provided an opportunity to combine the philosophy of the meaning in a text with a hermeneutic interpretation. Within a qualitative study, an explanation of how data is collected and analyses enhances the dependability of the study. Dependability involves accounting for all the changing conditions in whatever is being studied as well as any changes in the design of the study that were needed to get a better understanding of the context’ (Newell, R and Bernard, P, 2006). Recording devices such as audiotapes and videotapes are used extensively in all types of qualitative research to support dependability. Dependability and credibility are alike in comparison; a paper can not be dependable without being credible.
To assess the dependability of a research paper, the purpose of the study, the data collected and the interpretations of the findings need to be analyses against consistency. Additionally, the logic behind the sample size, sample technique and the and purpose of the research study. A clear limitations section was represented within papers one and two; however this was not indicated in paper three. Paper one illustrates how only one community service was used to recruit participants, which could of inhibited a diverse sample and understanding amongst the respondents.
Field notes were recorded in paper one after the interviews were conducted and these notes assisted the researcher in revising the interview guide as the study progressed, as well as assisting in data analysis. Paper one also provided the research plan to participants, as well as an information pack to show what the research entailed. Moreover, with reference to the limitations section, paper two indicates how the small, exploratory, qualitative study eased within one service- in one City, should not be over-generalized, as this factor lacks credibility and dependability.
Both papers two and three do not explain whether field notes were recorded. Field notes within a qualitative study are fundamental in order to record any imperative information from the interview, including basic necessities such as the date, time, setting, participants, and social interactions. Furthermore, field notes can also describe the researcher’s thought and feelings whilst completing the data collection (Patton, M, 2002).
With reference to relevance to practice, the experiences of adolescence living on the trees is significant to the understanding of social work with regards to meeting individual needs and liaising with other professionals to ensure this occurs. Papers one and two are most credible, as they provided a clear understanding of the process, the researcher’s liaised well with not only assisting interviewee’s but also the participants; who are the chief resource in the studies. Contrarily, paper three lacked structure and the applicability of the four key concepts lacked sufficiency and evidence.