Furthermore, motivation is one of the main issue that had been existed through many years which strongly help to shape our understanding about the employees behavior which lead to a rise or a downfall of their performance which greatly affect the productivity Of any organization (Wiley,1 995). Problem Statement Nowadays, motivation is not an alienated issue which is still exist that have a lot of flaws in overcoming it and it is still being research by many professional researcher to get an accurate solution.
Research had been done by foreign universities that have stated clearly that there are two type of motivation which is intrinsic as well as extrinsic which give a great impact towards once performance. According to the previous researcher, they strongly agreed that they are many factors either intrinsic as well as extrinsic which greatly affected an individual performance that may lead to a great change in a n organization (Ryan and Decide, 2000). Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate this problem.
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What is the most influential motivator towards an employee’s performance? Research Objectives 1 . To identify the most affecting influential motivators towards employee’s performance. 2. To identify whether the motivator and the employees have any relationship between them. 3. To determine the barriers that lead to the lack of efficiency in the employee?s performance. Significance of Study From this research, it could shows information on which is the most influential motivators that could affect the employee’s performance at Proton Company.
Furthermore, this research could give a beneficial value towards the company as well as other company because it can be related as this study can improve the nature of the employee’s behavior itself. This would increase the company awareness to improve their employee’s performance as well as increasing their rate of productivity effectively. Limitations of Study The main limitation for this paper relies strongly on the employee’s perception on the things that may increase their motivation level to the highest rate as well as the lowest rate of it.
Next, this study only focuses on several key motivators under three dimensions. There may be other motivators which this research did not manage to include. Lastly, the duration for the investigation on the problem and to measure the change or the stability within a sample is constrained by the due date of assignment. Scope of the Study Scope for this study is to analyses as well as investigate the most influential titivation which affect the performance of the within Proton Company.
The objective of this study is to identify the most influential motivators that affect the performance of the employee’s and to identify whether the motivator and the employees have any relationship between them. There are two type motivation that are the intrinsic motivation and the extrinsic motivation. Work stress is the extrinsic motivation and for the intrinsic motivation are the job satisfaction and the employee’s behavior. The study was conducted at Proton Company. The samples of 1 50 employees ad been used in this research to collect the data from the surveys which had been answered by employees.
Definition of concepts Motivation can be classified into two type which are the intrinsic motivation and the extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation can be define as doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Decide, 2000). In this research, intrinsic motivation is the job satisfaction as well as employee’s behavior. The job satisfaction of the employees includes intrinsic motivators such as either they are satisfied with heir current job performance as well as the environment of it.
Next is the employee’s behavior which includes also the intrinsic motivators such as they are motivated to perform well and exceed their expectation or the other way around. The extrinsic motivation is work stress. This can be classified as extrinsic motivation which can be defined as doing something because it leads to a separable outcome (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Decide, 2000). For this type of motivation, the working environment played a big role whether it give a positive impact or negative impact to the individual itself.
LITERATURE REVIEW One of the most debated issues which affect the employees’ performance is motivation (Scholarly, 2009). “It has long been an aim of work psychology to uncover the reasons why individuals vary in their motivation to work, as well as how individual differences interact with organizational/ situational factors to influence individual satisfaction and motivation (Burnham, 2002). ” This is because that this issue still haven’t had the accurate solution which give a greater feedback which can give a higher benefit towards once employee.
Much research has been done that focuses on exploring and uncovering the relationships between an individual motivation and employees performance. “The role of motivation is to be motivated means to be moved to do something (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Decide, 2000). ” Early research such as a study done by Develops and Folio (1997) revealed that “motivation will lead an individual to have more tendencies to perform well than those who are not. ” This role that motivation plays in influencing an individual was also outlined by other studies. Clearly, there are motivators that affect the level of motivation among employees.
This study focuses on such motivators. Motivation can be categorized into two forms; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. “Intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable(Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Decide, 2000). ” Previous study found that the personality of the employee works as an indicator of their intrinsic motivation (T. L. Webb, J. Christian, C. J. Remarriage, 2007). Hence, in this study, the personality of the employee is used as a major variable from which several intrinsic motivators are based on.
The personality of the employee includes intrinsic motivators such as how they morally feel towards good reference (whether it is the right thing to do) and whether they feel guilty when their performance are lack Of efficiency. These motivators are based on the study by Friedman (2001 ). Extrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome (Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Decide, 2000). Studied had been done by Brewer (2005) which showed that a friendly and approachable motivate the employee to perform well because they feel like they are part of the company which give the perception of importance within them.
This shows that the personal characteristics of the employer also play a role in motivating the employee ND hence, work as an external motivator. The study also found that the employer knowledge is another external motivator. In addition to the obligation to attend, Field (2012) also notes that another motivator is the information regarding their task which might only be available from the employer as well as their working environment. Most of the studies reported in this literature review depended on researcher reporting and this study has adopted a similar approach.
One of the crucial issues currently for an organization is by undergoing what endorse job satisfaction. “Job satisfaction s determined not only by the employees’ objective working situation, but also by their subjective perceptions about their job (Moral & Prefer-I-Carbonate, 2009). ” Locke (1969) defines “job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the employee appraising his/her job as achieving and/or facilitating their own job values”. By a way of explanation job satisfaction refers to level of gratification an individual feels regarding their job.
Job satisfaction can be obtained by nature of work, supervision, wage and many more. From previous researcher, studied had been conducted by (Schneider Snyder, 1975) state that job satisfaction “consists of filtered and processed perceptions; filtered through the individual’s system of norms, values, and expectations”. An employee who is frustrated or disappointed tends to decline their job satisfaction level. An individual background plays a significant role towards level of job satisfaction in an organization.
According to Kara et 1) “these expectations and realities may also vary according to age, education, gender, and cultural background”. Additionally, based on studies conducted by Et-Line et “conflicting duties from work and from family will affect their job satisfaction”. An imbalance lifestyle Of working and social could also affect an individual job satisfaction in an organization as mention in the studies above. Subsequently there are lots of factors that have a tendency to to affect an individual job satisfaction.
According to Shih & Pearson (2012) utilized expectancy theory have demonstrated that an individual’s job satisfaction of a work outcome has a significant impact on his or her motivation to put high levels of work effort in order to obtain the outcome. This result is not surprising as previous studies found out that job satisfaction and motivation complement each other in a way. For instance, Mattes et al. (1977) studied life insurance sales representatives and found that valence of outcome was related to performance level.
Shih & Pearson (2012) job security or job status might have an important effect on an IT professionals perceived valence of job satisfaction. Behavior is generally known as the way which one acts or conducts oneself toward others. It is more to actions and mannerisms made by the organisms or systems in conjunction with physical environment According to (Ferryman, Hashes, Italian, & Schwartz, 2014) behavior defined as a function of three main factors which were competence, opportunity and motivation.
They also aid behavior is controlled by two primary factors which were antecedents and consequences. Antecedents precede behavior and had an activating function, whereas consequences follow the behavior and determine the probability that it will be repeated in the future. An organization was a system that generates antecedents and consequences in response to behaviors. The contingencies were also built in organizations either hinder support or desired behaviors and thereby the probability of the performance of desired behaviors.
Other researchers (Soignee, Phenylalanine, Sojourn & Syria, 21 03) cited on Gird and Abigail (2008) and Liana et al. 2011) concluded that behavior will depend on the person’s attitudes toward the voluntary behavior and personal attitudes. Therefore, behavior can be classified as the external matter and can be observed. Attitude is the internal matter although it often shows on the outside. Uvula and Nikolas (2006) cited Second and Beckman (1969, p. 167) “defined attitudes as certain regularities of an individual’s feeling, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of his environment’.
Organizational behavior is behavior and attitude of people within the organizations. This can be proved by (Okapi & A. Noir, 201 1) defined B as a lied of study devoted to recognizing, explaining, and eventually developing the attitudes and behaviors of people (individual and group) within organizations and it is based on scientific knowledge and applied practice. They mentioned that B requires a rudimentary understanding of psychology, anthropology, sociology, philosophy and axiology.
From a psychological perspective, human behaviors and mental processes dictate how organizations perform; from an anthropological perspective, the culture language and belief of each other individual dictate how organizations perform; from sociological perspective, the development of human and social behavior dictate how organizations functions; from a philosophical perspective, the morals and ethics of an individual’s values dictate how organizations function. Other disciplines may be applied B as well.
As a result, there are many perspectives toward organizational behavior. These researchers (Ferryman, Hashes, Italian, Schwartz, 2014) mentioned that motivation is the driving force that initiates behavior and maintains the performance of behavior. They also described motivation dimension is largely defined by the consequences that reinforce behavior and thereby affect the form, direction and intensity of performance. It concludes that motivation affected by behavior such as the organizational commitment.
According to (Vocal & Nikolas, 2005) “it is a state in which an individual identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in order to facilitate the goals”. This can be related to motivation because of maintaining the goals of behavior. (Michael, Court & petal, 2009) found out that organizational commitment is characterized by willingness to maintain membership in the organization and identification with the organizations values and goals and willingness to invest effort in order to purport the organization’s goals.
According to this approach, the employees are willingly to give their energy and support to achieve organization’s goals. (Vocal & Nikolas, 2005) mentioned what is commitment. Commitment was divided into three factors. Willingness to apply huge effort on behalf of the organization and a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization are the factors are a strong acceptance of the organization’s values and goals. It was determined by a range of organizational and individual factors such as personal characteristics, structural characteristics, work experience, and role related features.
There are three types of commitments which are affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative (Michael, Court & Petal, 2009). They stressed out the meaning of these 3 types. Firstly, affective commitment, it can develop a positive experiences and encounters the organizations, experiences that communicate to employees that the organization supports and treats them fairly. It also develops from psychologically rewarding experiences.
Next is, continuance commitment was mentioned as neutral emotional reaction and is influenced by the consequences of the decision whether to continue in the organization or eave it. Lastly, normative commitment was defined as develops out of internal pressures that result from norms that encourage extended commitment to the organization. It means employees show loyalty towards their organization. “The commitments can be characterized at least by three related factors; affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment (Michael, Court, Petal, 2009). The meaning of three factors of commitments are a strong acceptance of the organization’s values and goals, a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization and a strong desire o maintain membership in the organization. As a result, commitment is determined by a range of organizational and individual factors such as personal characteristics, structural characteristics, work experience and role related features (Vocal, Nikolas, 2005). Job stress is a massive problem and it is well recognized.
Stress can reduce employee well-being and it is well recognized that excessive or sustained work pressure can lead to stress. “Teamwork is an important element to reduce work stress among employees. Definitions of teams and other workups together with the preferred reemerging vary, and there is no universally accepted definition in the literature (Ouzo & Dickson, 1996). ” Teamwork is mainly refers as a pack of two or more that involve in these three characteristics which the first is a group of employees that is formally established.
Next is assigned some autonomy with different intensities and within different organizational areas, and the last is performs tasks that require interdependence between members. “Teams can be introduced as part of an organization’s economic strategy aiming at reducing administration costs and salaries for middle level managers (Desiccants & Poole, 1997). Teamwork may also be introduced as part of Human Resource strategies as a way to stimulate employee commitment and to facilitate creativity and innovation (Bacon & Bolton, 2000; Meyer & Allen, 1997; Meyer, Allen, & Topologists, 1998). Teamwork and psychological factors have complex interaction between each other. Psychological variables can categorize into three such as behavioral, attitudinal and emotional. “In response to the differences in reported results, it has been suggested by several authors that the organizational context or “situational factors” may play an important role with regard to psychological rabbles, and the need for systematic research of contextual factors is emphasized (Hickman, 1999; Hickman, Washman, Ruddy, & Ray, 2000). From the studies shown, team members’ job-satisfaction was found to be positively associated with attitudes such as perceived discretion and perceived employment security and team efficacy and organizational commitment. Moreover, job-satisfaction was positively linked with team interdependence in different studies and also positively connected with information, training, and resources in the organizational context. Job satisfaction was negatively associated with team membership unsteadiness fete downsizing.
Based on earlier reviews, “the results that were reported did not seem to differ much and there was only one study where teamwork was found to be related with a reduction in employee wellbeing” (Ouzo & Dickson, 1 996; Sunstroke al. , 2000). A lot of the variables were self- reported and the psychological variables under investigation in different studies may have been theoretically and scientifically overlying. However, the general tendency in the reported results seems to be that team characteristics such as interdependence and team autonomy, and psychological variables are positively associated.
From the studies, we get little information about the psychological variables and teamwork. This includes the emotional outcomes of teamwork, even though these can be assumed to be of importance for employees and organizations. Interaction of psychological variables as well as other variables during teamwork is probably complex. Additionally, studying this interaction in a real organizational setting is not always easy. However, these factors may give us a stronger grip of some organizational related factors, although further development of methods for assessing organizational participation is needed.
Employees who work in organization mostly stressed up with many other factors. “Nowadays, many employees work long hours (Drag, 2000). ” It seems that the pressures of the global economy and the concomitant increased competition prompt organizations to reward employees who are willing to work hard for a career (Blair-LOL and Jacobs, 2003; Scabbard and Cooper, 2000). ” Besides that with the availability of the internet, employees can work at any time and as long as they can even for longs of hour.
In the early sass, it was suggested that an addiction to work may be similar o working beyond the limits Of a person sufficiency, which was called “workaholics” (Dates, 1971 It means that, other addictions are somehow similar to work addiction, for example, showing excessive behaviors but ignoring other important things in life (Porter, 1996). Three features of workaholics were stated by Scott et al. (1997). First, when workaholics get a chance to do their work, they will spend a lot of hours in their work.
Second, when they are not working they are not willing to separate from work and keep on thinking about it. Third, whatever it is expected from them to meet he goals set by the organizations, workaholics will work beyond it. From that, it shows that workaholic have a behavioral dimension and cognitive dimension. Which are putting in a lot amount of energy and time to work and cannot be stop from involving with work related things (Schaeffer et al, 2008). There are other reasons for the workers to work extremely hard.
Work enthusiasm or work engagement is labeled from excessive working that can also reflect enjoyment (Spence and Robbins, 1992; Miasmal et al, 2001). Other reason can be because of absorption. Some workers can be too focus on their org that they lost the track of time and making it harder for them to stop doing it until it finish (Schaeffer et a’, 2002). An explanation for differences of work holism and work engagement was provided by The Mood as Input (MAIM) model (Martin and Davies, 1998). This model predicts that some people Often show their feelings or moods just to evaluate their progress towards their aims.
However, enjoyment stop rule state that some people may not enjoy doing the activity for a long period of time and can decide to not do it anymore. To elaborate more on the influences that causes work engagement ND work holism, it can be done by autonomy measure. It will show whether it was influence by employee’s hour’s flexibility or the nature of the work itself. For example, study shows that the relationship between flexible working schedule and family conflict was not moderated my workaholics (Russo and waters, 2006).
A journal said that stress can be defined in many ways. For example, stress as a response to environmental stimuli (Ex, Behr and Roberts, 1992). Which cannot be proven since many other journal states that there are no specific term to define work stress (Kinsman and Jones, 2005). It is shown that an imbalance between individual’s resources and environmental demands had been acknowledged as an outcome from workplace stress (Lazarus and Folkway, 1984; McKay, Cousins, Kelly, Lee and Craig, 2004).
It also stated that the stresses and the strain should be separated with each other. Evidence suggested that stress is an important factor that makes you feel tired and has no motivation at workplace (Aaron’s & Palatability, 2003; Convoy, Dammar and O’Connell, 2001; French, Marten, Senior & Waianae, 2002; Parker, Finked & Indict, 1993). It also suggested that work stress will effect your health in a negative way. Study also shown that work stress has a negative impact on workers’ functioning in the organization (Kinsman and Jones, 2005).
It also stated that work stress will lead to concentrating difficulties and thinking irrationally. That will give negative outcome on the workers’ performance. A study on work stress by a research paper states that low job performance is contribute by workplace stress (Imitate and Madam, 2009). A journal that study about stress between private company sector and public company sector shows that people that works in a private sector many will tend to get higher stress compared to the people that work in a public sector company (Tableaus, 2011).
It is also shows that a job that interacting with people will tend to be more stressful than the job that have to deal With things rather than people. That is why it says that job in the service sector is the most stressful compared to any other job sectors. Nowadays, many companies in the world are competing with each other to be on top and this gave loads of stress to the employee especially for the youngster who just entered the work field (Tableaus, 2011).
The journal is very useful for managers in organization “as it gives insight into the difference between workaholics and work engagement since workaholics is associated with burnout and job satisfaction (Burke et al. , 2006). ” Lit is vibrant for organizations to assess and monitor workaholics. Workaholics is related to continuing until the employee feels that he or she put enough effort into work, whereas work engagement is not related to using this principle. There are also journals that clearly states about how work stress give an impact on work motivation in an organizations. So, it will be useful to do the research.