Parkinson’s Disease Assignment

Parkinson’s Disease Assignment Words: 2803

Parkinson is named after DRP. James Parkinson, who described the disease in an essay called “shaking palsy” in 1817. Chariot later identified it in 1888 and gave it the proper name of Parkinson disease. There are a number of names that Parkinson disease is known by such as Parkinson, paralysis agitating, Parkinson and shaking palsy. This disorder occurs as a result of a loss of nerve cells in the part of the brain known as the “Substantial Niagara”. The nerve cells in this specific part of the brain are responsible for the production of a chemical in the brain known as “dopamine”.

Dopamine sends messages to the part of the brain that coordinates movement; that part is called the cerebellum. With the depletion of these nerve cells the “Substantial Niagara” can’t function properly. When approximately 80% of the dopamine is lost, the symptoms of Parkinson begin to appear e. G. Trembling of the limbs. The reason for the deputation of dopamine is not yet known. It is believed there are many factors that have a role in causing Parkinson disease, areas being currently researched are genetic and environmental factors. (REF: www. Parkinson. IEEE I. E. He information I received from the Parkinson Association of Ireland) Causes of Parkinson:- The loss of dopamine is the main cause of Parkinson disease but the cause of the loss of dopamine is currently unknown. This disease along with loss of dopamine destroys neurons. As I said above factors being researched are genetics and the environment. Despite being the subject of intense study, the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease still remains unclear. In recent years, however, there has been increasing evidence to support a role for genetic factors in its cause.

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This has come from twin and family studies, the mapping and cloning of PARK genes that are associated with the development of PDP, and analysis of potential susceptibility genes. There is also evidence indicating that environmental factors may play a role in the ease process. It is likely that for most cases, there is a complex interplay between these genetic and environmental influences in the causation of Parkinson disease. (REF: www. Pumped. Gob ) Neurons:- A neuron/neurons is a nerve cell and are the basic unit of the nervous system that carry information from one place to another e. G. Room the CNN to the muscle resulting in the muscle contracting. There are 3 types of neurons: Sensory Neurons: take messages from sense organs to the central nervous system (CNN) Motor Neurons: take messages from CNN to muscles and glands causing them to respond. These two types’ neurons are important in Parkinson disease as they affect Intersession: carry information between sensory and motor neurons. They are only found in the CNN. (REF: Leaving cert. Biology textbook Author: Michael O’ Callaghan) Transmission of a Neuron All or nothing principal- The conduction of nerve impulses is an example of an all-or-none response.

In other words, if a neuron responds at all, then it must respond completely. The number of neurons in the brain varies dramatically from species to species. One estimate puts the human brain at about 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses. It has been demonstrated that neurosurgeons can sometimes occur in the adult vertebrate brain, a finding that led to controversy in 1999. However, more recent studies of the age of human neurons suggest that this process occurs only for a minority of cells, and the overwhelming majority of neurons comprising the encounter were formed before birth and persist without replacement.

It is often possible for peripheral axons to regret if they are severed. A report in Nature suggested that researchers had found a way to transform human skin cells into working nerve cells using a process called transubstantiation in which “cells are arced to adopt new identities. ” Symptoms:- The symptoms most often associated with Parkinson are tremor (shaking), slowness of movement and rigidity. However, there are many other symptoms of Parkinson, not all of which affect movement. The different types of Parkinson symptoms are often divided into 2 categories: motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms.

Motor symptoms are related to movement, while non-motor symptoms include problems such as pain, depression, constipation and sweating. (REF: www. Parturition’s. Com ) Early signs and symptoms: The following symptoms typically appear on only one side of the body in early PDP. Later, they appear on both sides, but at the beginning of the disorder the signs are unilateral meaning one-sided. Most common beginning signs of Parkinson:- Resting Tremor Resting Tremor is a slight shakiness in the hand when the hand is at rest. The shakiness or trembling goes away when you move the hand to do something.

For example, the shakiness stops when you pick up a book or a cup. The tremor may continue down to the leg or foot on the same side and sometimes to the lips and Jaw. You might even feel an internal tremor as if the trembling is inside your body. Rigidity Seibel as well. Cog-wheel rigidity refers to a body motion (typically the arm) that looks like cogs in a wheel it’s very Jerky and similar to a spring-like action. The stiffness can affect all kinds of daily activities like buttoning up a shirt or turning over in bed.

Other Signs of Parkinson disease:- Braininess You might notice slow movements, otherwise known as braininess. It may take you longer to do things than it used to. It may feel like you are walking through water or that you don’t swing our arms anymore Postural instability You might have problems with balance. You may have trouble walking a straight line. You may stumble often. You sometimes lean too far forward when you walk. Generalized fatigue Parkinson can cause fatigue that persists for greater than two weeks. You may still feel worn out even when you have a good night sleep.

Gastrointestinal problems (Like constipation). Your bowel habits can change. You can feel constipated and sometimes it can go on for weeks or longer. “Facial mask” You might notice lack of emotional expressions on your face. This is sometimes called “masked faces”. Loss of dopamine leads to less control over the facial muscles and joss of eye blinks, so when you feel an emotion it may not necessarily be revealed through your facial expression. Slurred speech Your friends and family may also notice that your voice is softer and does not express as much emotion as it used to.

It can be difficult for friends, family and the general population to understand or hear what you’re trying to say. Personality change Sometimes your personality can change. You are a bit more rigid, less flexible, and more withdrawn. Micrograph or small, cramped handwriting You may notice that it is more difficult to write or sign your name. It can start out K but then the letters become smaller and closer together Anamosa Anamosa is a loss of the sense of smell. This is a subtle sign that many people notice only because it affects their appetites.

Anxiety or depression Anxiety of early PDP is usually experienced as free-floating and vague feelings of uneasiness and fear. Sometimes people might even experience a full-blown panic attack for no apparent reason. Your heart starts racing, your breathing becomes labored and you start to imagine all kinds of horrible things. The attack lasts only a few minutes but it is unforgettable. Depression, on the other hand, manifests itself as a day-to-day loss of interest in normal activities, and an inability to experience the same sense of pleasure in the things you used to love to do.

Executive dysfunction People can experience being more distracted or distracted easily, more impulsive than they used to be and have trouble making decisions Sleep disturbances This can be common even in people that don’t suffer from Parkinson such as problems during the day with an intense sleepiness, taking more naps during the you sometimes “act out” those dreams during the night. Some people may see things and reacting to them as if they were real even without waking. These latter symptoms may be related to ERM behavior disorder, an early sign of PDP.

Midlife obesity It’s quite common to gain an unusual amount of weight in your ass and ass for people suffering from PDP. (REF: www. About. Com/Paraprofessional’s ) Medication and Treatment:- There have been rapid and remarkable changes over the recent past in treating Parkinson disease. The development of new drugs and an understanding of how best to use them and the older drugs have significantly improved the quality of life of people with the disease. Most patients with Parkinson disease can be adequately treated with drugs that alleviate their symptoms.

If medications are not sufficiently effective, new, highly effective and safe surgical treatments are also available. Choices about medications made early in the course of the disease have a strong impact on the long-term course of the illness. Therefore, you should seek the advice of a movement disorders specialist even when the illness is only suspected. Movement disorders specialists are doctors who have completed their training in urology (brain and nerve problems) and have received special advanced training in treating Parkinson disease and other related diseases.

Drugs for Parkinson disease are prescribed with specific instructions about when to take them. It is important to follow your doctor’s instructions concerning how and when to take your drugs so that they will be effective and safe. Increasing, decreasing, or stopping the medicines you are taking may cause big changes in your symptoms and can be dangerous. Even if a medicine doesn’t seem to be working, when you stop taking it, your symptoms of Parkinson disease may be worse. Treatments may differ based on a person’s symptoms and age and how the person responds to a certain drug.

Drugs often improve symptoms, but they also may cause side effects. It may take some time to find the best combination of drugs for a particular person. Several drugs may be used to treat Parkinson disease at different stages of the disease. In general, treatment of early Parkinson starts with one or more of these medicines: Leopard and carbide Dopamine Zionists (for example, appropriate or repertoire) ; COM inhibitors (anticipate, telescope) MAO-B inhibitors (arraigning, selecting) Amandine

Interscholastic agents (for example, penetration or threateningly) The decision about whether it is better to use leopard or a dopamine agonies as the first treatment has not been fully resolved. The choice will most likely be different Currently, leopard is thought to be the most effective drug for controlling symptoms of Parkinson disease and for many years was the preferred drug for treating newly diagnosed people. (REF: www. Webbed. Com/ paraprofessionals ) If your are not eligible for a medical card you can get free medicines, medical and surgical appliances for the treatment of Parkinson under “Long Term Illness

Scheme”. Not only is it important to be taking your medication but it is also important to stay healthy which means watching your diet, keeping fit, continuing to be socially active and keeping an eye on your mental health. (REF: www. Parkinson. IEEE I. E. The information I received from the Parkinson Association of Ireland) Clinical Trials:- 1 . Bombardiers of Risk of Parkinson Disease This research aims to see if people with risk factors of developing Parkinson disease have any particular bombardiers for the disease and if they actually do develop PDP in later life because of these bombardiers.

They sometimes can be a way of tracking the progression of the disease and to see if new treatments are in fact helping with the slowing of the progression of Parkinson. This study looks for particular risk factors of developing PDP such as a strong family history of Parkinson disease, a known genetic abnormality related to PDP, a loss of sense of smell, a sleep disorder known as ERM behavior disorder or a fall in blood pressure when standing up.. The first part of this research will look for a loss of nerves and nerve cells.

Scientists will use bombardiers of loss of catecholamine as the main indicators of the disease recess. People with PDP typically have a loss of nerves and nerve cells that use catecholamine. In the second part of the study, scientists will determine if people who have abnormal PDP bombardiers actually develop the disease later in life, during four years of check-ups. 2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders This study uses deep brain stimulation (DB’S) to treat Parkinson disease, distant, and essential tremor.

In this study, researchers will provide DB’S surgery for up to 100 people (18 years of age or older) with movement disorders that are FDA-approved indications for DB’S, including Parkinson disease, distant, and essential tremor. Placed under the skin in the chest. The stimulator is attached to wires placed into the areas of the brain that affect movement. Stimulating these areas of the brain helps to block the nerve signals that cause abnormal movements.

Eligibility Criteria: To be eligible for the study, volunteers must: Have Parkinson disease, certain types of distant, or essential tremor. ; Have tried medications for their movement disorder but still have severe symptoms. ;Be able to provide their own informed consent for this study. 3. Endurance Exercise in Parkinson Disease (SPARS) The purpose of this study is to learn more about the effects of exercise on people who have been recently diagnosed with Parkinson disease. This study will test two exercise levels against no exercise.

Study investigators think exercise may reduce the symptoms of Parkinson disease, and will learn which level of exercise offers the most benefit. 4. Facilitation in Early Parkinson disease (FSP-ZONE) The purpose of this study is to determine if facilitation is safe, tolerated, and effective in slowing the progression of PDP symptoms. The study also will examine attention biological characteristics, or bombardiers, for PDP. Facilitation is an FDA- approved medication for treatment of type II diabetes; however it is currently not approved for PDP treatment.

Be 30 years of age or older ; Have early Parkinson disease (less than 5 years from date of diagnosis) ; Be taking a stable dose of arraigning 1 MGM/day or selecting MGM/day for at least 8 weeks but not more than 8 months ;Not be expected to require additional symptom treatment in the coming year ; Not have diabetes Not have a history of heart failure or bladder cancer Not be taking leopard or dopamine Zionists Generally be in good health What age was your mother diagnosed with Parkinson disease? Sixty years old, only her father noticed at the start.

How long was it before the symptoms of Parkinson began to become noticeable? Sixty two years old. How did it affect her daily routine? Was there anything she couldn’t do for herself anymore? She was told it was important to continue being social with friends and family and going to events and not to mind other people if they were staring at her or if it makes her uncomfortable to explain her symptoms to them. How did it affect you, your father and your siblings? My mother said it made her and her brothers and sister think about their future and how to look after her.

Did society treat her any differently than before she was diagnosed with her disorder? Sometimes she would freeze if she was out walking and would be unable to move forward, people in town would notice if passing by. Did she feel uncomfortable going out in public or when friends came around to the house while suffering from Parkinson? Yes, but she tried to ignore the stares. Did your family have to change any part of their day to day routines to concede with your mother’s Parkinson? Of course! Someone needed to be with her all the time.

A schedule was done up every week so everyone would know what days/times they were to be with her. Was anything done to ease the symptoms of the Parkinson disease? No, there wasn’t enough known about Parkinson disease at the time. What do you believe to be the scariest symptom/affect of Parkinson to see your mother go through? The blank emotionless expression that would be on her face. (“Facial Mask”) Conclusion:- I have learnt a lot from doing Parkinson disease as my chosen topic for my assignment on a disorder resulting in the failure of an organ/gland in the body.

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