Ap Human Geography Midterm Study Guide Assignment

Ap Human Geography Midterm Study Guide Assignment Words: 1139

APHUG MIDTERM! ESSAYS!! Demographic Transition Model: Current Global Migration Patterns Matching Terms! Site: Situation: Nomothetic: Scale: The ratio between the distance on the map and the distance on the Earth’s actual surface Spatial: Pertaining to space on the Earth’s surface Anthropogenic: Human-induced changes on the natural environment Idiographic: A special place in one specific area Connectivity: The degree of economic, social, cultural or political connection between two places (NYC/LA vs.

NYC/Woodbridge) Contagious diffusion: Spread through direct contact between a person or a place with nearly everyone affected. Hierarchical diffusion: Spread first through the most connected/similar places or between those most susceptible (AIDS, HipHop) Relocation diffusion: Spread through migration and immigration Stimulus diffusion: A cultural adaptation is created as a result of diffusion. Demography: The study of human populations Cohort: A population group unified by specified common characteristics Ecumene: An inhabited place

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Homeostasis Plateau: population reaches carrying capacity Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children born each woman over her lifetime Natural Rate of increase: CBR-CDR Arithmetic Density: Number of people DIVIDED BY total land area Physiological Density: Number of people DIVIDED BY total amount of arable land Vernacular: Nonstandard language or dialect adopted by a social group Dialect: Regional variations of a dominant language Pidgin: A language with a small vocabulary and simple syntax derived from two or more languages used between two people who speak different languages

Creole: A complete language that began as pidgin but is now a narrative language in a region Antecedent boundary: Drawn before an area is well populated Subsequent boundary: Draw after an area has been settled Superimposed Boundary: Forced on an existing cultural landscape, Country, or People by a conquering or colonizing power that is unconcerned about preexisting cultural patterns Relic Boundary: A former boundary line that no longer functions as such, but is still marked by landscape features or differences on the two sides Acculturation: Assimilation:

Race: A socially constructed idea that separates people by biological characteristics Ethnicity: people or nation. Ethnic Homelands, Ethnic Island, Ethnic Neighborhoods Terms! Mercator: Used for ship navigation. (Accurate-Compass direction. Distorted-size) Robinson: Used by national geographic (Accurate-Nothing. Distorted- Everything) Polar: Choropleth Map: Using colors and shadings GIS- A map using thematic layers Formal region: An area that shares one characteristic (Language, religion.. ) Functional Region: An area around a node (Radio Station range.. )

Perceptional Region: Based on perception or feelings (Midwest Dixie.. ) Small scale-Large area w/ little detail VS. large scale- Small area w/ lots of detail Environmental Determinism: The belief that the physical environment is the dominant force in shaping human actions and cultures. VS Possiblism: The belief that human choice is the primary determinant of cultural development Demographic Accounting Equation: Population= Births-Deaths + Immigration-Emigration Gravity Model: Population1 x Population2 / Distance Time-space compression: Distance is shrinking due to technology

Overpopulation: When population out numbers natural resources Cultural Complex: Collection of cultural traits Lingua Franca: Common language between two natives Theocracy: A government run by a religious leader Irredentism: When people claim land when they aren’t from there Balkanization: The breaking up of a country due to religious conflicts Fundamentalism: Strict beliefs and interpretations of sacred writing Distance Decay: The bigger the distance from two places, people, object, the less interaction Multilingualism: Knowing more than one language. Monolingualism: Only one

Population Pyramid: Analyzes a country’s age-sex distribution. Rapid=Large base small top. Slow=Fairly equal on all sides. Negative=Large middle, small base Malthus Theory: Food production increases arithmetically but human population increases exponentially >> human population growth will outpace people’s ability to produce food Chain migration: Someone follows the migratory path or friends or family Rust Belt: Northern industrial states leaving hundreds of vacant factories VS. Sun Belt: Southern states moved for jobs caused centriod to move south.

Cultural Hearths: Locations on the earth’s surface where specific cultures first arose Syncretism: Borrow from both past and present Folk Culture: The artifacts and customs of daily life preserved by smaller groups partially or totally isolated from the mainstream society around them VS. Pop Culture: The constantly changing mix of artifacts and customs diffused through mass production to large societies. Cultural Landscapes: The manmade forms created by a group that are usually a reflection to their culture and physical environment.

Globalization: A trend of political and economic links between people and regions due to mass communication that has created interdependence and a global marketplace. Gender equity: A measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country. State: A political territorial unit ruled by an established government. Nation: A community of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by unity. Nation-State: a state whose territorial extent coincides with that occupied by a distinct nation of people who share a common culture.

Centripetal: Towards! Easy communication, population is close together, strong federal government, ONE religion, unity or continuous civilization Centrifugal: Away! Complete opposite of ^^ Crude Birth Rate: Number of lives births per 1,000 people. Crude Death Rate: Number of deaths per 1,000 people. Natural Rate of Increase: CBR-CDR Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children born to each woman over her lifetime Dependency ratio: The percentage of people in a population who are either too old or too young to work compared to the working population

Toponyms: Name derived of a specific place Universalizing Religion: Appeals to many people of many cultures and religions of the world, (Islam, Christianity, Buddhism) VS. Ethnic Religion: Appeals to the particular group in specific region (Judaism, Hinduism, Tribes) State Shapes: Compact-circles, ovals, rectangles (Easy communication, Lack of resource) Elongated- long and narrow (Easy transportation) Fragmented- Broken into pieces (Hard to invade, hard communications/transp. ) Perforated- Another state inside it [Italy] (Hard communication/transp. Prorupted- Narrow land extension [Leg, tail] (Access to raw materials) Heartland Theory- The greatest world power would be whoever gained control of the heartland of Eurasia which would provide raw materials. Supranational Organizations: EU- free movement of goods/services, people, capital, throughout euroupe. UN- International forum, peacekeeping forces, humanitarian aid. NATO- To protect the western Europe from communism. NAFTA- Canada, US, Mexico. Boundary Disputes: Definitional- Disagreement over how a boundary was delineated or interpretation of the historical documents that defined the border.

Territorial- Disagreement over the ownership of a region often because of a boundary being superimposed that divides an ethnically homogenous population. Allocational- Fighting over mineral deposits, fertile land, fishing grounds, water sources lying in or under border area. Operational- Disagreement over policies to be applied along a boundary such as immigration. Locational- When a river boundary changes its course. Core: Industrialized MDCs that drive the global economy Periphery: LDCs usually former colonies Frontiers: Unitary Government Systems: Federal government systems: Reapportionment: Redistricting: Stateless Nation:

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