The Kingdom of Cambodia is a small county covering an area of 181,035 km. Thus, there have many factors that face by the growth of population are very noticeable particularly in Phonon Penn city. As we know that before the national election in 1993, our country face many regimes and during these regimes were full of wars and lots of people were dead too. So, after the national election 1993, the government of The Kingdom of Cambodia considered that Cambodia has gone through many decades of difficult times, war, civil war and loss of most population.
Therefore, Cambodia has a teeth in order to increase its population because people play important role in each countries. The policy of government also makes sure that create more human resource can develop the country. However, Cambodia is poor country with many difficulties, and even with the present population food shortages can occur. On the other hand, the growth of population in Cambodia have increased rapidly recently, especially in Phonon Penn, is a city among other city, which have a lot of citizens. According to the estimate, the numbers of people live permanently in Phonon Penn is not less than two millions people.
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So, the large scales of population like this have leaded too many matters, particularly environmental problems. These problems can not only affect on society, but also on people. There are a lot Of Environmental issues that have occurred in Phonon Penn today, and the government concern too much about this crises. In the beginning, this topic will have a discussion about the main problems of population growth lead to serious environmental crises. In addition, it will indicate the detail causes of environmental problems because of human activity. In section 2, it will analyze the effect of Environmental issues due to increasing of population.
In this factor, it will inform that the matter of environment affect on both people and society. In section 3, this topic will show about the solutions of the government control the problems of the environment. Specifically, it will discuss more detail about methods of the government in order to solve the problems by cooperate with other organization. 2. Objective of Research There are a few reasons why I select this topic to show every people in order to know my purpose. Indeed, the number of people grew very noticeable in Phonon Penn recently that I think this will cause the environmental problem in the capital city of our country.
Moreover, I really concern our environment will happen if every body does not care about it. As We know, environment is very necessary for all of us and if We do not have good environment, we can not live with happiness and can not develop our country too. The main purpose for this research I want to know the strategy or method how to solve these environmental problems due to population increase. Want to proposal to both national and international organization to know and find the solution cut down this matter. 3. Methodology of Research – Secondary data
Actually, the ways that are used for this research are only related to secondary data. In order to make this topic clearly most of data are quoted from foreign language documents but there have some Khmer language document. ; Khmer language: -Books: An Introduction to the Environmental Studies, Population and Environment -Reports: Council for Administrative Reform ; Foreign language: -Books: Introduction to the Environment -Internet: move. Google. Com – Scope or Coverage At the first two weeks go to Internet Cafe and Library in order to research on my assignment. I spent two weeks more to prepare the documents both
Khmer and Foreign languages, and I did assignment plan, and then I started writing a draft. After that, I spent four weeks to write my whole assignment. 4. Historical Background In Cambodia, there are many wars that occurred in the past and also changed the regimes every time. Since this difficult time happened, the populations in the country have changed all time also. Particularly, in 1 970, Cambodia population was about 7 million persons with an annual growth rate of 2. 4%. In contrast, in 1980 total population was about 6. 4 million persons with an annual growth rate of 0. 8%. The population fell down in 1 980 cause of a few factors.
Firstly, a net immigration of 567,000 people during 1970 to nearly 1980. Moreover, the decrease in the birth rate, for instance, there were an estimated 70,000 fewer birth during the war time in 1970-1974 due to the loss of women of child bearing age. From 1975-1978 the Khmer Rouge years there were 570,000 fewer births because of famine, family separations, and loss of women and men of productive ages, and only 21 6,000 fewer births in 1979 cause from the case had not so many reproductive age women died. Furthermore, 275,000 persons were died through 1970-1974 caused by civil war, bombing, and lack of food and 1. Million were died during the Khmer Rouge rule. The war during the early sass’s made a mass migrant to Phonon Penn, so that the number of capitals population grew up from 500,000 to almost persons in 1973. Instead, during the Khmer Rouge from 1975-1979, the population was forced to move into rural areas by leaving Phonon Penn; thus, the people, who lived in the city, were almost empty. The population in Phonon Penn changed like this, so the Environment in the city has a good condition. After the national election in 1 993, Cambodia has a peace and the economic of the country started to develop.
It illustrated that when the whole country have a good situation, the number of people also start increasing very fast. Especially, the population in Phonon Penn nowadays has grown dramatically. As a consequence, the large amount of people like that can lead to many serious environmental problems in the city recently. 5. Impact of Population Growth on Environment in Phonon Penn Today I. The Cause of Population Growth affect on Environment 1. Burning Fossil Fuels When there have a lot of people living in the society, transportation is very necessary for every people. As we know, the transportation play important ole in each country.
So if a country does not have the transportation, that country can not develop their nation. There are many kind of transportation that people use everyday, namely: car, motor etc in order to go to school, work and also to move goods from one place to another place. Moreover, if the populations grow up more quickly, there have an increase large amount of all kinds of vehicles also. This factor will affect in the society because people use too much fuels. Besides, it is not only the problem in the world, but also in Cambodia too, particularly, on the street in Phonon Penn today, here are full Of vehicles such as cars, and motors etc.
These vehicles need fuels, so there is so much fossil fuel are burnt by people everyday to run their vehicles. Consequently, when these fuels are burnt, the gases such as carbon dioxides, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are released to the atmosphere and cause the air pollution resulting in acid rain that pollute the environment. 2. Burning and Throwing Waste in the Public Place Most people living in the city they do not understand the necessary of the Environment, so they throw the rubbish namely: cans, bottles, plastics, papers after they eat or drink something on the street and the park.
Indeed, these wastes will pollute the land seriously if every body does not care about it. Actually, if looking on the day of the water festival in Phonon Penn, there are full of rubbishes on street along the river side. In addition, one major problem is that people burn the rubbish that getting from their houses in the open way because the waste collection and disposal services in Phonon Penn are not effectively and one more thing, they think that they save for collection service also. So if people still have an attitude like that, it will affect the environment when the polluted smokes are release because of burning GA ravage. 3.
Produce More Wastes When there are a lot of people rise rapidly, so the more wastes go up in the city. Waste is one of the most important problems of developing countries like Cambodia. For instance, in Phonon Penn, Stung Machine dumpiest is disposal of the wastes. As we know, people live in the Phonon Penn produce more waste for their daily life. The waste is made from different sources; it can be divided into four main types are house waste, market waste, hotel and restaurant waste and industrial waste. When the wastes are dumped, the main problems at dumpiest are groundwater contamination, surface water contamination, air pollution.
Besides, these problems will affect the public health, especially the people live close to the dumpiest. 4. Use TOO Much Water Water is one of the most important for every people, so people can not live without water. Fresh water used by humans comes from two sources: surface water and ground water. Thus, when the large part of populations’ growth, people have to use too much water as well, for instance, people live in the city. Generally, people use water for many ways such as domestic consumption, agriculture, industry.
For domestic consumption includes water that people need for drinking cooking, and bathing, washing anything like clothes, dishes and also for waste disposal. One important thing, water used for agriculture in order to grow crop namely: rice, corn, bean etc. The water is also play important role in the industry for cleaning, for cooling machinery or for waste disposal. As a result, if people do not limit to use water in a suitable way, it will lack of water resource in the future. In fact, people do not have a fresh water to supply their life. 5. SE Second Hand Cars As we know, our country is a developing country, so the technology in Cambodia is not developed yet, and people have to buy the cars from the foreign county. Besides, most people prefer to buy second hand cars because the cost of these is very low price. For example, in Phonon Penn where there are a lot of garages that sell second hand cars a long the Moving Blvd and somewhere else. However, those cars do not have a proper pollution control device and every people would like to use that kind of cars, so it will cause air pollution in the city.
Moreover, on the street in Phonon Penn, there are some big trucks, and these cars usually expel polluted smoke when they are driven. As a result, if the trucks are allowed into the city, it will cause serious problems of the environment and lose the beauty of the city as well. 6. Live Near the River River is very important for everyone to use it for doing everything. In fact, people can use it for transportation, and they can get benefit from it in order to supply their life like bathing. Moreover, river is used to make fresh water because it is a natural resource.
For example, Mekong River in Phonon Penn plays important role in industrialization by transport the goods from the sea site. On the other hand, some people build the house and live close to the ever; they do not care about their activities that they pollute the Water every day. For those people, they do not consider the useful of the river, so they usually allow waste water from their house through into the river. Sometime they also throw the rubbish like plastics, cans into the river and these things have a pollutant so it led to water pollution. Eventually, water resource will be lost in the future. . Build Many Buildings and Factories Today in Phonon Penn we see that many buildings such as houses, apartments are built every day in order to live or to do a business. Therefore, people have to need more land to apply for their construction. In order to increase more land, people also cut down the trees to exceed the land. Although people can construct a lot of houses or flats, in the city will lose of trees and lose the beauty of the city too. Besides, the trees can absorb the pollutant from the atmosphere, so if those trees are lost, it will cause pollution.
As a result, people have no space to live comfortable because its buildings, they also can not get fresh air and the city will have more wastes as well. One important thing, most of the factories are built in the city because it is an industrial place. Generally, the factories are full of chemical substances and usually cause a problem of waste disposal because some factories do not have program for the disposal of waste materials. Thus, most of wastes are either dumped on the land or are disposed directly into the rivers.
Consequently, the harmful substances that get from the factories pollute the soil, ground water and rivers. Furthermore, the smoke that release from the factories will pollute the air because the factories do not use pollution control equipment. 8. Clearing Forest for Agriculture Cambodia is essentially an agricultural country with between 85-90% Of he population have a work as a farmer. However, the soils in Cambodia are generally not so fertile and agricultural land covers a relatively small area of the country. Thus, people have to used chemical fertilizers are produced in factories in order to make the soil fertile.
In addition, if chemical are used by the people everyday it cause the environmental damage including water pollution, harm to human health. Besides, people have a problem with a shortage of agricultural land, so they have to clear more forest in order to expand crop land. As a result, the forest will be cut down every for populations’ demand. Moreover, when in our country loss of natural resource like forest, it will led to many problems such as soil erosion, inadequate rainfall, have more pollutant because no forest to absorb the harmful substances, especially Carbon dioxide (CA) . II.
The Effect of Environmental Problem due to Population Growth Damage to People’s Health Pollution of the environment can result in damage to human health. Actually, the most pressing environmental problems in the city are in the areas of water supply and sanitation, solid waste management, food safety and air pollution. For instance, pollutants in the air Can cause the matter of yes, nose, throat and skin. Particularly, people who work in badly polluted areas may suffer lung diseases due to the polluted air. In addition, as we know only a small percentage of the population has a safe and reliable supply of water.
One more thing, people have a problem with rubbish and waste that are not properly disposed, so it can cause the producing of pests such as houseflies, rats and cockroaches. For example, in Phonon Penn today the solid waste collection and disposal service are not so good, so the open dump of waste can be found in the streets of the city. Consequently, people live close o the waste dump can ill easily and the diseases such as diarrhea can result in death, especially for the young children. Furthermore, there are many cases Of diarrhea due to poor food sanitation.
The poor food sanitation cause from many following ways: food sold in shops and markets are contaminated by various insects such as flies, water used in food preparation or for drinking is contaminated and ice factories use contaminated water sources, human and animal wastes are used to fertilize farms without treatment resulting in contamination of vegetables and fruits. 2. Affecting on society Besides the causing damage to human health, environmental pollution also can affect on society. Actually, buildings and structures in the society are damaged by acid rain.
It is caused by air pollution when the fossil fuels are burnt in power stations, factories or cars. Chemicals in the air can also change the color of the buildings, statues and monuments. For example, Angora watt temple and other temples in our country. Moreover, the environmental problems affect on developing of the country because the impact of environmental pollution on public health and buildings and structures has exulted in extra cost for the people as well as the government. As more people get sick due to pollution, the government has to spend more money on healthcare. Or health will affect on people’s work and the government also has to spend money in order to restoring public buildings or statues which damaged by pollution. This money should spend to develop the economy and bring extra benefits to the country, but when people get sick, the government has to spend money in order to help the citizens. One more thing, the city will lose the number of tourist because they see that our entry is full of pollution. Those tourists consider that our environment is very dirty, so when they come back to their country, they will tell their family or friends do not come to our nation.
As a result, we will lose the income that get from the tourist. This is a way that affect on the developing of the country as well. Ill. The Government Take Measures 1. Make Environmental Education Environmental education is a fundamental importance in Cambodia. So the government should education can provide the general knowledge, values and skills needed for people to understand environment. In general, the repose of environmental education can make the citizens to understand the important of the environment.
Moreover, to inform the citizens about the necessary of the environment, so the understanding and knowledge of all environments will widespread over the country and the people will know and try to protect the environment. In order to make the environmental education more effective, the government should have many strategies for the environmental study. Firstly, the government has to instruct teachers about ways to exercise more content of their classes further environmental awareness and to promote environmental interest to the children.
This will be succeeding by developing an appropriate teachers guide on environmental education for Cambodia primary and secondary school teachers. Next, the government should the develop a series of small books about environment as teaching materials for primary school, so the children will be interested in those books. One more thing education about environment should be advertised by newspapers, television and radio to further environmental awareness of the citizens. The government can also make television program for general student in order to the discussion about environment.
In addition, he government should go to community that never know about the environment by providing more information and show them about the necessary and the ways how to protect the environment. Therefore, all Of these ways can make all people understand clearly about the environment and they will continue inform their children and protect the environment as well. 2. Make Law and Regulation Today in Cambodia, there are no laws and regulations in order to control of air pollution, water pollution, manage the environment and use the natural resources.
So the Ministry of Environment is in the process of drafting an environmental law which includes all these problems. These law should be enforced which will safeguard human health and the environment. Moreover, the government has to stop people who try to pollute the environment by imposing fines and penalties. For example, factory owners in Phonon Penn can be fined if they allow the untreated water into public sewers or into the river. People also are fined, especially citizens living in city, if they burn or throw the rubbish in the public place or into the river.
Other thing, the big trucks should not be allowed in the city because it causes the serious pollution. 3. Develop the Rural Area As we know, there are many factories in Cambodia; particularly most of the factories collect in Phonon Penn city. These factories cause the pollution a lot such as air pollution, water pollution and sometime noise pollution also. As a result, the government should develop the rural area in order to move the factories into the countryside and the pollutions are reduced for the big parts. The government has to control these factories, even though they are moved to countryside. . Cooperate with Local and International Organization The government should have a good relationship with the local and international organization. Because both local and international organization has an important role for fund, so the government has to advertise the environmental problems of the country to those organizations. Thus, they will inform the problem to the rich country for getting distribution from them. Sometime, the local or international organization, they have a good plan to help the environmental problems in our country by they go to research by themselves in the community.
For instance, they try to explain the advantage of the environment, and they also show how to protect the environment for the people who never know about the education of environment. Eventually, he government can not solve these problems only; it has to get help from both local and international organization as well. IV. Conclusion All the points above can push us to think about these problems that we are facing in Cambodia, especially in Phonon Penn. As we mention above, the environmental problems are not only happened in our country, but also happened in every countries.
So the government should consider the environmental issues as the major problem, and the government has to concentrate on these issues and finds a solution as well. In addition, this solution can be performed in an effective way if have a join from citizens paving in the society. V. Recommendation In general, everybody knows that environment is very important for us because it is a place where we live. So we should love our environment and also we should contribute to make our environment clean.