Organizational levels Top insupportableness for making organization wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organization First line managers the lowest level of management, and manage the work of non-managerial employees Middle managers all levels of management between the first line level/top level of the organization The changing face of organizations and management Stable Dynamic Inflexible Few or slow changes Local focus Individual oriented Permanent Jobs Mangers commanded Managers made decision Rule orientated Flexible Innovative
Changing technology Global focused Team orientated Contract/ temp Job participative decision making Customer oriented Who are managers? People who work with and through other people by coordinating and overseeing their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals. – Managers get things done through people What Is management? The process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently with and through other people. O Efficiency – getting the most output for the least Inputs o Effectiveness ? doing the right things. Attaining organizational goals. What do managers do? Managerial functions (Payola): POLO Planning define goals, establish strategies for achieving those goals and develop plans to integrate and coordinate activities – Organizing arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals. – Leading 0 working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals – Controlling CLC monitoring actual performance, comparing actual to standard and taking action if necessary.
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Managerial roles (Integers) = DID Decisional[l managerial roles that revolve around decision making – Interpersonal involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in tauter – Informational revolves around receiving, collecting and disseminating Technical skills Knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field – Human Skills 0 the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group – Conceptual Skills 0 the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
Roles and managerial levels Managers perform the same roles regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization -Emphasis that mangers give to various roles changes with organizational level o Lower levels ( leader role more important) Higher levels (disseminated, figurehead, negotiator, liaison and spokesperson more important Scientific Management Tailor’s four principles of management 1. Develop a science for each element of work 2. Select, train, teach and develop workers 3.
Cooperation between workers and management on proper task completion 4. Equal division of responsibility between workers and management General administrative theory: 0 An approach to management that focuses on describing what mangers do and what constitutes good management practices Payola’s 14 principles of management 1. Division of work specialization increases output by making employees more efficient 2. Authority managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right.
Along with authority, however goes responsibilities 3. Disciplined employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization 4. Unity of commando every employee should receive orders from only one superior 5. Unity of direction the organization should have a single plan of action to guide managers and workers 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interests the interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. Remuneration workers must be paid a fair wage for their services 8. Centralization this term refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making 9. Scalar chains the line of authority from top management to the lowest rank is the scalar chain 10. Orders people and materials should be in the right place at the right tie 11. Equity managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates 12.
Stability of tenure of personnel management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies 13. Initiatives employees who are allowed o originate and carry out pans will exert high levels of effort 14. Esprit De corps. promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization Max Webber Bureaucracy – a form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships.
Limitations and contributions Foundations for later developments of management theory Identified management processes, functions and skills that are still recognized today- More appropriate for stable and simple rather than dynamic and complex organizations- Overlooked the needs of workers and the human desire for Job satisfaction Quantitative Approach Contributions and limitations Provided mathematical techniques for the modeling, analysis and solution of management problems- Improves decision making particularly in planning and controlling – Totally based on quantifiable measures Organizational Behavior 0 The study of management which focuses on human behavior at work. The Hawthorne Studies The productivity of workers on the different levels of light – Many sources of individual Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction – There are different ways of supervising workers The group is important in work settings Managers need good interpersonal skills Social relationships at work are important Behavioral Science Theorists As resulted from Hawthorne Studies, Scientific research into organizational behavior, egg employee motivation, leadership, design of Jobs, organizational design.
Herbert, Locke, McClellan, Fiddler Contributions and Limitations Too much division of labor can result in alienation of the individual- People are motivated primarily by group and social needs Power equalization Greater commitment to organizational goals come by participation Contemporary approaches The Systematic Approach 0 A theory which sees an organization as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts. – All organizations are systems which dynamically interact with their environment – Decisions and actions taken into one organizational area will affect others – Decisions and actions taken by government suppliers, customers and many other outside forces will affect and organization The contingency approach 0 Organizations are diverse, therefore there is no universal, principle of how to act. 0 A management approach that says that organizations are different, face different situations and require different ways of managing.
Contingency Variables Organization size Routines of task technology Environmental uncertainty Individual differences Issues facing managers today Globalization Ethics Workforce Diversity Entrepreneurship Information technology Quality management Learning organizations and knowledge management Sustainability 100 years ago management thought was virtually non existent – emerged which influence managers today All ideas are useful Different ideas are still emerging and will continue Many ideas have Mangers today and of the future need to be open minded to new ideas Views on management The Omnipotent view The view that managers are directly and solely responsible for an organization’s success or failure. The symbolic view o The view that much of an organization’s success or failure is due to external forces outside the manager’s control Parameters of managerial discretion External environment Specific o Factors that directly impact the organization (suppliers, customers, competitors, government agencies and public pressure groups)- General o Broad factors that indirectly impact the organization (political/legal conditions, economic factors, calculators influences, technological factors, demographic and lobar issues ) Specific Environment General Environment Customers Competitors Public Pressure groups Suppliers Economic Demographic Technological Global Calculators Political/legal 0 The degree of change and complexity in an organization’s environment Two dimensions Degree of change o Dynamic o Stable Degree of complexity o Simple o Complex Stakeholders Who are stakeholders? Any constituencies in the organization’s environment that are affected by the organization’s decisions, actions and policies. O Includes internal and external groups o Can influence the organization Why is stakeholder relationship management important? Ore successful innovations, greater trust and flexibility, organizational performance It is the right thing to do. Managing in a global world 0 The growing interconnectedness of markets relating to goods and services as well as finance What has changed? Influences of the USA, EX. and Asia Reduction of trade barriers Competition from global marketplace Immigration Infrastructure A global perspective? Parochialism Viewing the world solely through your own eyes and perspective Ethnocentrism Best work approaches and practices come from the home country Polytechnics Managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices Geocentricism World oriented view focusing on the best approaches and people from around the world.
Sensitivities to difference Ignorance of foreign values and customs can lead to cultural blunders- Skilled and experienced managers are essential for global success- Organizations much provide opportunities for staff to experience business in global setting Types of international organizations Multinational corporation o All types of international companies that maintain operations in multiple Mounties 0 Multidimensional corporation 0 an NC that decentralized management and other decisions to the local country Global 0 an NC that centralists management and other decisions in the home country 0 Transnational or borderless corporation 0 reflects a geocentric approach Managing in a global environment o Legal/ political environment Stability of legal and political systems Economic environment Types of economic system, market and command Currency, exchange rates, taxes Cultural environment Values and attitudes shared by individuals Strength of national culture over organization culture Culture shock
Challenges Openness associated with globalization Significant cultural differences o Global warming o Renewable energy technologies and energy efficiencies Hypotheses 1980 cultural dimensions 116,000 people 50 countries Proposed 4 value dimensions o Power distance 0 The degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally o Uncertainty/avoidance 0 The degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity o Individualism/collectivism 0 The degree to which a culture emphasizes individual goals over collective goals or ice versa o Masculinity (achievement) ‘femininity (nurturing) 0 Masculine societies demonstrate a preference for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive Feminine societies demonstrate a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensuses oriented. – Later added two additional dimensions o Short term/long term orientation 0 Societies with a short term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute truth.
They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively mall propensity to save for the future and a focus on achieving quick results In societies with a long term orientation people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest thriftiness and perseverance in achieving results. O Indulgence/restraint 0 Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of stick social arms. Organizational Culture 0 The shared values, principles, traditions and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act.
Sources of organizational culture The organization’s founder ( mission and vision, legal requirements)- Past practices of the organization (the way things have been done)- Behavior of top management (walk the talk) How an organization’s culture continues Recruitment of employees who fit o Socially based criteria 0 Such as personal chemistry or values 0 Achievement, concern for others, honesty and fairness o Already formed character tics Past experience, intelligence, knowledge, skills and abilities o Non Job related criteria 0 Such as attractiveness or interpersonal skills o Solicitation of new employees to help them adapt to the culture 0 Reduces their 0 Learn the blames which guide expected behaviors 0 Orient themselves to the achievement of desirable organizational ends How employees learn culture Stories Rituals Material symbols Language Dimensions of organization culture 0 To what degree are each of these factors important to an organization? – Attention to detail Innovation and risk taking Stability Aggressiveness
Team orientation People orientation Outcome orientation Strong culture Organizations in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared – Strong culture results from factors including o Organization size, longevity, turnover, strength of originating culture Benefits off strong culture Creates a stronger employee commitment to the organization- Aids in the recruitment and solicitation of new employees – Fosters higher organizational performance by instilling and promoting employee initiatives How culture affects managers Planning o Degree of risk, amount of environmental scanning Organizing Degree of employee autonomy, extent of interdepartmental interaction – Leading o Degree of concern for Job satisfaction, which leadership styles are appropriate – Controlling o Reliance on external or internal controls, what performance criteria to use.
Current issues concerning culture Maintain ethics o Bea visible role model o Communicate ethical expectations o Provide ethics training o Visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones o Provide protective mechanisms so employees can discuss ethical dilemmas and report unethical behavior without fear – Fostering innovation o Challenge and involvement o Freedom Trust and openness Playfulness/humor Conflict resolution Debates Risk taking Creating quality customer response Friendly customer oriented employees Few rules and regulations Empowered employees Good listening skills Role clarity Deeply ingrained values Strategic positioning Troop management support Systematic alignment Metrics Holistic integration Stakeholder engagement Spirituality A strong sense of purpose, individual development, employee empowerment o Finding meaning and purpose at work and living out one’s set of deeply held personal beliefs The meaning of work 0 What do you intend to accomplish or realizes through work? Work as worth: money or meaning Leadership Leadership is the process of influencing a group to achieve goals A leader is someone who can influence others and has managerial authority.
Leadership theory Trait Theories Theories isolating characteristics that differentiate leaders from non leaders: o Intellectual traits o Personality traits o Physical traits The seven traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders o Honesty and integrity Self confidence Desire to lead Drive Knowledge of the Job Intelligence Extroversion Useful ideas but NO clearly identifiable traits recognized Behavioral theories University of Iowa (autocratic, democratic, laissez- fairer)o Initiating structure/ o Autocratic – manager who dictates work methods, mode unilateral decisions and limited employee participation democratic – describes a leader who involved employees in decision making, delegating authority and used feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees o Laissez fairer – let the group make decisions and complete the work in whatever way it was fit. Ohio State University o Concern for people/concern production o Initiation structure – the extent to which a leader was likely to define and structure is or her role and the roles of group members in the search for goal attainment o Consideration – the extent to which a leader has Job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for group member’s ideas and feelings. – University of Michigan Managerial Grid- a two dimension grid of two leadership behaviors concerned for people and concern for production, and evaluated a leaders use of these behaviors, ranking them on a sale from 1-9. Contingency theories Fiddler model – need to match a leader’s style to the situation o The model was based on the premise that a certain leadership style would be most effective in efferent types of situation.
The keys were 0 Define those leadership styles and the different types of situations 0 To identify the appropriate combinations of style and situation. Three contingency dimensions were uncovered that defined key situational factors for determining leadership effectiveness. 0 Leader – members relations 0 the degree of confidence, trust and respect employees had for their leader, rated as either good or poor 0 Task structure 0 the degree to which the Job assignment were formalized and procedures, rated either high or low 0 Position rower 0 the degree of influence a leader had over power based activities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increase, rated as either strong or weak. Hershey Blanchard situational theory o An appropriate leadership style is contingent on followers’ readiness using two leadership dimensions 0 Task behavior 0 Relationship behavior o Leaders evaluate subordinates and adopt an appropriate style o Focuses on followers’ readiness 0 Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. O Four specific styles 0 Telling Selling Participating Delegating Four stages of readiness Unable and unwilling Unable but willing Able but unwilling Able and willing Path goal theory Leaders should assist follower to attain their goals o Level of participation of followers in decision making.
Contemporary view of leadership Leader-member exchange theory Leaders create in groups and out-groups, and those in the in-groups will have a higher performance rating, less turnover and greater Job satisfaction – Both parties need to invest in the relationship Transformational transactional leadership Transactional leader’s 0 leaders that lead primarily by using social exchanges or transactions. Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers to work towards established goals by exchanging rewards for their productivity – Transformational leader’s 0 leaders who stimulate and inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes. O These types of leaders pay less attention to to the concerns and developmental needs of individual followers.
They change follower’s awareness of issues by helping them to look at old problems in new ways and are able to excite, around and inspire followers to put in extra effort to achieve group goals. Charismatic visionary leaderships an enthusiastic self-confident leader whose rationality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways o They have identified five main characteristics off charismatic leader. 0 Having a vision 0 Being able to articulate that vision 0 Being willing to take risks to achieve that vision 0 Being sensitive to both environmental constraints and follower needs Exhibiting behavior that are out of the ordinary Team leadership How to become an effective team leader?