Chromosomal mutations (altered garrotters) Down syndrome Retarded mental/physical development Extra chromosome 21 (an) triploid Other eukaryotic mutations ramifications Inversions Deletions duplication ultraviolet, cosmic rays, radioactivity) b) chemical (complex hydrocarbons in the environment) (mutation rate is low, only one per person) GENES-??the hereditary units on chromosomes Genes consist of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules having the following components: 1 .
Nitrogenous bases ring compounds lots of N, C, H, often O Pureness (double ring) A-??adenine (double bond) G-??guanine (triple bond) Pyridine’s (single ring) T-??thymine (double bond) C-??cytosine (triple bond) TODAY COO 2. Nitrogenous bases are attached to a ribose (pentose) sugar lacking one oxygen 3. Sugars with their bases held together in a long string by phosphate (APP) molecules 4. Whole long ladder-like structure twisted into a double helix A nucleotide is a unit of both a DNA and RNA molecule consisting of a nitrogenous base, its ribose sugar and phosphate molecule.
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RNA (ribonucleic acid) is transcribed by DNA contains the information for protein synthesis stored in the DNA One more ribose oxygen than in DNA Has racial (U) replacing thymine (T) Kinds of RNA: (nucleolus to cytoplasm) RNA-??messenger RNA: code (boss) tarn-??transfer RNA: indication (worker) RNA-??ribosomal RNA (assembly line) Genetic Code: 4 letter alphabet (4 nitrogenous bases) TACT 3 letter words (codes & indication) 20 meanings (20 amino acids) arranged in long nucleotide sentences the big picture (how it works _ 1.
DNA has genetic information 2. DNA copies information to 3 RNA types 3. Mrs. and other types seep through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm 4. Cytoplasm contains the amino acids held by tarn chunks (eat> gut> blood> cells) 5. Mrs. and tarn are Joined by RNA . Amino acids from tarn guided by Mrs. 7. The proteins are the enzymes that catalyst metabolic processes and make us what we are Genetic Engineering One example-??making bacteria produce human insulin (diabetes) 1 .
Cleave genes at specific base sequence locations using one of the bacterial restriction underclass enzymes 2. Splice insulin gene into bacterial plasmid (circle of genes outside main chromosome) 3. Reproducing bacteria now produce insulin of the human type gene repair engineering a similar process when introducing normal non- mutated ones, and so is adding… EVOLUTION organic evolution is the evolution of organisms and is defined: various organisms that exist today were derived from ancestral forms through progressive change in structure and function.
Greeks knew fossils were ancient dead beasts but did not make much of it Erasmus Darwin (Darning’s grandfather) Lamar (French)-??inheritance of acquired traits (strength, mouse tails, and inheritance) “The Voyage of the Beagle” 1831-1836 (Bruit) Charles Darwin & Robert Fitzroy in their ass European museum full of worldwide specimens Charles Darwin, Alfred Wallace 1858 Darwin followed with many books Steps in the process of organic evolution.