The effectively managed classroom is one where a process of planning in several key areas begins before the school year starts. By implementing the management plan developed prior to the start of school and by maintaining the management procedures throughout the year, teachers are more likely to be effective and students react positively to the environment (Version, Emmer, and Horsham, 2006). Elementary classrooms can become better learning environments when teachers have rules, classroom management skills, and a belief that each child can be successful.
Rules help create a predictable atmosphere that limit classroom disruptions and encourage children to use self-control. Children need to be taught that it is their responsibility to make appropriate choices and that they will be held accountable for their actions. Teachers may decide to establish rules or allow their students to assist in formulating them. Teachers who involve their children in the rule making process contend that students are more likely to follow them. One way to involve students in forming rules is to have them brainstorm as a class or in small groups why they come o school and their goals for learning.
Don’t waste your time!
Order your assignment!
Then ask them to name rules that will help them achieve their goals. Write their ideas on the board. If a child states a rule negatively, such as, “Don’t come to school late,” ask how it could be stated in a positive way. The goal is to assist student in becoming thinking, caring, contributing members of society by providing guidance in developing a moral position, values, and ethics consistent with maintaining a viable society, and by helping students to develop the higher cognitive processes of critical thought, problem-solving, and decision-making.
In order to do this the teacher will need to create a safe, caring classroom environment of mutual respect and trust where students are provided the opportunity to create, explore, openly participate, and collaborate on meaningful work, and communicate anything without fear of recrimination of any sort, or being ostracizes. This is a fifth grade classroom, with twenty students. It is a very variable classroom in cultural diversity issues.
The majority are children that come from Latin families, four children are African American. Looking to the Miami schools in this area share the same characteristics. Classroom Procedures, Rules and Routines Procedures are formalized instructions that support the rules or Classroom Constitution. They represent the expectations and norms of classroom operation and must be taught and practiced. Key classroom procedures can be introduced during first days of class, expanded on and reinforced as the year proceeds.
There are five general areas in which students need to be taught to act and that should be supported by procedures; these are: Students’ use of classroom space and facilities. Students’ behavior in areas outside the classroom, such as the bathroom, uncommon, drinking fountain, and playgrounds. Procedures to follow during whole-class activities, such as whether to raise a hand to speak, where to turn in work, and how to get help during seawater, Procedures during small-group work. Additional procedures, such as how to behave at the beginning and end of the school-day, and when a visitor arrives.
General classroom procedures include how to walk into the classroom and what to do then, how to ask for help, how to participate in class discussions, how to make transitions between activities and classes, sharpen pencils, ask for a restroom break r nurse pass, work independently and with others, get materials, address teachers and other adults, address students, walk in the hall, respond in an emergency or fire drill, listen to the teacher and follow directions, how to clean up one’s area, and end of the day routines.
The three procedures this writer will focus on are walking into the classroom procedures, transitioning from one class to another, and end of the day routines. To teach walking into the classroom procedures, the writer will start on the first day of school. The teacher will talk about why it is important, list the steps n the board, model the steps, and then have students practice. Students will walk into the room quietly, keeping their hands to themselves. Sit down at their assigned seat at the big tables in the center of the room. They often come in one at They will raise their hand if they need to go their individual desk to get time. ) materials for the next class, of if they have a question. If no materials are needed, they will quietly get to work on an assignment they have with them. If the teacher or paraprofessional talks to them or gives instructions, the student will listen and follow directions. Transitioning from one class to another can be problematic. The goal is to teach students to be independent and responsible during these times. The teacher will start on the first day of school. Will discuss why this is important.
List the steps on the board, model the steps, and have students practice them. This activity varies, depending on the circumstance, so the steps of the procedure are more general than for some procedures. The Steps are: The teacher or paraprofessional says it is time to get ready to go to . Clean up area at the table. Gather needed materials from table or desk. Line up at the door in our classroom. Walk quietly toward class when the teacher or paraprofessional gives permission. We will discuss why this is important. The teacher will list the steps on the board, model the steps, and have students practice them.
The steps are: When the last class of the day is dismissed, walk into the room quietly with hands to yourself. Gather homework or other materials from desk and put things in backpack. Sit at assigned seat at big tables. You may talk quietly. When bell rings, walk to door and walk down the hall to exit. During the first month of school, the teacher will teach these procedures and assess whether dents need more teaching and reinforcement in these areas, or not. The teacher will give verbal praise, tickets for the class auction, and points on individual point sheets when students follow procedures correctly.
The points add up for daily prizes, or can be saved up for bigger prizes. They also add up toward social and activity rewards. If they don’t need much instruction in these areas, the teacher will focus on procedures that they need help with. Two month later, the teacher will work on reinforcing correct procedures, and start to reinforce accurate schoolwork, so that dents see the link between procedures and success in school. Next month, the teacher will keep modeling and reinforcing correct procedures, and emphasize reinforcing successful academic activities.
It is required that they understand that successful social behavior will increase academic performance. During the winter months, the teacher will not continually reinforce correct procedures. Teacher will expect students to be learning how to manage themselves and follow procedures automatically. In December, The teacher will give reinforcement when students are ore responsible for their own choices in following procedures. During January the writer will teach again procedures to make sure everyone knows them, and then reinforce independent behavior.
In February teacher will review procedures once a week and reinforce correct procedures and independent behavior. Since many field trips occur in spring, during March and April the teacher will teach these routines as they relate to preparing for other settings or events. In May teacher will evaluate the performance of students during the year and review activities that students need The rules will be shared with the students on the first day of school practice on. Too. I will use that time to allow my students to create their own classroom expectations, stemming off of my general list.
It is going to be used this time to explore the understanding of each expectation, as well as, to create a list of consequences in case an expectation is violated or disregarded. This method of using expectations and consequences is intended for the purpose of minimizing teacher-directed discipline and fostering student-driven motivation, choice, and discipline. The teacher will continue to convey order in the classroom, but will provide students with the skills and opportunities for maintaining self-classroom behavior management and discipline. See appendix 4) Classroom Rules or Expectations Speak kindly to others Listen when the teacher is talking to you Keep area clean Keep hands and feet to yourself Do your own best work Classroom Organization Environment Since on the first day of school, the teacher will present a short five or seven minute lesson for each rule. Teacher will talk about the rule and get volunteers to demonstrate following the rule and not following it. Then demonstrate with examples and non-examples. Teacher will have the rules posted in the room and refer to them often during the year.
Since rules are general, the teacher will talk about how they apply to different situations as the school year progresses. The timeline and reinforcement schedule for teaching rules is the same as for teaching procedures. The teacher will use this same timeline and emphasize how the procedures are specific actions that reflect the rules. Students are instructed to walk into the room and sit at their assigned seats at the big tables in the middle of the room. If they need materials at their individual desks along the wall, they raise their hands to get permission. Usually students enter one or two at a time, due to their varied schedules.
Students each have a desk for their supplies, backpacks, etc. They only have what is needed for the time being on the tables in the middle of the room. This prevents them from getting their things in others’ way and arguing about stuff on the table. The room is not large, but there is plenty of walking space around the tables and desks. Usually there are only one or two people moving at a time. The desk is in he corner where I can see everyone, and the paraprofessional desks are in the other corner where they can see everyone as well. The computer is in the corner by the teacher’s desk, where it is not vulnerable to students messing with it.
A book shelf with curriculum materials is along the wall behind the desk. Students may get things from there with permission. The time out desks are behind a partition, and there is a round table there too. If a student is back there, an adult is at the table to supervise and record behavior. The white board is at the front of the room where it is easily en by all. A table with supplies for students is located along the wall behind the big tables. They can get paper, art supplies, and classroom books to read from there, with permission.
They need to raise their hand for permission to get up for any reason. If they need to sharpen a pencil, they Just hold their pencil up in the air to get permission. A student computer table is located next to the supply table. At given times, one or two students may work on this for projects or for free time as a reward. Teacher tells the students that they have to act like the room is full of dents, because it is needed to be in the same routine as a larger classroom. Students work individually with the teacher or the paraprofessional, or sometimes in groups of two.
They stay at the big table and the teacher presents the lesson from up front, or we work at the tables with them. Sometimes we need to change chairs around to work in a group. (See appendix 5). Classroom Students Work Students are expected to participate in daily discussions and activities, complete assignments required or assigned by the teacher. Students will complete tests over selected material and information. Students will complete various classroom group projects as well as several smaller individual assignments. These smaller the students’ content knowledge.
Students will have various opportunities for gaining extra credit points. Communicating Assignments and Work Requirements Homework for the current day will be written on the homework white-board before students arrive at school. Students are responsible for writing their homework assignments in their assignment books after putting away their coats, books, etc. , during homeroom. Class assignments are written on the board at the beginning of each class. Students are responsible for getting out the required text and materials and opening books or workbooks to the correct page and being ready to start class.
Pencil and white lined paper, Journal or workbooks are the typical form and media. Paper headings must include the name of the student, date, subject, assignment name and/or page. Work missed by absent students will be taken home by a designated friend or picked up by parents. If work is not taken home or picked up on the day of the absence, a folder with a list of class work, homework, worksheets, and notes will be compiled for the student. Consequences may include points off, letter or call to parents, or reduction in grade.
Monitoring Progress on and Completion of Assignments The teacher monitors projects, or longer assignments completed in class, as groups work together during specified times. Those longer-term assignments taken home are the students’ responsibility and the teacher will provide weekly reminders of due dates. Completion of assignments by students will be accomplished by daily homework checks for completion and submission of class work as required. Completed assignments are turned-in by the students by placing them in the coacher’s subject in-baskets. Student work will be maintained in student files.
Work retained by the teacher will be in the form of the electronic grade book and behavior Journal. Feedback is provided daily, by notation on individual assignments, in the form of grades, and periodic student-teacher conferences or chats. Students will be encouraged to reflect on their progress through the use of KILL charts, open-ended questions, and discussion/review. When students stop doing homework, first step is to ascertain if there is a specific problem. If the problem s endemic, the teacher will review his or her lessons and/or assignments to determine if there is some shortcoming.
Thereafter, for individuals, how to address the problem will vary and be dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Students will take home those materials required to complete homework according to what has been written on the homework white-board for the day. Student work will be displayed on bulletin boards inside and outside of the room, on lines strung in front of the windows and along the back of the room, and from the ceiling when needed. Students will maintain their own files, by subject. Files will include study guides, quizzes, and tests.
Periodic file checks will be completed to ensure students have maintained the requisite documentation. Students or parents with disputes regarding individual projects or tests will be referred to the rubric or test itself. Students or parents with disputes regarding overall grades will be provided a report showing all grades for homework, class work, quizzes, tests, and projects. Gaining Classroom Attention Throughout the school day, the teacher may need to provide the students with communication, while others may simply require non-verbal visual communication. Below are a few strategies to use to manage students’ attention.
When in need of gaining the entire class’ attention, I will use one of two methods: Clap or Raise. Clap: The teacher will state rather softly, If you hear my voice clap once. If you hear my voice clap twice. Raise: The teacher will simply raise the hand, signaling to the students I need their ears open and their mouths closed. During the training phase, teacher may need to verbally state, “When the hand goes up, the mouth goes shut”. To inform students a task or lesson is near to ending, teacher will flick the mom lights twice while stating, “One or two more minutes with this activity.
We will soon be moving on to our next lesson”. Students are expected to attend school each day. Students are expected to assume responsibility for ensuring their Attendance Stick is removed from the absent Jar and placed in the Present Jar. The classroom teacher will review the Jars to ensure the proper sticks have been moved. If a student forgets to switch their stick the teacher will make a reference to that particular student, but it is the student’s responsibility to fix the mistake. Attendance ill be sent to the Main Office.
Throughout the day, the teacher will give students various worksheets and homework assignments. After each lesson, the students will place their homework into their designated mailbox, located at the back of the room. At the end of the day, when the students are called to retrieve their homework, they will also remove their Jackets, coats, book-bags, or lunchboxes from their scabies and to return to their seat to quietly await dismissal via the intercom. Timeline and Reinforcement Schedule For each of the rules, the timeline and levels of reinforcement will be about the name.
During the first month of school, teacher will teach these rules and assess whether students need more teaching and reinforcement in these areas, or not. Teacher will give verbal praise, tickets for the class auction, and points on individual point sheets when students follow rules correctly. The points add up for daily prizes, rewards. If they don’t need much instruction on certain rules, teacher will focus on others that they need help with. In October, teacher will work on reinforcing correct rules, and start to reinforce accurate schoolwork, so that students see the link teens following rules and success in school.
In November, teacher will keep modeling and reinforcing following the rules, and reinforce successful academic activities. The teacher wants them to understand that successful social behavior will increase academic performance. During the winter months, will not continually reinforce following the rules. The writer will expect students to be learning how to manage themselves and follow rules and procedures automatically. In December, teacher will give reinforcement when students are more responsible for their own choices in following rules and procedures.
During January, this candidate teacher will teach again the rules and procedures to make sure everyone knows them, and then reinforce independent behavior. In February teacher will review rules and procedures once a week and reinforce correct procedures and independent behavior. Since many field trips occur in spring, during March and April I will teach these routines as they relate to preparing for other settings or events. In May I will students need practice on. Delivering Instruction. (See appendix 1) Strategies for Instruction Identifying students’ learning styles is essential to providing quality education.
When developing a classroom curriculum, the teacher must get to know each student; learning the students’ interests, identifying the various learning styles, and recognizing or researching methods to enhance the learning environment as well as the content material. Providing students with knowledge should be our goal as educators, but it shouldn’t end there. We should strive to not only provide knowledge, but to acquire the materials and tools needed to teach our students and render those tools into our students’ hands.
Allow our students to explore with manipulative objects and hands-on tools for learning. We need to also provide alternative educational experiences for our students. Due to the overwhelming variety of learning styles, developmental levels and external interests, our students must be equip to survive basic living situations. Providing alternative learning opportunities, such as trips to the local grocery store, will not only engage our students in something new, but we will be teaching our students the fundamental and basic skills to survive and succeed in life.
While developing the classroom management plan, is acknowledged the need for engagement, proximity, structure, purport, routine, expectations, consequences and motivation, while incorporating the importance of parental involvement, trust, honesty and a bond of student-parent- teacher respect. It is the goal that by the end of the year students will assume the responsibility needed for their actions; replacing a destructive action with a constructive action as a natural consequence. See appendix 2) Positive Reinforcement and Consequences Positive reinforcements of appropriate behavior are the preference and used before applying other consequences or punishment. These positive reinforcements f appropriate behavior are in the form of verbal praise, using other students as models of appropriate behavior, non-verbal signals, and rewards. Positive influence techniques are proactive measures that help students maintain or remind them of appropriate behavior.
Three methods of positive influence include: supporting student self-control wherein the teacher helps students stay on-task, pay attention and complete their work, offering situational assistance is where the teacher provides immediate help when students are stuck on work assignments, or a break when students become overly tired, and appraising reality is where teachers mint out the underlying causes of students’ behavior, in a friendly way remind them of their obligations, and request continued cooperation. Another proactive measure is positive repetition.
Positive consequences are also in the form of facial expressions, positive words or praise, recognition and rewards that are offered when students comply with expectations and classroom rules. Recognition includes public praise, verbal or as in awarding a certificate to an individual or class, sending positive notes home with the student, or phoning the student’s home with positive comments bout the student for the parents Effective praise is personal. The student’s name is mentioned along “with the desired behavior: “Jack, thank you for working quietly back there. Effective praise is genuine. It must be related to the situation and praise is descriptive and specific. It lets students know when and “why they are behaving appropriately: “Good, Susan. You went right to work on your essay. ” Effective praise is age appropriate. Young children like to be praised publicly. Older students like praise but usually prefer to receive it privately. Rewards or incentives are another positive reinforcement of appropriate behavior. These can take many forms and all be presented to the students as treasures, both tangible and intangible, to choose from.
A fairly comprehensive list, compiled by Sue Watson (n. D. ), follows: Become a helper to the custodian, librarian, another teacher or the office staff. Become a class monitor for a specific area of need e. G. , hall monitor, room check monitor, tidy monitor etc. Helping a younger student with a learning task for a specified period of time. Earn points for a class video. 15 minutes of free choice activity. Work with a friend. Wear your ball cap or favorite hat for a work period. Read a comic book. Show or tell the class something you have or did.
Have lunch with your favorite person or the teacher. Read a story to the principal or to another class. Hand out supplies for a defined number of activities. Free time in another classroom. Receive a positive note for home. Pick something from the prize box. Pick something from the treat box. (Keep it healthy, crackers, animal cookies, fruit, Juice boxes, popcorn, granola bars, etc. ) Earn tickets toward free time. Free pencil, pen or eraser. Positive phone message or email home. Free poster. Free story for the whole class! (A treated like this lets others help the student at risk stay on target.
Earn a cooking day for the class. Take the bubble blower out a recess. Free homework passes. Leader for the day. An additional gym period with another class. Listen to the radio or CD with a headset for a specified period of time. Have work posted in the hall or near the office. Enjoy a game with a friend or in another class. Be the leader for the first gym activity. If nothing on this list interests the child, ask what type of incentive he/she believes would help him/her to obtain their behavior goals and help keep them on track.
Consequences Consequences are the actions taken by the teacher when students do not comply with the school rules or Classroom Constitution that governs appropriate behavior. There are four types of consequences. These are: logical, conventional, generic, and instructional. Logical consequences are those that this teacher attempts to employ first before more negative or punitive ones. Logical consequences are logically related to the inappropriate behavior and the students are tasked with completing a corrective action for the rule or article they are not in compliance with.
For example, if a student does not keep their area or desk neat and clean, they are tasked with cleaning or if the student is discourteous to the teacher, they may be required to take time, reflect on their action and practice ways of being courteous (University of Phoenix (Deed. ), 2002, p. 212). Conventional consequences are consequences we see most frequently used and include time-outs, removal from the group or room, or being sent to the office. These can be modified so they relate to the misbehaving by adjusting phrasing such as in the case of a time-out, Mimi have chosen time out.
You may return to the group when you are ready to learn” (University of Phoenix (Deed. ), 2002, p. 212). Generic consequences are often also often positive reinforcement such as reminders, and warnings. Choosing, and options for improving behavior. This behavior plan, established by the student, identifies specific steps the student follows to correct inappropriate, repeated behaviors. It is written, dated and signed by the student. In some literature, this is also referred to as a behavioral contract (University of Phoenix (Deed. ), 2002, p. 212). Instructional consequences, the fourth and final, teach students appropriate behavior.
These consequences are often in the form of review and practice. Behaviors such as hand raising, courtesy, and lining-up quietly, etc. Are learned easily when taught and practiced (University of Phoenix (Deed. ), 2002, p. 213). Consequences are listed in a hierarchy and imposed by starting with the least severe to the most severe response within the period of one day. Each day, students start new. In order to track infractions or non-compliance with the Classroom Constitution, this teacher assigns each student a pocket in a pocket chart wherein each day all dents begin with a green card.
For the first and second infraction, there is a non- verbal, then verbal warning or reminder of appropriate behavior and/or a restatement of the article infraction, and the card remains green. For the third infraction, a yellow card is placed in the pocket and the student is sent to the Think- About-let Table and must fill in a My Behavior Form that includes basic questions to help the student identify the inappropriate behavior, the reason it is inappropriate, what corrective action the child can perform, and how the teacher may be able to elf the student so they do not repeat the behavior.
For the fourth infraction, an orange card is placed in the pocket, the student is sent to the Think-About-let Table, complete a behavior plan, parents are notified of the repeated inappropriate behaviors and informed that the continuation of such behavior will result in more severe actions. For the fifth infraction, a red card is placed in the pocket, the student is sent to the office and parents are again notified.
Finally, in cases where the offense is so extreme as in the case of verbal or physical abuse of the teacher or another detent, a black card is placed in the pocket, the office is called, the student is removed from the room, and parents are contacted. Classroom Collecting data Strategies BBC data collection uses basic observations and forms to collect data on a specific behavior, as well as the related antecedent and consequence.
That information is essential to conducting a functional behavior assessment in order to analyze behavior and determine consequences. Behavior in children can be better managed and more effectively changed when the interventions are based on a functional analysis of BBC data. Data collection forms do not have to be complicated. They can be written in any format as long as they allow for all of the needed information.