Topic and a Purpose Sources for choosing a topic Determining the general purpose of your speech Difference between a specific purpose and a central Idea Topic: The subject of a speech Choosing a topic: Topics you know a lot about Topics you want to know more about Brainstorming: A method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas. Personal Inventory Clustering General Purpose: The broad goal off speech. Specific Purpose: A single Infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes o accomplish In his/her speech.
Tips for formulating the specific purpose statement: Write as a full Infinitive phrase, not as a fragment Express as a statement, not a question Avoid figurative language Limit to one distinct idea Not too vague or general Question to ask about specific purpose: Does it meet the assignment Can it be accomplished in the time allotted Is the purpose relevant to my audience Is the purpose too trivial for my audience Is the purpose too technical for my audience Central Idea: A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major Ideas of a speech.
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Residual Message: What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech Guidelines for a central idea: Should be expressed in full sentence Should not be in form of a question Should avoid figurative language Should not be too vague or general Chapter 6- Gathering Materials Resources for library research Credible types of sources for public speaking Catalogue: A losing of all books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library Call Number: A number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to hat catalogues articles from a large number of Journals or magazines Reference Work: A work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers Encyclopedias Yearbooks Quotation Books Biographical Aids Specialized Research Resources: Virtual Libraries Government Resources Multicultural Resources Evaluation Internet Documents: Authorship Sponsorship Regency Chapter 7- Supporting Your Ideas Four types of supporting material What they are and when to use Supporting Material: The materials used to support a speaker’s ideas Examples Statistics Testimony Analogy Examples: Brief Example Extended Example Hypothetical Example Tips for using examples: Use to clarify ideas Use to reinforce ideas Use to personalize ideas Make examples vivid and richly tested Practice delivery of extended examples Statistics: Representative? Reliable source?
Tips for using statistics: Use statistics to quantify ideas Use sparingly Identify source of statistics Explain the statistics Round off complicated statistics Use visual aids to clarify Expert Testimony: from people who are recognized experts in their field Peer s Paraphrasing Tips for using testimony: Quote or paraphrase accurately Use from qualified sources Use from unbiased sources Identify the people you quote or paraphrase from Chapter 8- Organizing the Body of the Speech Four organizational patterns used in Informative Speaking Connectives, transitions, previews, summary, signposts Strategic order of main points: Chronological Order Spatial Order Casual Order Topical Order – main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics Connectives: Transitions Internal Previews Internal Summaries Signposts.