What can the theories about denationalizations in the USA and Europe bring to our understanding of this pattern of inequality? This assignment is aimed at discussing the pattern of inter-racial and intra-racial inequalities in Johannesburg and the essay will discuss theories about denationalizations in the USA and Europe that will help us understand the patterns of inequality.
The assignment will be looking at whether Johannesburg is a pollarded or professionalism city in order to understand the movement of the society and its patina movement. The assignment will be arguing that Johannesburg is Intra-racial; it will do this by using US cities to help explain why it is so. The way in which people’s jobs are shaped in cities is understood in “terms of the denationalizations of urban economies”(Borer-Slain and Crankshaft,2009:645), denationalizations has transformed the state of employment, by taking part in the decline of manufacturing jobs and has contributed to the total rise in service Jobs comparative.
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Denationalizations has also resulted in the proportional and total increase in the mount of managerial and professional Jobs (Sorrel-Slain and Crankshaft, 2009). The authors state how some people have argued that denationalizations contribute to the total development of low-skilled Jobs because service Jobs require more low- skilled, low-wage employees than the manufacturing industry because those services jobs are at hotels and retail shops where a person can do anything, a low skilled person can be a Janitor or they can pack things in a shop.
These people have concluded that this leads to the plantation of the occupation and income structure (Sorrel-Slain and Crankshaft, 2009). The spatial movement of people in the US is explained by stating the reasons why people move out of the inter-city and to the suburbs and what are the things that contribute to this movement. There is still a long way to go, for there to be equality and desegregation in the suburbs but there has been a dramatic change since the US segregation period.
Today there are more and more black people living in integrated neighborhoods or suburbs, where black and white people interact with each other. But the inter-cities are a different situation where there isn’t as much of an interaction between blacks and whites. Black people could move to the suburbs because they could now afford to move there because of they now had improved education which allowed them to have better paying Jobs and they could also now move to the suburbs because they weren’t segregated against which meant they could move around freely and could live anywhere they choose to.
But the authors argue that having money and a good education is not the only contributor of people moving to the suburbs but it also has to do with people’s preference, whether they want to live there or not. It was discovered that black people preferred to live in a suburb that divided 50/50 racially ND white people were recorded as saying they wouldn’t mind living in a suburb with only 15% black people (Clark,2007).
While Denationalizations resulted in a lot of people being unemployed of these people most of whom where black people who worked in the factories in the inner-cities, denationalizations resulted in the closing Inter And Intra Racial Inequality By chancellery down of blue collar Jobs and a rise in white collar Jobs which mostly employed people with a higher education and who were high-skilled and Jobs requiring low-skill and no education were demolished and those people without an education were left Enid and without a Job.
Denationalizations of the economy resulted in the moving of factories to the suburbs where they could find cheapest land to establish their business and they could have access to the people they needed to improve their business. Most white people had the mobility to move to the suburbs to follow the business because they had the skills that were needed and some black people were also able to move there. While most blacks namely young blacks were left behind because most of them dint finish high school and so did not have the skills to compete with the people that did and they couldn’t get employed.
But even some blacks who were educated, their education wasn’t at the same level as their white counterparts (Karakas, 1989). The black people that were left in the inter-cities were faced with a problem because they were no Jobs because they had moved to the suburbs and most of those Jobs wanted people who were educated and had a skill they could offer so the people had to travel long distances to the suburbs to look for a job, they faced a lot of problems when looking for a Job which has left them still unemployed and poor.
They couldn’t afford to go the suburbs because they did not eave the money and when they did travel there they will have to travel to travel long hours in public transportation which meant if they were to get to their Job early they would have to wake up in the early hours in order to get to work on time. Low-skilled jobs were offered in the suburbs the only problem was that there weren’t enough jobs for all the unemployed and low-skilled (Wilson, 1996). While Hong Gongs denationalizations began when there was a reshuffling of the country economy and politics and also when Hong Gongs colonization had ended and were once again part of china.
Hong Gong’s globalization process was advanced by local manufacturing businesses relocated their business overseas where they could get cheap labor and land and they had less completion which they had in Hong Kong because other small manufacturing businesses where starting up. These manufacturing businesses relocated to places like Mauritius, but these businesses mostly on the Pearl River Delta at Mainland China as their way of offshore production where they export their goods to the overseas countries, it’s calculated that Hong Gongs manufacturing employs 10-11 million people at the Pearl River Delta (Chic and LU,2004).
Hong Gong’s development from a production site to an operating centre which took over the majority of the local production businesses has led to changes, Hong Kong wants to vastly increase its re-export trade in China this will lead to Hong Kong not needing to further process or change the goods that they bring in from other countries, Hong Kong has done this by moving most of their production businesses to China and starting up factories there and contracting out to factories who are in China, they work with these factories to process the goods and then they have to re-export them jack to Hong Kong (Chic and LU,2004):1866).
Inequality is explained by how the city demand for different types of Jobs coincides with the available people who have the skills to do the Jobs. In other words the city has to see if they have enough people to fill the positions of Jobs that are offered and whether they are qualified enough to fill these Jobs (Crankshaft and Parallel,2002).
The assignment will use social plantation to assist in trying to understand what is causing inequality amongst blacks, social plantation states that the move from a manufacturing region to a service sector has dad a shift in the distribution of employment, the service sector has a allowed for a rise in the high-skilled, high-wage and low-skilled, low wage Jobs which has eliminated the middle-income and middle-skill, this has resulted in housing demands which has led to the redeveloping of some the central city where the low- skilled people are put in areas with undesirable homes (Hamlet,1994).
Johannesburg started out as a mining town where rural black people moved to the urban cities to find employment in the mine, because of Apartheid that had policies which stated that black people could only be employed in unskilled low-paying Jobs o they wouldn’t compete with the whites, so they were giving an education where they were only taught how to do unskilled Jobs and these are the two reasons that contributed to the decline of the Manufacturing industry locally. The manufacturing industry went into decline because the industry wasn’t producing enough for the available resources (Crankshaft and Parallel, 2002).
But in the sass’s because of the shortage of white high skilled employees that could work in the white collar Jobs the government relaxed its policy on employment of blacks in Jobs only reserved for whites, which allowed blacks to work in those Jobs but because black people had been given an education that only taught them unskilled work the state had to offer those urban blacks special education so they would be able to do the Job (Crankshaft and Parallel, 2002) There was also a shortage of white skilled workers to work in the semi-skilled employment so the businesses that once didn’t want any black people in their company now needed them and so they went far as not complying with the government’s policy of the employment act which stated that only white people were to be employed in those Jobs (Crankshaft and Parallel,2002). Even though black people had the same Jobs as the whites they had to have permits that allowed them to work there and they had to stay in areas that were for blacks, the policy that policed this was the Native Urban Act of 1923 (Benson,1990-2002).
This transmission was good for the urban blacks who were now educated and qualified enough to earn a proper living which meant the rural black people were left behind with no education and who were low-skilled and earned low-wages that is why Crankshaft and Parallel (2002) state that Johannesburg has become more intra-racial rather than enter-racial specifically intra-racial household income inequality because at the end of apartheid the new South African government abolished all laws that were enforced by the Apartheid Government against Blacks, the country wealth was no longer Just concentrated in the hands of whites but it was given back to black people but that wealth than got distributed to the wealthy urban black families. 975 and 1991 saw the richest 20% of black household got richer in total while 80% of black households became poorer (Crankshaft and Parallel, 2002). The decline of the manufacturing industry saw the move of businesses to the suburbs from the central city because that is where the big malls were based and these malls offered services and shops that the wealthy people wanted and could afford to shop at and those businesses wanted to be part of the boom of the malls which attracted the wealthy and skilled and when these malls and offices moved people moved with them because they wanted Jobs that were offering a high-wage and the businesses wanted highly-skilled people to work for them.
So those people moved to the suburb, those of which were white wealthy people and some black wealthy people (Benson, 990-2002). The end of apartheid meant that Black people could move around freely and could work anywhere they wanted, so people moved closer to central Johannesburg to get Jobs and where they could start up small retail businesses. The black people that moved to the central city couldn’t find high-wage Jobs because they did not have the skills required to do those Jobs and so they had to get Jobs in that could use their low-skills which in turn paid them low-wages and they once again were left behind by their well-educated and highly-skilled blacks people who could afford to move. Up until 1990 downtown Johannesburg and adjacent residential areas were increasingly seen as Black area and the suburbs, particularly the already well-endowed northern suburbs were vied as the refuge of the white population” Benson, 1990-2002:16), Sweet was affected mostly by poverty and it was located in a not so nice area and that area was mostly filled with unemployed black people, this situation is kind of similar to the US situation where the Manufacturing industry moved to the suburbs and took with it Jobs for the unskilled and took the skilled who loud afford to move to the suburbs and the rest of the people whom were mostly black were left in the city and could afford to live in shanty neighborhoods (Clark, 2007). Even though some black people move to white middle class suburbs they still can be racially segregated against because sometimes when black people move into those suburbs their white neighbors move out and because they aren’t a lot of black people that move into that neighborhood it lowers the prices of the houses which than results in other black people moving in because they now can afford the house, which in turn, turns that neighborhood into a black only neighborhood.
Than those people who had moved out of the black neighborhood before end up back where they started (Crankshaft, 2008). To prove that Johannesburg is Intra-racially Crankshaft (2008) used the Atlanta to represent Johannesburg because these two countries a similar, where the northern suburbs which a mostly white middle class have attracted black middle class people, while the southern suburbs which are predominantly black are faced with extreme poverty, which has created a “division between the a racially desegregated middle class , on one hand , and a largely black irking class on the other” (Crankshaft, 2008:1695), which proves that these suburbs are no longer inter-racially segregated but rather intra-racially divided.
What sets apart Johannesburg from the rest of the world especially the US when it comes to looking at racial, spatial inequality is that in Johannesburg black people make up 70% of the population and they represent half of the people that work in managerial and professional middle class in the city, even though they are not yet really represented in the middle class they are slowly getting there and there are more and more of them since the end of apartheid. Compared to the US where there are more white people than there are blacks which is why there is still such huge inequality and black people are not really represented in the middle class (Scrimshaw, 2008).
The end of the Manufacturing sector meant that a lot of people who had low-skills lost their Jobs because the factories had moved to the suburbs to find better opportunities for themselves. The people left behind in the inner cities had to travel to the suburbs to look for work, which some could not afford to do because they had no money. But there were those who could move but they were restricted by policies established at the time which prohibited blacks from doing certain Jobs and living in certain areas and they were given an inferior education so they wouldn’t compete with the whites but they were given the opportunity when more people were needed to do the Job.