Organization Behavior Assignment

Organization Behavior Assignment Words: 3579

Compare the application of different motivational theories in the workplace Of one Of the organizations selected. 10 3. 3 Evaluate the usefulness of motivation theories you have identified above for managers. 10 Conclusion 1 1 Introduction The two banks I have chosen for this assignment are HON. and Sealant Bank. Wheaton National Bank, or also known as HON., has been around in the country for over 120 years. It is recognized for its experience, expertise, skills and humanity, resulting in a responsible bank working for the Sir Lankan people. The bank visions itself as a leader, able to provide financial solutions through inspired people.

The HON. is not simply a bank but a financial firm. It has introduced new things to the country by having two local subsidiaries; HON. Assurance and Asthma Development. The alliance of the HON. and ODBC started the program of Acuity Partners. The bank has remarkable international relationships as well. Oman, AJAX, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines are a few countries who opened their doors to HON.. It has a total of over 300 Correspondent Banks worldwide, making it the first and only bank in Sir Lankan to have been listed under the Luxembourg Stock Exchange.

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They have been recognized as The Banker as the Bank of the Year twice over and they have also won numerous other local and global awards. In this way they have flourished during challenging times and have gained the trust and respect of the people in the nation. Sealant Bank started in 1987, with the aim to build a strong bank with equally strong subsidiaries serving the needs of all its customers within and outside Sir Lankan. During its 25 years of service it has established a strong network with 116 branches, island wide. It is often called as The Bank with a Heart, for they work towards the people’s best interest in mind.

LO 1: understanding the relationship between organizational structure and culture 1. 1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and cultures a) HON. organizational structure: When went to visit the HON., they informed me that they are not allowed to hand over the organization’s structure to outsiders. But, they gave me a brief general outline of it, though it differs from department to department. From what they told me, it is supposed to be a very tall structure since once an employee joins HON., they don’t leave. Their turnover rate is very low. Therefore, they have a very tall structure to keep all employees.

The following diagram is how I saw the way the organization is structured. TRAINEE BANKING ASSISTANT (Lowest level) COOPERATE MANAGEMENT (Highest level) BANKING ASSISTANT MANAGER CHIEF MANAGER SENIOR MANAGER EXECUTIVE JUNIOR EXECUTIVE b) Sealant Bank organizational structure: However, Sealant Bank gave me its structure and it is been displayed below. First I’ll talk about the similarities of both banks. * Business operations of both Organizations are the same, both being banks. * Both banks have a formal structure structured according to functions as seen above. * Both banks have a board of directors who take overall sections for the bank.

Following these orders is the CEO with the respective departments under him. * Organizations’ departments are divided by its function. Work is being delegated by superiors to the subordinates in both banks. Job rotation happens. In HON., it happens every three years. * First- name culture present in both banks, but superiors are called ‘Sir’ and ‘Madam’ with due respect. * Chain of command is strictly followed. * Both banks use new technology in their services and processing. * have also noticed that values of both banks are similar, both being customer- oriented.

Both strive to be professional and highly ethical, look for lasting relationships with customers, look forward to challenges and accept change, and have a passion for excellence in everything they do. * When visited both banks, I talked to a few employees and found out that they were friendly. They were willing to help me, answered my questions, and it was a good experience to me. * Work environments of both banks were good. Every employee has the necessary furniture to work on, soft music is being played in the background, and lunch breaks are given for thirty minutes. Each customer is being received politely and as for inquiries through phone calls, they answered quite well (even when I asked a few silly questions. ) * Both banks have award ceremonies and talent shows, celebrations for Fraud, VESA and Christmas as well. The HON. specially gives awards to employees who have served for 25 years in the bank. * Employees are given rewards and are taken on trips. * Dress codes are the same for both banks, with a smart casual day every Friday. These rules are strictly followed. Now I’ll talk about the differences.

I put it up in table format because it makes comparing easier. I HON. I SEALANT BANK Structure I Very tall Flatter I Environment I Strict, powerful, busy I Seemed looser and calmer I History I Has been around for a long time, therefore, it is more stable. I More recent, but has developed rapidly. I Organization size I Much bigger in size with 4500 employees. I Smaller with 3400 employees. I No. Of departments | 51 11 Job rotation in no. Of years 3121 International recognition Yes I No Induction and training Present-?given for five days. Present-?given for two weeks. I Security I High.

Not comparatively high. I Span of control for an employee I Narrow I Wider I Chain of command I Long I Shorter I When talking about the culture, I think HON. is more of a role culture while Sealant Bank is a power culture. Religion, politics and the economy of the country where the organization is based should be considered in this as well. Another thing which impacts the culture of both banks is the national culture. Sir Lankan has a set of certain values (for example; to respect elders, help each other, to have good hospitality) which will affect the organizational culture of the banks.

The HON. was founded in 1888 during the British rule and has been through two World wars which surely have contributed to the culture of HON.. In contrast, Sealant bank is relatively new to the business, but has developed quite quickly. 1. 2 Explain how the relationship between organization’s structure and culture can impact on the overall performance of the business. A) Relationship between structure and culture: “The success of a company meeting the goals of its organizational culture is dependent on having an effective set up and clearly defined relationship between organizational structure and culture. (Organizational Culture, 2007) An organization is formed from its structure. The structure affects many things inside an organization, directly or indirectly. When talking about whether the relationship between structure and culture-?yes, structure does have an effect on culture and culture affects on structure. I will explain this using HON.. HON. is a big organization with 4500 employees. As said earlier, it has a rather tall structure, big in the vertical sense. This allows many levels of management in between the top management and the line management.

There are 51 departments in it, making the bank have strict rules and regulations. This causes the bank to act strictly to keep control of such a large number Of employees. Saw that there are specific ID cards used by the organization which allows access only to the department the certain employee works in. This way, their attendance and time of arrival can be monitored and monthly reports are sent to the head of the department. Certain employees told me that almost everyone comes to work on time so that they won’t be black marked. Employees tend to get focused on one path once they reach the executive level.

As I learnt, an executive has three to four subordinates under him. The subordinates’ work is specialized and they have a narrow span of control. They have to follow the chain of command strictly. Employee autonomy is less, and they are highly supervised. I was told that everything is monitored. This shows how well the structure influenced the culture of the bank. Also, the founders of this organization, Mr.. R D Banks and A T Aitkin, who were British, has passed down values of their culture to the bank as well. Values of them must have helped form the structure of this bank.

HON. was founded in the hills for the tea plantation workers. The culture from those times might have also influenced the structure. For example, lets look at the cultures of two families where in Family A, the man is the breadwinner while in Family 8 the woman is the breadwinner. In A, due to the ore masculine power, the man becomes the leader of the family while in B, the Woman becomes the leader. Hence, culture of the family has affected its structure. B) Its impact on performance of business: “The principal influence on the organization’s performance is the quality of the workforce at all levels of the organization. (Brewster, Carrey, Dowling, Growler, Holland and Wrunic, 2003) This shows that to talk about job performance, we should focus on the employee because it’s the employee who does the job. When talking about how the relationship of structure and culture will affect job performance, several factors act upon this; * Standardization * Formalization * Specialization * Centralization Specialization increases as span of control gets smaller which will help increase productivity of the employee. Specialization and standardization have a positive correlation.

Introverts, or people who like the systemic way will find this satisfying and productive, while the more outgoing employees will find this stifling. Formalization, in turn is affected by standardization, will make sure that employees follow the regulations and gives them no independence. Again for some this will increase their job performance, and or the others it will decrease. Centralization has the same results. To people who find autonomy satisfying this will lead to higher job performance. To people who likes working according to orders, the results will be vice versa.

Another thing which will affect the job performance of an individual is leadership and motivation. As I said earlier, the structure of HON. is tall, which makes it a role culture. They are well structured and expect the rules and regulations to be followed by the employees. Because of this levels of standardization will be high. Departments are divided functionally. As span of intro narrows down the structure, this means high specialization occurs. And so does centralization. Decision making will be done by the higher-ups though the employees can contribute to their decision making.

I was told that it is a collective decision. Chain of command is strictly followed and is quite long therefore decision making takes some time as well. 1. 3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behavior at work. Factors which influence individual behavior at work and how they Will impact on job performance: * Biographical characteristics: are the inherited characteristics of the individual which will influence his personality. Age, gender, and religion are some of the variables under it. With regard to performance, age has an effect.

When employees advance to their senior years, some skills such as speed, strength and coordination will decrease but the experience the employee has gained throughout his work life will be invaluable. Turnover rate is also low since older employees are reluctant to leave the bank. Statistics show that organizations with older people are more productive. Therefore, it would be better if senior employees are given suitable positions in the organization to effectively maintain their performance. When talking about gender, Women have a higher turnover rate than men, due to their house-hold commitments.

But women are good at multi-tasking therefore it would be best if they are given a flexible job. People from different religion will act according to their faith and values, which might have some clash during work. * Personality and emotions: Heredity and the environment will determine how a person acts. It can be measured by the Myers-Briggs Type indicator and the Big Five model. Personality will affect behavior which in turn affects the attitude. If the personality doesn’t fit with the organization’s culture, then he will probably leave the organization.

Another factor which personality affects on is emotion. Emotion in turn affects the mood of the person which will determine the quality of work performed by the employee. If the employee is sad or depressed; automatically his work will be bad since he is in a negative mood. Therefore, its best if the personality of applicant for the job is determined before he is taken into the organization. * Values: A person acts upon his core values. This maybe values learnt from their generation, home r religion, but this will determine what he thinks of the job he does.

If he feels that it doesn’t match with his values then he might not perform the task. * Attitudes: Behavior and attitude are related. This can also determine an employee’s job performance. Job satisfaction, job involvement, psychological empowerment, and organization commitment are a number of job attitudes in the workplace. If job satisfaction of the employee is high, then this performance levels are also high. When an employee is recognized for the work he did (job involvement), which will increase his self worth, then again job performance increases.

Psychological empowerment occurs when an employee is involved in the organization’s decision making which will boost his ego and thus increase job performance. Emotions are also linked because he is happy and this positive emotion will cause him to work well in the organization. When an employee is committed to the organization and is loyal to it, he will start reflecting the organization’s values through him (organization commitment). This also increases his performance. * Ability: Intellectual and physical abilities are determinants in this factor.

Employees should be given tasks according to their mental and physical prowess. If the employee is unable to do a certain task because he doesn’t have the ability, then obviously his performance decreases. This is what they say in ‘Play to your strengths’. Other factors are perception, learning and motivation which I won’t be going into them in this assignment. I think the above considered causes are the main factors influencing job performance at work. LO 3: understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations. 3. Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change. A) The three major leadership styles are: * Autocratic Democratic * Declarative The leadership style used in both HON. and Sealant Bank is democratic. Employees in HON. told me that the CEO was a friendly man but he expects work to be strictly done. It’s more like the ‘middle’ of the two extremes of employee-oriented and task-oriented. The leader of Sealant Bank is told to be ‘perfect’ in the sense of employee relationships and task achievement as well.

They way they described him is similar to the way the employees in HON. described their leader. Both are supportive, friendly, and paternalistic, practice the open-door policy and are strict and autocratic at certain times only. B) How leadership styles may impact on motivation during a period of change: “There is a strong correlation between the leadership style and the motivation. ” (Source:http:// jalaIonmanagementmatters. Bloodspot. Com/2010/relaxation-between- leadership-style-and. HTML) If an organization is going to change, then the employees should be motivated towards it.

And this is done by the leader of the organization. ‘ ‘The book Leadership and Motivation (2006), comes from leadership guru John Adair of Action-Centered Leadership fame. Adair became leadership training adviser at the royal military academy, Sandburs, ND continues to advise the military on leadership development. He is clear that leaders cannot motivate others unless motivated themselves – motivation is caught, not taught, he says. His 50:50 rule states: 50 percent of motivation comes from within and 50 percent from a person’s environment, especially their leader.

This means the link between leadership and motivation is strong. ” (Source: http://vow. Serialization. Com/editorials/51 – motivation-and-leadership-styles) An autocratic style is not suitable for leading the organization at times of change. This leadership style IS overbearing and paternalistic which works well in regulated and systemic tasks to increase productivity, not really what ‘change’ needs. The democratic is style is much better since it involves the employees in the organization’s decision thus feeling motivated by it (psychological empowerment).

The delegating style is less productive because these leaders aren’t good at directing and they leave the decision making to the subordinates which could be disastrous if the employees don’t have the correct knowledge. Motivation is a key factor for employees’ performance. If he is not motivated to do the bob then his work will be lousy. I think the best style to be used is transformational style. They are made for change. These leaders lead the people towards the goal, keeping the organization’s values in place, influence and motivate them.

All legends/heroes in the history of the world are transformational leaders, having made a change in the society. 3. 2 Compare the application of different motivational theories in the workplace of one of the organizations selected. The motivational theories used in HON. are: * ERG theory: it focuses on the core needs of a human; existence, relatedness and growth. When these needs are fulfilled then automatically the employee is motivated an inspired. HON. does this by starting clubs and committees, holding talent shows and letting employees come into contact with each other.

People from different departments work together for a certain event, thus keeping the unity of the organization. There is a gym, a mini library and a gym in the organization encouraging their employees to use these facilities for their needs. * David Miscellany’s Theory of Needs: it’s the same here as well. Goals are set and employees are given due recognition when they reach these goals. They give promotions and rewards. * Goal-Setting Theory: where the superiors set goals and at the end of the year their performance is evaluated and rewards are given.

As far as I know, all motivation theories practiced in the organization are used in similar ways. Every’ year, each department is given a set of goals to be done and in turn the department heads give their subordinates their goals. Rewards are given to the achievers which motivate them more. 3. 3 Evaluate the usefulness of motivation theories you have identified above for managers. A) Evaluate the usefulness of motivational theories used: In the ERG theory, if one of the needs is not fulfilled, then the person is not satisfied.

In both David Miscellany’s Theory of Needs and Goal-setting Theory the employee is motivated by the job anachronistically and when the job is complete, an extrinsic reward is given. This will work for some people while others who are motivated by money; this is not a good method for motivation. B) Creating a totally different culture to improve performance if you were the HRS manager of the organization: If I had to change a few aspects of the organization, I would do it in the following manner. First I’ll eave to make a new set Of objectives for the organization, one which is compatible with our goal.

Will educate the employees by holding a seminar or training programs. Then I’ll get their feedback on it, slowly moving along with them so that they are willing to work with me. Then after gain their trust and respect, I will change my ways, to the ultimate goal. This will cause some negative reaction but the people who trust me will follow my decision. In time, the whole organization will turn towards it. But this won’t be possible if I don’t have the necessary support for it. I would make the HON. bank Truckee flatter so that the lower management and staff have more control over the tasks given.

This will also quicken the decision making and spread the authority to the rightful people, making work easier. After the civil war, the relations between Tamil in Japan and the people in South has improved. Traveling between from North to south has become easier and it is obvious that the Tamil people are going to be a big effect on the country. Therefore, it would be best if most employees of the bank can speak all three languages so that they can communicate with everyone. Conclusion have studied two organizations in the same field, banking. One is an old company while the other is relatively new.

As you saw, even though they are both banks their structures and cultures are slightly different. This could be due to the different ages of the organizations and the number Of employees in them. I have identified the relationship between structure and culture and its impact on job performance. Then I have discussed about the factors that influence individual behavior and performance at work. Next, I have talked leadership style both banks use, yet again similarly used. Transformational leadership is best when leading a company while change happens. The only hint that doesn’t ‘change’ is ‘Change’ itself.

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