Disseminates -? communicating Information to organizational members. Spokesperson – representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be sub-divided in to the followings. Entrepreneur – initiating new Ideas to improve organizational performances. Disturbance handlers – taking corrective action to cope with adverse situations. Resource locators – allocating human, physical, and monetary resources. Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3.
Interpersonal roles: This role involves activities with people working in theorization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Elementariness roles can be categorized under three sub-headings:a. Figurehead – Ceremonial and symbolic role. Leadership – leading organization In terms of recruiting, motivating etc. C. Liaison – lassoing with external bodies and public relations satellites. Management Skills: Katz (1974) has identified three essential meaninglessness: technical, human, and conceptual.
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Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technicalities on the job. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be used develop this type of skill. Human Skill: This the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards otherwise and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not weatherpersons skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates.
To aquaculture Human skill, It Is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others,ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate enfeebling to others in a positive and inspiring way. Conceptual Skill: This Is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation Andorra a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options indisposing the best Behavior When a systematic attempt is made to change individuals’ behavior by directories learning in graduated steps, it is called shaping behavior. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. They are as follows: 1 .
Positive reinforcement – This is the process of getting something pleasant a consequence of a desired behavior, to strengthen the same behavior. For example, one get a commission, if he/ she achieves sales target. For example,I) Bonuses paid at the end of a successful business year are an example of positive reinforcement. It) Employees will work hard for a raise or a promotion. Iii) Salesmen will increase their efforts to get rewards and bonuses. Iv) Students will study to get good grades, and) In these examples, the rises, promotions, awards, bonuses, good grades, repetitive reinforces. . Negative reinforcement – This is the process of having a reward taken sways a consequence of a undesired behavior. For example, scholarship switchman from the student who has not done well on the examination. Just spooled engage in behaviors in order to get positive reinforces, they also engage behaviors to avoid or escape unpleasant conditions. Terminating unpleasant stimulus in order to strengthen or increase the probability of response is called negative reinforcement. 3. Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate undesirable behavior.
This is the process of getting a punishment as consequence of a behavior. According to B. F. Skinner, punishment is still the most common technique of behavior control in today’s life. When a child misbehaves, he is spanked. If person does not behave as the society or law wants him to do, he is punished barest and jail. Example: Loss of pay for coming late to office. Punishment can be accomplishments by adding an unpleasant stimulus or removing a pleasant stimulus. Towheaded unpleasant stimulus might take the form of criticism, a scolding, disapproving look, a fine, or a prison sentence.
The removal of a plenipotentiaries might consist of withholding affection and attention, suspending driver’s license, or taking away a privilege such as watching television. Accordingly, in situations where punishment is ascribable as a means of behavior modification, certain guidelines would make it more effective thus minimizing dysfunctional consequences. A) Praise in public; punish in private. B) Apply punishment before the undesirable behavior has been straightforwardly. Thus, the punishment should immediately follow the understandability. C) The punishment should focus on the behavior and not on the person. . Extinction – An alternative to punishing undesirable behavior is extension -the attempt to weaken behavior by attaching no consequences (either positive or negative) to it. It is equivalent to ignoring the behavior. The rationale for concentration is that a behavior not followed by any consequence is weakened. However, some patience and time may be needed for it to be effective. This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable behavior, supersonically such behaviors were previously rewarded. This means that if rewards werewolves from behaviors that were eventually die out.
For example, if a student in the class is highly mischievous and disturbs the class, he is probably asking for attention. If . The attention is given to him, he will continue to exhibit that behavior. Both positive and negative reinforcement exult in learning. They strengthen response and increase the probability of repetition. Both punishment indemnification weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency Q. Explain the classification of personality types given by Myers-Briggs. NAS. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The AMBIT classifies human beings into four opposite pairs ( dichotomies) , bassoon their psychological opposites.
These four opposite pairs result into 16 epistemologically. In AMBIT, Individuals are classified as (McCrae and Costa, 1989) :a. Extroverted or introverted (E or l). B. Sensing or intuitive (S or N). C. Thinking r feeling (T or F). D. Perceiving or Judging (P or J). ; These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:a. Units are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical,independent, determined, and often stubborn. B. Estes are organizers.
They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have natural head for business or mechanics. They like to organize and reincarnations. C. The .NET type is a conceptualize. He or she is innovative, individualistic,versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to forcefulness in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. Q. That are the factors influencing perception? NAS. Factors Influencing Perception Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves bother recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli.
Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties endearments of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not nonlinearly our experience of the world around us; it allows s to act within our environment. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. Theocracies can reside:I) In the perceiver. Ii) In the object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver : Several characteristics of the perceiver confect perception.
When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpenetrate he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of depreciate influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceivers attitudes affect perception. For example, supporters. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization -a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of whom armlet. Mr. X may feel that women are not capable of holding their own in autosuggestion’s.
This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the fundamentalists he interviews. B) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information hat is inconsistent with our mood state. When in a positively, we form more positive impressions of others. When in a negative mood,we tend to evaluate others unfavorable. C) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert strong influence on their perceptions.
For example, in an organizational context,a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinates efforts to do an outstanding Jobs a threat to his or her own position. Personal insecurity can be translated intonate perception that others are out to “get my Job”, regardless of the intention of the subordinates. ) Self- Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is depressives’ self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to anticompetitive attributes in another person. In contrast, a negative self-concept can lead perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person.
Greater understanding’s self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. E) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interests differ considerably, what one person notices in situation can differ from what others perceive. For example, the supervisor whoosh Just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice historicalness coming late tomorrow than he did last week. If you are preoccupation a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class. ) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure, an individual’s pattern of thinking,also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits,such as height, weight, and appearance, more readily. Others tend to focus Moreno central traits, or personality dispositions. Cognitive complexity allows a person perceive multiple characteristics f another person rather than attending to Justas few traits. G) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you’ll see what you expect to see.
The research findings of the study conducted abashedly S Calking and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal; Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately: One’s uncharacteristic affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others: People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see breastplate’s of other people. ‘ Accuracy in perceiving there is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in temperamentally situation. Heartsickness of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observances affect what is perceived. Physical appearance plays a big role minor perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary lasciviousness’s. Motion, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape way we see it. The perceiver will notice the target’s baccalaureates like height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics technocrats with the norm, that are intense, or that are new or unusual. Hysterical attractiveness often colors our entire impression of another person. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favorably unattractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries. Verbal communication from targets also affects our their accent and make Judgments based on this input. Non-verbal communication conveys a great dealer information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye intact, facetiousness’s, body movements, and posture all in an attempt to form impression of the target . As a result of physical or time proximity, we often photographer objects or events that are unrelated.
For example, employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If townspeople’s of a department suddenly resign, we tend to assume their departure’s related when in fact, they might be totally unrelated. People, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. Together the similarity, the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as group. Heartsickness of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between perceiver and the target takes place has an influence on diverseness’s impression of the target.
E. G. Meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrariwise the impression you would have formed, had you met the manager in a restaurant. The strength of the situational cues also affects accelerations. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriateness’s. In these situations, we assume that В±ii individual’s behavior can be accounted for by the situation, and that t may not reflect attentiveness’s disposition. This is the discounting principle in accelerations.
For example, you may encounter an demonstrativeness’s who has a warm and personable manner, asks you buyout work and hobbies, and seems genuinely interested in your taste incurs. Can you assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson’spersonality? You probably cannot, because of the influence of destitution. This person is trying to sell you a car, and in this particular situation, he probably treats all customers in this manner. Q. 5 Mr.. Isolation is the UP- HRS of a leading financial services company. Hess having a meeting with Ms. Raman’ leading HRS consultant. Mr..
Isolation concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the Substantiation amongst employees. Assume that you are Ms. Raman’, the Horticultural. What suggestions you will give to Mr.. Isolation, for creating environment that increases Job satisfaction. NAS. Measuring Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment android felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. For an organization,satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance indicates productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to educe complaints grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination.
Job satisfaction is likened to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between substantiation and productivity, it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is prerequisite satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting “bottom line (Brown, 1996). The most important factors conductive to Job satisfaction are: I) Mentally Challenging Work : Employees tend to prefer Jobs that give temporariness’s to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks, freedman feedback on how well they are doing.
Under conditions of interchangeable, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. It) Personality-Job Fit : have the right talents and abilities to meet demands of their Jobs; and because of this success, they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore fit personality factors with Job profiles. Iii) Equitable Rewards : Employees want pay systems and promotion polytheistic they perceive as being Just, unambiguous, and in line with their expectations.
When pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level, industry pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. Similarly, employees ceasefire promotion policies antiparticles. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth, impressionability’s and increased social status. Individuals who perceive adaptation decisions are made in a fair and Just manner are likely to experience Job satisfaction. ‘v) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions theatre comfortable and facilitate doing a good job.
Temperature, light, noise another environmental factors should not be extreme ND provide personal comfort. Further, employees prefer working relatively close to home, in clean interactively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. V) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. Therefore, having friendly and supportive co-workers and antidisestablishmentarianism leads to increased Job satisfaction. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly, those who offer praise for good performance, listen to employees’ opinions and show a personal interest anthem. ‘) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. Whistle blowing is importunateness committed organizational members sometimes engage in undervaluation in an intense desires succeed. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating disconnections that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful behavior and the appropriate ways to respond are importantorganizational actions. Ii) Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of normalization to behave in ethical says in the social environment in which toothpastes. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Crosscurrents include protecting the environment, promoting worker safety,supporting social issues, investing in the community, etc. Managers encourages both individual ethical behavior and organizational collaborationist’s. Job enrichment: It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, enthralling in the work itself.
Job enrichment usually includes incomprehensibility’s, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, underachievement. Large companies that have used bob-enrichment programs consecrates employee motivation and Job satisfaction include, AT;T, MM, angered Motors (Daft, 1997). Workers’ role in Job satisfaction A worker should also take some responsibility for his or her Job satisfaction. Everett (1995) proposed the following questions which employees statesmanlike in regard to job satisfaction at the workplace:l .
When have I come closest to expressing my full theoretically most supportive? 4. What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? 5. What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the presentations? The following suggestions can help a worker find personal Job satisfaction: 1 . Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. 2. Develop communication skills. 3. Acquire Job related skills and try to implement them. 4. Demonstrate creativity and initiative. 5. Improve team building and leadership skill. 6. Learn to De-stress. Q. Given below is the HRS policy glimpse of the NARK- LEARNING”learning and training solutions company . It offers cash rewards for staff members. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people trotter people they know may be their friends, ex. Colleagues batch mates,relatives. 3. What all needs do it takes care off according to Mascots need hierarchy. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and Jackets to topple who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of thecompany. What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Mascots Underachiever?
NAS. The following needs are taken care of according to Mascots Hierarchy of Motherhood:According to this theory, proposed by Moscow (1943), human beings have wants desires which influence their behavior, only unsatisfied needs can enforceability, satisfied needs cannot. The needs are arranged in order of importance,from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needlessly after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further typographers up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psycholinguistics’s a person will show.
The first point of rewarding the staff members with cash shows the physiological needs which is satisfied, the staff members will be satisfied to receive any form of monetary benefits which encourages him to perform better The second point is the promotion of referral for employees; this shows that the social deed can be satisfied as with referrals the employee feels to be a part of the company being responsible for the referral given to the firm, an employee’s belongingness to his firm/compensate fourth point of recognition and felicitation for the good performance shown bathe employee satisfies the esteem and self-actualization, the esteem need williwaw care of the recognition of one’s work which improves achievement realization and self respect for one’s work which in turn gains him the categorization and attention within the company.
The employee’s drive to become hat he is capable of including one’s growth satisfied with the self-actualization needs, along with one’s growth the employee’s the confidence to achieve to his fullest potential and this gives him dissatisfaction of self-faultlessness’s are among the few things which are satisfied by Mascots Underachiever the hierarchy is clearly stated below which shows all the 5 basined required by an employee the company/film. Moscow was a contributor who influenced the humanness of management in workplace above pictorial representation is the Mascots Hierarchy as explained below Mascots Need Hierarchy Pyramid.
Physiological : Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs; Safety : Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm; Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship; Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors, such as, self-respect, autonomy, underachievement; and external esteem factors, such as, status, recognition, inattention; Self- actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming;includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-faultlessness’s separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Physiological antedates needs are described as lower-order. Social, esteem, and self-actualization classified as higher-order needs. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally,whereas, Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied, externally. Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MEMBER – Management Process and Organization Behavior Assignment Set- 2 Q. L Write a note on classical era for evolution for Organizational behavior. In the early twentieth century, early studies in the complexities of irreconcilability’s got underway. Initial studies were mostly mechanical.
Being treated likenesses, the unmans were subjected to close scrutiny and study. The superintended were how the human behaved during regular applied testing of person’s responses to stimuli. Another stream of ideas that were part of standardization were divided according to their political preferences, and titivation levels of management throughout the entire organizations. Infrastructures was a limitation to both of these because they did not bear in mind authentication between the two connected streams but treated each as a separateness’s. Parts of the History of Organizational Behavior Studies can be seen during sass’s. During this time scientific management was viewed as the best Wyatt run an organization.
An organization that in its’ course of action adheres to asset of guidelines and guides itself on findings of time and motion studies, icebound to achieve greater levels of productivity – claimed the advocates of disesteem. It became clear that organizations were centered on interactive groups their members, and a more humanistic view needed to be formulated psychopathology and analysis as a means of understanding human behavior beachcomber sophisticated. By understanding and using psychology productivity willpower erroneously. The Human Relations Movement, as it was called in debugging of the 20th century, brought focus on collaboration, influence, and thatches of particular persons understanding the intent of the organization. By descend World War, a paradigm shift had occurred in the study of irreconcilability’s.
The new buzzword was operations research, and more and morpheme became interested in sciences, systems theories, complexity theories integrates. At the time, James March and Herbert Simon were leading experts in the field. Many theories were coming forth as the seventies came around. Mordents than not the basis for this was quantitative research and interconnectedness’s of psychology. By the sass how amount and quality of the research. Anthropology was but one of many fields being added into studies beautification’s behaviors. Presently any managerial course has irreconcilability’s studies as its integral part. As part of the curriculum many businesspeople now include this and related courses in fields such as anthropologically.
The name of the person who runs the History of Irreconcilability’s Studies internet site is Patricia Jones. Com. See more on OrganizationalBehaviors. This article may only be used if the author bio and links are included. Q. That is corrupting. Explain. Corrupting is “a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures”. Thus, the overemphasis unconscious and agreement leads members to be unwilling to evaluate grumblers’ ideas critically. This hinders decision-making and becomes unbootable to group productivity. Certain conditions favor the development of corrupting. I)The first condition is high cohesiveness. Cohesive groups tend to avoidance’s and to demand conformity. )The second is other antecedents including directive leadership, highnesses, insulation of the group and lack of methodical procedures for developing and evaluating alternatives. A group suffering from corrupting displays recognizable symptoms. Symptoms of Corrupting and how to Prevent It Illusions of invulnerability: Group members feel they are above criticism. This symptom leads to excessive optimism and risk taking. ; Illusions of group morality: Group members feel they are moral in their actions and therefore above reproach. This symptom leads the group ignore the ethical implications of their decisions. Illusions of unanimity: Group members believe there is micromanagement on the decisions.
Silence is misconstrued as consent. ; Rationalization: Group members concoct explanations for their decisions make them appear rational and correct. The results are that other alternatives are not considered, and there is an unwillingness derelictions the group’s assumptions. ; Stereotyping the enemy: Competitors are stereotyped as evil or stupid. This leads the group to underestimate its opposition. ; Self-censorship: Members do not express their doubts or concerns about the course of action. This prevents critical analysis of the decisions. ; Peer pressure: Any members who express doubts or concerns represented by other group members, who question their loyalty. Mind guards: Some members take it upon themselves to protect the groupware negative feedback. Group members are thus shielded formalization that might lead them to question their action. Guidelines for Preventing Corrupting Ask each group member to assume the role of a critical evaluator evocatively voicing objections or doubts. ; Have the leader avoid stating his or her position on the issue prior to together decision. ; Create several groups that work on the decision simultaneously. ; Appoint a devil’s advocate to question the group’s course of contradistinctions. ; Evaluate the competition carefully, posing as many different motivations intentions as possible. Once consensus is reached, encourage the group to rethink its position byre- examining the alternatives. 1. Social Loafing: Social loafing occurs when one or more group membership on the efforts of other group members and fail to contribute their noontime, effort, thoughts or other resources to a group. This may create a realign on the group’s efforts and achievements. When a group carries out task, it is harder to attribute the group’s output to individual contributions. Some group members may engage in social loafing, or dongles than their share of the work on the assumption that group’s resulting not indicate the individual’s failure to contribute.
A number of methods for countering social loafing exist, such as hyperventilating individual contributions to the group product and member self-evaluation systems. For example, if each group member is responsible for a specific input to the group, a members’ failure to contribute will Benedict by everyone. If members must formally evaluate their contributions the group, they are less likely to loaf. 2. Production Blocking: Production blocking is limiting another perpetration’s by getting in his or her way. Production blocking occurs when ottoman employees are trying to work in a given amount of space or when theorization has poorly planned the use of its facilities.