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Explain three key areas to be addressed in the contracting phase. Discuss arsenal issues associated with successfully entering an agreement. Give an illustration of a practical application of this phase in an organizational context. Study Unit 4: Diagnosing organizations, groups and jobs Describe the concept of diagnosis. Explain the need for diagnostic models in guiding the ODD process. Determine the characteristics of open systems. Describe a comprehensive model for diagnosing organizational systems. Explain the group diagnostic model. Describe individual job level diagnosis.
Study Unit 5: Collecting and analyzing diagnostic information Establish a diagnostic relationship with a client. Provide an overview of the data-collection and feedback cycle. Compare the four different methods of data collection. Describe sampling and its importance in gathering valid diagnostic data. Explain the concept of data analysis. Differentiate between the different techniques for analyzing data. Study Licit 6: Feeding back diagnostic information Identify and explain the characteristics of effective feedback data. Identify and explain the characteristics Of successful feedback processes.
Describe the survey feedback process. Describe the limitations of survey feedback. Summaries the research results of survey feedback. Study Unit 7: Designing interventions Explain the meaning of an effective ODD intervention. Describe the contingencies related to the change situation. Explain the contingencies related to the target of change. Provide an overview of the various types of ODD interventions. Explain three levels of organization that ODD interventions primarily affect. Study Unit 8: Leading and managing change Describe activities contributing to effective change management. Explain how leadership is linked to change activities.
Study Unit 9: Evaluating and institutionalizing change Discuss the evaluation of ODD interventions. Provide a framework for the institutionalizing of ODD interventions. 5 SECTION 3: ODD INTERVENTIONS Study Unit ID: Approaches to human process interventions Describe coaching as an example Of individual change programmer. Describe process consultation as a change intervention. Describe demodulating as an ODD intervention. Study Unit 1 1 : Organization process interventions Describe the confrontation meeting as an organization process approach to change. Compare the different approaches to improve interrupt relations.
Discuss the use Of large-group interventions. SECTION 4: STRATEGIC CHANGE Study Unit 12: Organization transformation Identify and discuss the characteristics of transformational change. Describe culture change as a strategic change intervention. 3. FEEDBACK ON ASSIGNMENT 01 Note: All the page references in the following answers refer to Cummings and Worldly (2009) (9th edition). CASE STUDY Read the following case study carefully and answer the questions that follow: Bluebells Airlines (Bluebells) has broken new territory in the airline industry known for poor customer service and disgruntled employees.
Low-cost airlines entered the market in 2002 and they have survived competition from ajar airlines. As Bluebells grew and changed, a culture shift occurred. Processes that had once been sufficient became outdated. In this turbulent environment, a critical need emerged to proactively investigate the company’s strengths, weaknesses, and areas where transformation was lacking, in order to be prepared for the future. To satisfy this need, a partnership between Bluebells and ODD Consulting Ltd was formed.
The CEO of Bluebells sought an outside perspective from the ODD team to help him “look under the hood” to identify what was working well and what could be changed. The organizational culture at Bluebells embraces change and therefore, the decision to improve continuously was supported by all within the company. Once the sponsor for the project was approved, the ODD team met with key stakeholders to develop a comprehensive contract that outlined the scope of work and to establish clear roles and expectations. After the sponsor and the ODD team had agreed upon a contract, the planning of this large-scale intervention commenced.
One of the decisions made in the planning phase of the project was to utilize a familiar tool to gain feedback from Bluebells creamers. The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument, along with 40 interviews and focus groups from all departments, was used to gain insight into perceived strengths and weaknesses. 6 Collecting and analyzing the data were only the first steps in the change process. In addition, the ODD consultant facilitated intensive weekly meetings for the first month to develop and execute an extensive action plan.
Creamers were nominated to help implement changes in order to improve performance based on the feedback gained from the data collection. FEEDBACK ON QUESTION 1 a) Discuss the four basic activities involved in the General Model of Planned hanged. In your discussion, indicate whether this sequence Of activities was followed by providing examples from the case study to substantiate your answer. (15) Your answer should have included a brief discussion of the four basic activities involved in the General Model of Planned Change. Mark allocation: 1 mark for naming and 2 marks for discussing each activity). The framework describes the four basic activities that practitioners and organization members jointly carry out in organization development. The activities are not a straightforward, linear process but involve considerable overlap and feedback among the activities. Entering and Contracting: The first set of activities in planned change concerns entering and contracting. Those events help managers decide whether they want to engage further in a planned change program and to commit resources to such a process.
Entering an organization involves gathering initial data to understand the problems facing the organization or to determine the positive areas for inquiry. Once this information is collected, the problems or opportunities are discussed with managers and other organization members to develop a contract or agreement to engage in planned change. The entrant spells out future change activities, the resources that will be committed to the process, and how ODD practitioners and organization members will be involved. In many cases, organizations do not get beyond this early stage of planned change because one or more situations arise.
Disagreements about the need for change surface, resource constraints are encountered, or other methods for change appear more feasible. When ODD is used in non-traditional and international settings, the entering and contracting process must be sensitive to the context in which the change is taking place. Diagnosing: In this stage of planned change, the client system is carefully studied. Diagnosis can focus on understanding organizational problems, including their causes and consequences, or on collecting stories about the organization’s positive attributes.
The diagnostic process is one of the most important activities in ODD. It includes choosing an appropriate model for understanding the organization and gathering, analyzing and feeding back information to managers and organization members about the problems or opportunities that exist. Diagnostic models for analyzing problems explore three levels of activities. Organization issues represent the most complex level of analysis and involve the total system. Group-level issues are associated with department and group effectiveness.
Individual-level issues 7 involve the way jobs are designed and performed. Gathering, analyzing and feeding back data are the central change activities in diagnosis. Data can be gathered through interviews, observations, survey instruments, or such archival sources as meeting minutes and organization charts. It is then reviewed and analyses. Then follows the process of feeding back diagnostic data whereby organization members, often in collaboration with an ODD recantation, jointly discuss the data and their implications for change.
Planning and Implementing Change: In this stage, organization members and practitioners jointly plan and implement ODD interventions. They design interventions to achieve the organization’s vision or goals and make action plans to implement them. There are several criteria for designing interventions, including the organization’s readiness for change, its current change capability, its culture and power distributions, and the change agent’s skills and abilities.
Depending on the outcomes of diagnosis, there are four major types of interventions in ODD: human process interventions at the individual, group, and total system levels techno-structural interventions that modify an organization’s structure and technology human resource interventions that seek to improve member performance and wellness strategic interventions that involve managing the organization’s relationship to its external environment and the internal structure and process necessary to support a business strategy Implementing interventions is concerned with leading and managing the change process.
It includes motivating change, creating a desired future Sino of the organization, developing political support, managing the transition toward the vision and sustaining momentum for change. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change: The final stage in planned change involves evaluating the effects of the intervention and managing the institutionalizing of successful change programs so they persist.