Graduate students also need to construct their arguments in response to what others are saying, and my work benefited from using the “they say / I say/’ approach. At the University of Cincinnati, continued to use the book in my teaching, and I was honored when Russell Durst asked me to serve as a research assistant for the second edition and to author this instructors man believe wholeheartedly that academic writing at any level requires a knowledge of what “they say’ and how it impacts what “l say,” and that when students understand this, they will find writing arguments more manageable.
This manual includes brief summaries of the rhetoric chapters (1-13), as well as additional activities to supplement the exercises included in the book itself. These activities include both written and spoken exercises, based on my belief that “preprinting” can include speaking. In all of the activities, students get to practice the skills taught in the book. In addition, this manual has short summaries of each of the essays in Chapters 14-18, as well as teaching notes, lists of related essays, and answers to the “Joining the 5 Conversation” questions.
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Also included are two sample syllabi so that instructors can see various ways of putting the book’s approach into practice. Finally, you will find three drafts of one of the student papers that included in the book itself, Sara Market’s “Move Over Boys, Make Room in the Crease” (up. 537-544), along with brief commentary on the drafts to help you discuss revision with your students and see how the principles of the book help dents as they write. I am grateful to Gerald Graff, Cathy Bernstein, and Russell Durst for the opportunity to work on this manual.
Great thanks also go to Marilyn Miller and Betsey Manually at Norton. Thank you to Mark Gallagher for composing answers to the “Joining the Conversation” questions for the first edition of this book, and many thanks to Brandon King, Mary Misfield, and Sara Marietta for their hard work on their essays in the book. Thanks especially to Sara Marietta for being willing to share her drafts in this instructor’s manual. Thanks also to all the great teachers I have had as leagues at George Mason University, Fontanne University, and the University of Cincinnati.
Your own teaching practices continually inspire me. Thanks to friends and family, and to my wonderful husband, who was a great source of support while worked on this project in the final days of our engagement and the first days of our marriage. And, finally, thanks to the late Rose Shapiro, for introducing me to this book and for being a passionate teacher. We miss you. 6 Chapter 1 “THEY SAY”: Starting with What Others Are Saying Chapter 1 begins with an implied “they say’: that a claim can stand on its own.
The authors enter that good academic writing responds to what others are says Eng. This chapter provides methods for addressing what ‘they say,” including templates for introducing standard views, something the writer him / herself once believed, things implied or assumed, and ongoing debates. While Chapter 2 the second chapter focuses on longer summaries, this chapter establishes what writers need to do early in a paper, such as present the “they say/’ and “l say’ as a single, concise unit.
Additional Activities Identifying What “They Say” Have students read one (or more) of the following: the first four paragraphs f Liz Addition’s “Two Years are Better than Four” [p. 21 1]; the first three paragraphs of David Crystal’s “b or Not b? “‘ [p. 335]; the first three paragraphs Of Raddled Balbo’s “What You Eat Is Your Business” [p. 395]; the first two paragraphs of Jennie Waffles “In Defense of Cheering” [p. 524]; or the first paragraph of Brandon King’s “The American Dream: Dead, Alive, or on Hold? ” [p. 572].
Ask them to annotate the paragraphs, noting where the “they say/’ argument is included. Talk as a class about the tone of the essays as ‘they say” statements are addressed, as well as about the placement of the tenements within the paragraphs. Sustaining What “They Say’ Have students pick a template in the chapter (or assign a specific one), and ask them to complete it as a sentence about a topic of their choice. Then have students use the sentence to start a quick five-minute ferrite about their topic, trying to include both a ‘they say” and an “l say. Once they’re finished, ask a few students to share what they wrote. Ask them how much time they spent detailing the “they say”‘ part of the argument before moving on to the “l say. ” Ask them what they find most challenging when writing about what “they say. (This assignment works best as an end to Chapter 1 and transition to Chapter 2. ) 7 Chapter 2 “HER POINT IS”: The Art of Summarizing Chapter 2 teaches students how to write an extended version of what “they say. ” The authors explain what a summary is, and some students may need help understanding the difference between summary and paraphrase.
The chapter gives students strategies for writing summaries-?playing the “believing game,” keeping your own argument in mind as you choose what points to focus on, writing a satiric summary-? as well as warnings about common tendencies of those inexperienced at writing summaries, such as he “closest click” syndrome and the list summary. For students struggling with the closest click syndrome, you might suggest taking a look at Chapter 12 (on “Reading for the Conversation”).
At the end of the chapter the authors include a helpful list of signal verbs that students can turn to if they find themselves using the same verbs over and over again. Additional Activities List Summary Writing and Revision Have students read the description of list summaries on pages 35-36. Then have them write a list summary of David Coziness’s “Don’t Blame the Eater” [p. 391]; Dennis Baron’s “Reforming Egypt n 140 Characters? ‘[p. 329]; or another essay you’ve discussed as a class. Have one or two students read their summaries out loud, and discuss as a class the flaws of this style.
Then have students cut up the summaries into separate sentence and reorganize them, or ask them to edit the transitions between sentences to show more explicitly than “and” or “then” how the ideas relate. Study the revised summaries to see how they avoid being “list-y. ” (May take at least two class periods. ) Summary Writing and Review Either during class or on their own, have students write a short summary (no more than a arcograph or one double-spaced, typed page) of Dennis Baron’s “Reforming Egypt in 140 Characters? ” or another essay you’ve discussed as a class.
Let them know if you want them to write a summary that could function as a “they say’ to an argument they themselves might make. Then have students read and respond to one another’s summaries in small groups. If you’d like, you too can read them and give feedback after class. Another alternative would be to have students revise the summaries after the peer review. 8 Chapter 3 “AS HE HIMSELF PUTS IT’: The Art of Quoting This chapter introduces the strategy of quoting what others say. The authors warn students that quoting too little or too much can hurt an argument, and that its important to frame any quotations.
The chapter offers a few tips for finding relevant quotes and gives a helpful example of a “dangling” or “hit- and-run” quotation from a paper about Susan Border’s ideas. It also explains a strategy the authors call a “quotation sandwich” for introducing and explaining quotations, and an example of how the Bored quote might be better framed. It might help your students to read both of those examples out loud in class and to discuss the differences. Some students may think that aligning too much about a quotation is “overbalances,” and the final section in the chapter will help to respond to their concerns.
Options for Exercise 1 This exercise asks students to analyze how quotations are used in some published piece of writing. Here are some examples they might use: Kevin Carrey, “Why DO you Think They’re called For-profit colleges? ‘ CPA. 220, 91 6, the Harkin quote] Sara Marietta, “Move Over Boys, Make Room in the Crease” [p. 540, ’18, the Christopher quote] Brandon King, “The American Dream: Dead, Alive, or On Hold? ” [p. 574, 93, the Reich quote] Additional Activities Making a Quotation Sandwich Choose a sentence from an essay the class is reading or use the example below.
Explain to students what argument or claim the quote will help develop, and ask them to develop a quotation sandwich, starting with the claim, then the “top slice” of an introduction, then the quote (cited properly, if necessary), then the “bottom slice” explanation. Students can do this individually, or you can have them work in groups or do it as a class. If they are working on their own or in small groups, walk around 9 the room to see how their sandwiches are developing. Point out any missing elements as need be, and pick one or TV’0 examples to share with the class.
The explanation is often the most difficult step of this process for students, so examples may help them understand what sort of intellectual work that portion of the sandwich does. The claim: Colleges and universities have grown too much for their own good. The quote: Andrew Hacker and Claudia Derides: “Colleges are taking on too many roles and doing none of them well. They are staffed by casts of thousands and dedicated to everything from esoteric research to vocational training-?and have lost track of their basic session to challenge the minds of young people’ (p. 180).
Follow-up activity: Have students try this activity with a draft they’re working on, first developing a claim, choosing a quote that supports that claim, and “sandwiching’ the quote properly. When part of the Sandwich Is Missing The following quotes are missing part of the quotation sandwich. Ask students to consider how they might supply the missing part, either by adding an introduction or an explanation, as need be: Michael Zimmerman, “How Power Has Transformed Women’s Tennis” CPA. 520, 923, Freshener’s quote] Sara Marietta, “Move Over Boys, Make Room in the Crease” [p. 539, ’17, Jackknives quote] Constance M.
Rich and A. J. Grant, “Predatory Lending and the Devouring of the American Dream” [p. 628, 99, Alaska and Johnny’s quote] An alternative: Have students find missing elements of the quotation sandwich in their own drafts and revise those paragraphs. (Sometimes, the missing element will be the point the quotation is supporting, especially in paragraphs that begin with a quote. 10 Chapter 4 “YES/NO/OKAY, BUT”: Three Ways to Respond This chapter, the first in the “l Say” section, details the three major forms of espouse: agree, disagree, and agree, but with a difference.
After explaining that students should feel as though they have something to say that matters, the authors recommend stating an argument clearly and early in a paper. They discuss how interpretive arguments (such as those about art or history) also fall into the “they say’/ “I say’ mode. They also explain that all three types of response require reasons and evidence, and provide numerous templates to help students understand how more complex sentences can say “l agree” or “I disagree. A final section addresses students’ concerns about expressing ambivalence; it might be helpful to have a conversation about the difference between a complex argument and being wish-washy. Additional Activities A Local Issues Argument Pick an issue affecting your school or community, and state an argument related to that issue (for example: “Because parking IS such a problem on campus, students should take public transportation”). Have students respond to that statement by using a template from each of the three sections, one agreeing, one disagreeing, and one agreeing and disagreeing.
Alternately, you could have them pick one of the three stances to SE in response to your argument. Have some students share what they’ve written and discuss how they phrased their agreement, disagreement, or both. An Argument Circle You’ll want to arrange desks in a circle for this exercise if you can. Pick an issue affecting your school or community, and come up with an argument related to that issue, as in the previous exercise. State your argument out loud, and then ask the next person in the circle to agree, disagree, or both. The following student (Student 2) should summarize Student Xi’s argument and then agree, disagree, or both.
Student 3 should summarize the crux of Student g’s argument, and then agree, disagree, or both. Continue around the circle forming new arguments, or if the ideas start to become muddled, begin a new argument. 11 Chapter 5 “AND YET”: Distinguishing What You Say from What They Say This chapter introduces students to the term voice markers in order to help them didst anguish the “l say/’ from the “they say. ” Using an example from social critic Gregory Maintains, the authors show which arguments are his own and which are ones he disagrees with.
Templates help students with specific ways of signaling who is saying what, and of embedding voice markers. This chapter also provides an opportunity to discuss effective uses of the first person. Additional Activities Evaluating Use of the First Person Have students look at several essays that use the first person and evaluate (1) how and why the author uses “l” or ‘Wave” and (2) if that perspective is effective. Some examples: Fillies Rorer’s “How Learned to Love Football” [p. 529]; Sara Market’s “Move Over Boys, Make Room in the Crease” CPA. 37]; William Miller’s “We, the public, Place the Best Athletes on Pedestals” [p. 545]; David Foster Wallach’s Kenyon Commencement Speech” [p. 198] ; Liz Addition’s “Two Years Are Better Than Four. 21 1]; and Mike Rose’s “Blue-collar Brilliance” [P. 243]. If your students have not read the essays in full, find particular paragraphs for them to focus on instead. Recasting Point of View Ask students to recast something they’ve written (no more than a paragraph) in a different point of view: from first to third person, or vice versa.
Once they’ve done so, have a few students read the examples out loud and discuss what is gained and lost in both points of view. 12 Chapter 6 “SKEPTICS MAY OBJECT”: Planting a Naysayer in your Text In Chapter 6, students are introduced to a different sort of “they say”: the naysayer. Unlike the “they say,” which appears early in the paper and establishes the conversation the writer is responding to, a naysayer appears later, after the writer has made some of his or her own arguments and begins to imagine possible objections to them.
The chapter explains that including a naysayer increases their credibility as writers and helps what they have to say about the topic. The authors recommend staying with a naysayer discussion for a few sentences or a full paragraph in order to treat that point of view airily, and they even suggest labeling naysayer. Students who worry such labeling will result in stereotyping might be encouraged to choose those labels carefully and to qualify their statements, as some of the templates in the chapter show.
As students work on including naysayer in their writing, it might help them to play Peter ElboWs “believing game” (described in Chapter 2). Note that they may need some help answering objections effectively, and that the templates on “making concessions while still standing your ground” (p. 89) will be helpful. Additional Activities Playing the Role of the Naysayer Students should work in small groups (2–4 people). Each student should state an argument, perhaps one for a draft he or she is writing. Each of the other group members should think of an objection to that argument and also give themselves a label.
For example, in reaction to a paper arguing for gun control, one group member might say, “I’m a hunter, and I think that I should be able to use guns for sport,” and another might say, “I’m a gun seller, and more permit requirements would hurt my business. ” After the group discussions, ask students what other perspectives might be helpful naysayer in their papers. ‘That’s Just Wrong’ Find an example of a text that does not represent objections fairly but says, ‘that’s just wrong’ or mocks the opposite point of view (perhaps on a political blob).
Have students read the text, and ask them how the author represents points of view and how the author’s tone affects their experience reading the text. 13 Chapter 7 “SO WHAT? WHO CARES? “: Saying Why It Matters This chapter explains the importance of addressing the “so what? ” and “who cares? ” questions when making an argument and offers specific strategies and templates for doing so. Students’ papers will become stronger once they egging to address these questions, as doing so shows that their arguments are part of a larger conversation and that what they are saying matters.
The authors urge students to consider who has a stake in an argument (“who cares? “), as well as what the larger consequences of the argument are (“so what? “). Although “who cares? ” or “so what? ” statements work in many different parts of a paper, students who struggle with introductions or conclusions might find it helpful to address these questions there. Options for Exercise 1 These essays may serve as good examples for evaluating how texts address the “so what? ” and “who cares? ” questions in their arguments: Liz Addition’s “Two Years Are Better Than Four” [p. 1 1]; Will Hayseed’s “Kentucky Town of Manchester Illustrates National Obesity Crisis” [p. 406]; Jason Sinner’s “The Good, the Bad, and The Daily Show’ [p. 363]; and Paul German’s “Confronting Inequality’ [p. 586]. Additional Activities Asking and Answering “So What? ” and “Who Cares? ” When students have a draft of a paper written, ask them to write either their major claim or a sub-claim on a piece of paper. Then ask them to brainstorm for five minutes about all the groups who have stake in their argument (“who cares? ‘).
Next have them ferrite for another five minutes or more about why those groups care or why the topic matters (“so what? “). Have a few students share what they’ve written, and add to their “who cares? ” and “so what? ” lists as a class. Alternately, you could have students expand their lists in small groups. Finally, you might have them draft a paragraph (perhaps an introduction or conclusion to the draft) incorporating the “so what? ” and “who cares? ‘ factors. Role-playing the One Who Cares Students should work in small groups (2-4 people). Each student would state a claim, perhaps one for a draft he or she is writing.
Each of the other group members should think of a group that has a stake in that argument and why the argument matters to them, stating both in the first person. For example, in reaction to a paper arguing that 14 school lunches should be healthier, one group member might say, “I’m a student, and this topic matters to me because want to eat French fries for lunch, and I don t care if get tired later in the day. ” Another might say, “I’m a nutritionist, and this topic matters to me because want children in my community to be healthy as they grow up. You can even give students the template, “I’m and this topic matters to me because . Have students continue to give suggestions until no one else can think of another group with a stake in the issue. 15 Chapter 8 “AS A RESULT”: Connecting the Parts This chapter discusses the “connective tissues” of writing. The authors emphasize that creating connections between sentences and ideas both increases sentence variety and helps construct a more convincing argument. They consider transitions both within a paragraph and between paragraphs, and they discuss four ways to “connect the parts”: using transition terms, adding pointing words, developing key terms, and repeating yourself, with a difference.
Additional Activities Between Paragraphs / Within Paragraphs Part 1 :This activity works best when students have a draft to work with. After discussing ways of connecting the parts, have them look at their drafts and annotate them, noting what each paragraph is saying. Then have them write a sentence that shows the relationship between the ideas in each paragraph. Part 2: Have students choose a key paragraph of the paper they want to improve and note what transitions, pointing words, and key terms they eve seed.
Then ask them to do a sort of dissection, looking at sets of sentences to note what purpose they serve in the paragraph. After they do so, they should revise sentences to include transitions, pointing words, or key terms. Taking the paragraph apart can help them see the “chunks” of meaning in the paragraph and how connecting words can help those chunks fit together. Connective Tissue The following is a paragraph from Tom Vessel’s “Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter” with all the transitions and other “connective tissue” removed. Ask students to read it once and evaluate what they think bout how it’s working.