It Is also referred to as effort-to-performance expectancy. If you have high self-efficacy (the confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task) your motivation will be high. A seeming contradiction in expectancy theory requires explanation: People will engage In low-probability behaviors provided that the valence Is extraordinarily high. 40. A Brief Look at the Evidence. Two researchers performed a meta;analysis of seventy-seven studies of how well various aspects of expectancy theory were related to workplace criteria such as performance and effort.
Despite mixed evidence, the general conclusion reached was that the here components of expectancy theory are positively related to workplace criteria. Another finding was that effort expended on the Job was positively correlated with Leadership Skills and Behaviors Associated with Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory has many implications for leaders and managers with respect to motivating others. Some of these implications would also stem from other motivational theories and would fit good management practice in general. 10. Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to achieve organizational goals. 0. Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being motivated. 0. Train and encourage people. 40. Make explicit the link between rewards and performance. 50. Make sure the rewards are large enough. 60. Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward. 70. Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes. 80. Understand individual differences in valences. 90. Recognize that when workers are in a positive mood, high valences, instrumentalities, and expectancies are more likely to lead to good performance. 110.
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GOAL THEORY Goal setting is a basic process that is directly or indirectly part of all major theories of work motivation. The core finding of goal theory is as follows: Individuals who are provided with specific, hard goals perform better than those who are given easy, nonspecific, “do your best” goals or no goals. At the same time, however, the individual must have sufficient ability, accept the goal, and receive feedback related to the task. A goal is what a person is trying to accomplish. AAA. Basic Findings of Goal Theory Following are consistent findings from goal theory:O 10.
Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalized goals. 20. Performance generally improves in direct proportion to goal difficulty. Stretch goals lead to improved organizational effectiveness and professional development. Goals that are too difficult can be frustrating, yet powerful goals can be inspirational. These powerful goals that often relate to a noble cause can be divided into subtotal to facilitate attainment. 30. For goals to improve performance, the worker must accept them. (Laboratory experiments suggest, however, that the importance of commitment may be overrated. 40. Goals are more effective when they are used to evaluate performance. 50. Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards. Rewarding people for reaching goals is perhaps the best-accepted principle of management. 60. Group goal setting is as important as individual goal setting. 70. A learning-goal orientation (wanting to learn) improves performance more than does a performance- goal orientation (wanting to look good). BOO. Underlying Mechanisms and Concerns. One explanation of the value of goals is that they establish a discrepancy between the real and the ideal.
The accompanying arousal prompts the person to achieve the goal. A major concern about using goals to motivate performance is that leaders, as ell as other workers, will take unethical and dysfunctional shortcuts to attain their goals. 1110. USING RECOGNITION AND PRIDE TO MOTIVATE OTHERS Motivating others by giving them recognition and praise can be considered a direct application of positive reinforcement. Recognition is a strong motivator because it is a normal human need, and most workers feel that they do not receive enough practice. AAA.
Appealing to the Recognition Need of Others To appeal to the recognition need of others, identify a meritorious behavior and then recognize the behavior with an oral, written, or material reward. Also, apply the rules for behavior modification. Because recognition is low cost or no cost, it has an enormous return on investment in comparison to a cash bonus. However, not everybody responds well to recognition-?particularly if they are shy and would be embarrassed by public recognition. A challenge in using recognition effectively is that not everyone responds well to the same form of recognition.
For example, highly technical people prefer a laid-back, factual statement of how their work mad a contribution instead of general praise. To maximize its motivational impact, cognition should be linked to corporate values and should also help workers attain personal goals. It is helpful to give quick recognition either by e-mail, text messaging, voice mail, or paper note. BOO. Appealing to Pride Giving recognition for a Job well done helps satisfy the desire to feel proud. Giving workers an opportunity to experience pride can be a strong internal motivator yet also grants recognition.
Switchback said the leader should place the compass on pride, not money. The manager should celebrate “steps” (attaining small goals) as much as the “landings” (the major goal). Small achievements instill pride. VIVO. EQUITY THEORY AND SOCIAL COMPARISON According to equity theory, employee satisfaction and motivation depend on how fairly employees believe they are treated in comparison to peers. The theory contends that employees hold certain beliefs about the outcomes they receive from their Jobs, as well as the inputs they invest in these outcomes.
The core of equity theory is that employees compare their inputs and outcomes (making social comparisons) with others in the workplace. If employees believe that they receive equitable outcomes in relation to their inputs, they are generally satisfied and motivated-?and vice versa. People consider their own inputs in relation to outcomes received, and they also evaluate what others receive for the same inputs. Equity is said to exist when an individual concludes that his or her own outcome/input ratio is equal to that of other people. The highest level of motivation occurs when a person has ratios equal to those of the comparison person.
When people perceive an inequity, there are three possible actions: AAA. Alter the outcome (e. G. , ask for a raise). BOO. Alter the input (e. G. , devote less time to work). CO. Leave the situation (e. G. , quit and find a more equitable Job). The implications for leaders are as follows: (1) No matter how designed a productivity or cost cutting might be it must still provide equitable pay. (2) The leader should attempt to see that subordinates perceive themselves to be getting a fair deal in terms of what they are giving to and receiving from the company. VOW.
COACHING AS AN APPROACH TO MOTIVATION Effective leaders are good coaches, and good coaches are effective motivators. Although high-level leaders coach less, there is a coaching component at all levels of leadership. A survey suggests that many managers are falling down by failing to coach, including feedback and guidance. Coaching is a way of enabling others to act Characteristics of Coaching Coaching might be explained as the art of management. The purpose of the coaching interaction is to help the employee learn from the Job in order to his help his or her development.
Coaching requires trust on the part of both people in the relationship. Effective coaching focuses on the growth and development of people, rather than telling them what to do in a given situation. Coaching offers concrete advantages, such as higher motivation and the personal development of the people who are coached. BOO. Fallacies About Coaching Misconceptions about coaching are relevant to understanding the process. 10. Coaching only applies in one-to-one work. (In reality, the group can also be coached. ) 20. Coaching is mostly about providing new knowledge and skills. (In truth, people often need more help with underlying habits. 30. If coaches go beyond giving instruction in knowledge and skills, they are in danger of getting into psychotherapy. (In truth, coaches should simply follow the model of effective parents. ) Note that most mental health professionals would take strong exception to this fallacy. 40. Coaches deed to be experts in something in order to coach. (In truth, a great coach does not have to be a great player. ) 50. Coaching has to be done face-to-face. (In truth, telephone and email can be effective substitutes. ) VIVO. COACHING SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES Coaching skills are important because coaching is a direct way of influencing group members.
If implemented with skill, the following suggestions will improve the chances that coaching will lead to improved performance. O AAA. Communicate clear expectations to group members. BOO. Build relationships. CO. Give feedback on specific areas that require improvement. DO. Listen actively. EH. Help remove obstacles. OF. Give emotional support. (Use positive rather than negative motivators. ) GO. Reflect content or meaning. HO. Give some gentle advice and guidance. 10. Allow for modeling of desired performance and behavior. JOY. Gain a commitment to change. OK.
Applaud good results. Viii. EXECUTIVE COACHING AND LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS Executive coaching is “A one-to-one developmental process formally contracted between a coal and a management-level client to help achieve goals related to professional development and/or business performance. Today, people from a wide variety of backgrounds become executive coaches, as well as career coaches and life coaches. AAA. Specific Forms of Assistance Provided by Executive Coaches Executive coaches help managers become more effective leaders by helping them in a variety of ways.
Four examples of assistance offered by executive coaches are: Helping corporate stars attain peak performance, such as discovering that the leader has untapped creativity and imagination. Counseling the leader about weaknesses, such as being too hostile and impatient, that could interfere with effectiveness. Serving as a sounding board when the leader faces a complex decision about strategy, decision-making skills by helping him think more broadly about issues and appreciate how his or her actions will affect the organizational system.
It might be worth discussing why several of the items are keyed in a particular direction. An example would be number 18: “l make it a policy not to thank somebody for doing a Job they are paid to do. ” Leadership Skill- Building Exercise 10-1 : Estimating Valences for Applying Expectancy Theory Many people have never thought of attempting to quantify the motivational value of rewards and punishments (or outcomes). As a consequence, this exercise can be thought-provoking. Variability in the ratings will reinforce the idea of managing for individual differences in valences.
The outcome rating scale offers good possibilities for student research projects, such as looking for significant differences in ratings among various groups. Leadership Skill-Building Exercise 10-2: The Application of Goal Theory This modest exercise in goal theory gives students an opportunity to implement one of the leader/ manager’s most important tasks-?helping group members establish effective goals. The most challenging part of this assignment is to set goals that fit the basics of goal theory, such as clarifying how the group members will be rewarded for attaining goals.
Leadership Self-Assessment Quiz 10-2: How Much Do I Crave Recognition? Understanding the intensity of your own recognition need can help you appreciate that many other people also have a strong need for recognition. Also, thinking through the recognition need helps reinforce the relevance of this motivator. Leadership Skill-Building Exercise 10-3: The Application of Equity Theory Here is an opportunity for the student to apply equity theory at a personal level. One of the benefits of this exercise is that nit brings to the surface the magnitude of their inputs.
Students who have not already visited www. Alarm. Com might find the information illuminating in terms of what others are earning who are performing similar work. Class discussion might reveal that equity comparisons are important for the motivation of some-?but not all-?students. Leadership Self- Assessment Quiz 10-3: Characteristics of an Effective Coach An important purpose of this activity is to emphasize the importance of having the right characteristics to be an effective coach.
Some students will recognize the importance of developing certain personal characteristics in order to become an effective coach. Leadership Skill-Building Exercise 10-4: Coaching for Improved Performance As in all role plays, students need encouragement to use some of the ideas in the text rather than simply using their present skills and knowledge. Students usually enjoy this type of role-play because it reflects the day-by-day reality of being a manager or a leader. COMMENTS ON DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES 10. 0 Identify several outcomes you expect from occupying a leadership position.
What valences do you attach to them? The discussion in Chapter 1 about the satisfactions and frustrations of being a leader might help Jog the student’s thinking bout both positive and negative outcomes associated with being a leader. Valences are a personal matter, but outcomes with high positive valence include power, status, and high income. Outcomes with negative valence might include long hours, time away from family and friends, and receiving so much criticism. 20. How can the influence exercised by a charismatic leader tie in with expectancy theory?
One possibility here is that charismatic and transformational leaders point the way toward very desirable outcomes, such as a much stronger organization. These outcomes will have high valence for many people. 30. Explain how valence, instrumentality, and expectancy could relate to Job performance. Valence can relate to Job performance because people will work harder to achieve rewards to which they attach high valences. Instrumentality relates to Job performance because people will expend more effort when they have reasonable assurance that hard work will lead to a worthwhile reward.
Expectancy relates to Job performance because workers will be more motivated when they believe they can achieve the required performance. 40. What is a potential second-level outcome a person could gain from receiving an A grade in the course for which you are reading this text? From receiving an F grade? Potential second-level outcomes from achieving an A grade would include self-satisfaction, a higher grade point average, and perhaps a better Job offer. Second-level outcomes from an F grade could be self-dissatisfaction, withdrawal of a scholarship, being placed on academic probation, and not receiving a valued Job offer. 0. What is an example of a noble cause a leader at Domino’s Pizza might use to motivate a store manager? What about a noble cause for workers in the Data Motors division that is manufacturing a car to sell for $2,500? A noble cause for Domino is roving happiness to millions in the form of delicious, low-price food they can enjoy with friends, family, and even alone. The Data Motors division that is manufacturing a $2,500 automobile is enabling people to become automobile owners of a new automobile who never thought they could own their own car. 60. Olin what way might perceived as charismatic?
Giving frequent recognition to group members helps motivate and build relationships with them. The relationship-building aspect is particularly important for the leader to be perceived as charismatic, because charisma is in part a relationship between the leader and subordinates. 0. Oho would a leader/manager be aware of a given group member’s input/output ratio so the leader/manager could apply equity theory? Calculating a group member’s input/ output ratio would require careful interviewing of the group member along with a careful analysis of what the company is providing the person.
People usually have to engage in serious reflection to understand the magnitude of their inputs. For example, a woman who was the captain of her high-school soccer team might not have thought of that experience as a leadership input she brings to the company. 80. In what way is coaching related to hands-on leadership? Hands-on leadership, if not practiced in the extreme, contributes to coaching. The hands-on leader works closely with the details of the operation, and is therefore in a good position to coach. He or she has a keen understanding of what group members are doing. 90.
How might a leader use coaching to help increase ethical behavior among group members? Coaching is a powerful vehicle for enhancing ethical behavior among group members. As the coach observes behavior reflecting questionable ethics, the group member can be coached on the spot. Similarly, when the coach observes ethical behavior in a situation with ethical temptations (such as overcharging a customer), the coach can give that individual special recognition. 100. Ask a manager to describe the amount of coaching that he or she does on the Job. Be prepared to bring your findings back to class.
Managers will probably report a heavy incidence of coaching because managers realize that they should be coaching. Also, many managers perceive themselves to be doing a lot of coaching because it is socially desirable. PLAUSIBLE RESPONSES TO CASE QUESTIONS Leadership Case Problem A: Justine Salisbury Tries a Little Recognition This case illustrates that although a recognition program has excellent potential, some careful lancing may be required for the program to be capture the motivation of its intended recipients.. 10. What advice can you give Justine Salisbury about the most likely motivational consequences of his recognition program?
Without expressed enthusiasm for the store (restaurant) managers, the recognition program may not take hold in the form of improved performance. There is a small chance that Justine is correct that after the store managers get a taste of recognition, the motivation program will attain its intended results. 20. What other form of recognition should Justine offer the store managers? The sophisticated answer here is that we do not know what other forms of recognition Justine should offer the store managers until he interview them or observes them carefully to discover what type and forms of recognition they are seeking. 0. Would it be better for Justine to have a recognition program aimed directly at the order-takers and cashiers than at their managers? Explain your reasoning. According to Justine analysis, the best opportunity for more revenue per store stemmed from changes in the behavior of order-takes and cashiers. It would therefore be an effective idea to aim the recognition program at hose two groups of workers. However, the store managers should not be neglected, managers along with the order takers and cashiers.
Including other members of the crew in some small way would also add to the motivational climate of the stores. Leadership Case Problem B: Coach Sally German This case history illustrates how coaching is often applied to improve performance in a situation where performance improvement might be difficult to attain. 10. What advice can you offer Sally German to do a better Job of coaching Tony Costello? Sally German appears to be too brutal. Tony Costello is despondent, and would therefore deed some emotional support and encouragement. Sally appears too detached and confrontational. 0. What advice can you offer Tony Costello to get more out of the coaching session? Perhaps Tony can be more assertive about asking for whatever help Sally and the bank might have to offer. He only asked one question about generating more mortgage applications that the mortgage committee will approve. He needs help, and so does the bank because the mortgage business in is suffering. 30. What is the most positive thing Sally did as a coach? Sally confrontational approach should help Tony accept the reality that the bank is to going to change its commission-only arrangement with him.
At the same time, Sally exhortations show Tony that he is not going to receive any more help from the bank. Perhaps the harsh words of Sally will help Tony decide whether he should find a different type of work. 40. What is the most negative thing Sally did as a coach? Sally comes across as having very little compassion, and appears almost indifferent to his plight. A particularly harsh statement was, “Do something good or be gone. ” Although this statement may be true, a key part of the coaching role is to be supportive and helpful to facilitate improved performance.