Marks ranged from O to 59 and the mean mark was 0 out of 60. Paper 02 – Structured Essay Questions This paper consisted of seven questions divided into two parts. Part A comprised three compulsory questions, one from Module 3: Diet, Health and Nutritional Status, one from Module 6: Food Preservation, and the other from module 1: Food Preparation Methods. Part B comprised four questions which were taken from the remaining Modules of the syllabus. Candidates were expected to answer two questions from the optional section. Candidates were required to answer a total of five questions.
Each question was worth 16 marks, for a total of 80 marks on the paper. Questions 1 2 and 3 were compulsory. Questions 4, and 5 and 6 were popular choices of candidates whereas Question 7 was the least popular. Overall the performance of candidates was only fair. The marks ranged from O to 69 and the mean was 40 out of 60. Many candidates did not take time to read questions carefully and so missed the key words or phrases. Others gave general responses to a topic instead of the specific responses as requested. Generally, most responses were well set out, and posed no difficulty in marking.
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Paper 03 – School-Based Assessment This paper was the School-Based Assessment and consisted of three practical assignments. The first and third assignments were set and marked by the teacher. The second practical assignment was set by the teacher and assessed jointly by the teacher and an external examiner.. The mean mark on Paper 03 (SABA) was 47 out of a possible maximum of 60, with marks ranging from 1 to 60. DETAILED COMMENTS Paper 02 – Structured Essay Questions Question 1 This question was a compulsory one and did not pose a severe challenge to the majority of candidates.
In part (a), candidates were required to define underproduction and diabetes. In part ( ) many candidates attributed the indention to a lack of all the nutrients in the body instead of severe deprivation Of the essential nutrients. Many confused under-nutrition with malnutrition. -3 From the responses given to part (a) (ii)r many candidates expressed the view that a high consumption of sugar was the principal cause of diabetes. It should be noted that this is a common misconception. The hormone insulin which is produced by the pancreas is needed for glucose sugar metabolism.
If the pancreas malfunction, little or no insulin is produced, therefore glucose remains in the blood. Generally, candidates’ performance in part ( b ) was fair. They were expected to state two rules which should be followed in planning meals for a convalescent. It was evident that many candidates MIS-read the question and gave rules for preparation and service of the meal, and as a result did not gain marks. Part (c) was based on a situation where a doctor diagnosed that her patients were suffering from anemia, goutier and astronomical respectively. Candidates were required to state a symptom and recommend a food to treat each condition.
A significant number of candidates gave correct responses to the first part of the question but lost marks on the second part in failing to name specific foods. Popular incorrect responses were iron rich foods, foods rich in iodine and dairy foods, instead of liver, sea fish, milk, eggs, cheese. Part (d ) focused on health benefits to be derived from a strict vegetarian diet and difficulties consumers may encounter through the use of such a diet. This was satisfactorily answered. Many candidates were able to state that diseases/conditions such as obesity, constipation, cardiac-vascular diseases, colon cancer could be prevented.
They were also able to State that some Of the difficulties encountered by consumers were monotony in choices, synthesized products such as T. V. P. Ere expensive and that the diet may be unbalanced and not provide adequate amounts of some nutrients, especially vitamin Bal 2. Question 2 This question dealt with food additives and food preservation and was designed to test the candidates’ understanding of (a) reasons for using additives in food processing, (b) chemical preservatives, (c) procedures for freezing fresh gong (pigeon) peas, (d) criteria for judging a bottle of pineapple jam and (e) how to remedy mango jam which failed to set.
This question was not very well answered. In part (a) the responses given by the majority of candidates were limited in scope as candidates stressed mainly enhancement properties such as color, texture and flavor. Other popular responses were the addition of nutrients, prolonging of shelf life and prevention of spoilage. Very few candidates gave responses such as thickeners, antioxidants, emulsifiers. Part (b) was very well answered with the majority of the candidates giving the correct responses. Popular responses were salt, sugar and vinegar. It should be noted that alcohol, spices and smoke also fall into this category. Art (c) was not very well answered. Very few candidates were able describe accurately the correct stages for freezing peas. The following responses were frequently provided: ; Wash peas properly Blanch the peas Place in a plastic bag Put in the freezer Candidates were able to gain a few marks. The preferred presentation of the stages are as follows: Wash the peas thoroughly to remove any foreign matter Plunge into boiling water and leave for 3 to 5 minutes Cool rapidly in ice water Drain well using s large sieve or colander pack in dry airtight bags and place in freezer . 4- Part (d) was very well answered.
However, many candidates gave vague responses such as good color, correct consistency, good flavor, easy to spread. Candidates need to give more detailed responses such as clear, bright, yellow color flavor characteristic of the pineapple texture firm and easy to spread fruit evenly distributed fruit tender Part (e) posed challenges to many of the candidates. Many of them gave responses such as put the jam back on the stove, add more sugar, add more fruit. However, correct responses such as add more acid (lemon juice) or commercial pectin and boil the jam until set were often given.
Question 3 In this question candidates were requested to (a) define the term ‘conservative cooking, (b) list advantages of pressure cooking, (c) suggest asses of short crust pastry’ being tough although the ingredients used were accurate (d)explain why a gelatin mixture failed to set when fresh pineapple was added to it and (e) outline the qualities of a Cream of Pumpkin Soup. Part (a) posed a challenge to many candidates as a significant number of them were unable to give the correct response.
Many of them stated that it was the cooking of convenience foods which saved time and energy, or cooking of many dishes at the same time. Conservative cooking is best defined as the cooking food quickly which results in the retention flavor, color, texture and nutrients. Vegetables such as carrots, Christopher, (choc Choc) patchouli, green beans, boar, broccoli, cut into small pieces or cut thinly, or thin strips of chicken, fish, shrimp can be cooked by this method. In part (b), the advantages of pressure cooking were very well known by the majority of candidates.
Some candidates, however, stated that pressure cooking made tough meat tender, but neglected to state that this was done in a shorter space of time than other methods of cooking. In part (c), many candidates did not realize that the question stated that the ingredients were correct and therefore the problems would arise from the rolling out and aging Of the pastry. Candidates stated that the ingredients were not measured correctly or too much water was added during mixing. They also stated that the oven was not at the correct temperature, but did not state whether it was too hot or too cool.
However, a significant number of candidates were able to state the correct responses which were: . Too cool an oven Conditions for preparation of pastry were not cool enough Insufficient air introduced to act as a raising agent Heavy handling of pastry which pressed the air out Too much flour used in rolling out . Turning the pastry over during rolling, or re-rolling In part (d), only a marginal number of candidates were able to explain that the enzyme broomball in the pineapple was not deactivated by cooking, therefore the protein (gelatin)was not digested, thus preventing the mixture from setting.
However, many candidates knew that the pineapple had to be cooked before being added to the gelatin. Many candidates confused gelatin with pectin. -5 Part (d) was widely known. However many candidates did not obtain the maximum score because they failed to accurately describe the Cream of Pumpkin Soup. Some of the incorrect responses were, right flavor, good lour, not too runny, not too thick. A more accurate description of the soup would have been the following: . Should not have lumps, but a smooth, creamy consistency.
The color and flavor should be characteristic of the pumpkin. It should not be greasy. There should be no signs of curdling. Question 4 This question was designed to test (a) guidelines to be followed when planning meals for teenaged girls, (b) problems that could affect the nutritional status of the elderly, (c) ways by which toddlers may be encouraged to eat nutritious meals and (d) changes which take place when a De snapper is baked. The responses clearly indicated that the majority Of the candidates were not fully prepared to deal with every aspect of the question.
In part (a), many candidates gave general rules for meal planning instead of focusing on the teenaged girl. Responses such as meals must be attractive, meals must be balanced, meals must be nutritious were often given. However, many candidates were able to gain marks with the following responses: ; Protein needed for growth of tissue and development of muscles Extra iron to increase red blood cells due to growth spurt and replacement of blood loss u to menstruation. Vitamins needed for bodily activities. High energy foods needed depending on the level of activity. Art (b) was extremely well answered. The majority of candidates were able to score the maximum number of marks under the headings If Nan CE Physical aging Poor nutrition Emotion In part (c), many candidates gave general points for planning and preparing meals for the toddler instead of focusing on ways to encourage the toddler to eat. Some candidates gave unusual responses such as inviting children in the neighborhood while he/she is eating, play games while the child is eating, let the whole family eat the same meal as the toddler.
Correct responses which many of the candidates gave were: Make meals attractive, tasty and appetizing. Serve small portions and allow child to ask for more. Offer many different foods. Make the child comfortable at meal time – let him/her rest a little before meals and feel relaxed while eating. Do not force child to eat foods they dislike . Serve favorite foods with those they dislike. Introduce new foods one at a time and with familiar foods, especially when they are hungry Do not be afraid to set rules, such as refusing to let child eave foods that you think that they should not have. 6 Part (d) posed a challenge to the candidates. The majority of the candidates received very few marks. Responses such as the color changes from red to brown, water oozes out of the fish had no scientific merit. Changes the red snapper would undergo during baking are: Protein coagulates. Fish shrinks slightly and becomes opaque. Connective tissue changes to gelatin causing flesh to flake easily. Bacteria and parasites are destroyed. Minerals, vitamins and extractive dissolve into the cooking liquid. There is some loss of vitamin B group. Vitamins A and D remain unchanged.
Question 5 This question focused on food safety, storage and selection, and was very well answered by the majority of the candidates. In part (a), candidates were asked to name the micro-organisms which cause (I) milk to curdle, (ii) bread to spoil and (iii) mango drink to ferment. The majority of the candidates were able to answer this part of the question correctly. Candidates’ performance in part ( b ) was fairly good. Some of them discussed how food should be stored in the freezer. However, the majority were able to give correct responses such as: