Essay riding deadlines for the School of Biological Sciences General Our aim In setting an essay as part of your assessment is for you to learn 1 . To obtain Information from the scientific literature, to synthesize information from diverse sources, 3. To use it to critically evaluate and discuss arguments or ideas, and 4. Then communicate these to the reader. Most scientific communication is by means of published papers. It is important, therefore, that you learn to communicate effectively by the written word.
As with all English writing, a scientific say should be clear, concise, pertinent and written with clarity of expression and accuracy of facts. Developing an ability to communicate Ideas on paper Is a crucial part of your education. For the major ;TTY of people this is a creative art that is painstakingly developed over many years and experience is the only way to achieve proficiency. We strongly recommend that you purchase a copy of the following book to guide you in the techniques of writing about biology: Peacemaking 7) ‘A worth elude to bout b ;logy. ‘ the d . (Longing: New ark) Harvey Andrew Library call No: 808. 6657 PASS There are numerous other books on the subject (in the Harvey – Andrew Library) that you also find h lawful . Look for call numbers around 808. 0665. Some examples are: Barras R 2002 ‘Scientists just rite. 2 ND Rutledge : London Clinch Ballard B (199 7 ) ‘Essay dents : a practical guide. ‘ 3 (Longing Cheshire : Melbourne peculations of a scientific essay are quite different from a VICE assignment. Firstly, you are expected to make your own search of the literature, using mostly material found in the Harvey – Andrew Library (or any other library at a tertiary education or rest reach institute).
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This is a time consuming task and we urge you to start as soon as possible after you have received your topic. If you are unfamiliar with library search techniques, register for the relevant tutorials and workshops that are regularly on o offer from the Harvey Andrew Library staff to teach you how to f in d your way around the library its facilities the catalogue and how to search the library database for suitable Journal articles Style Obviously an untidy presentation is unlikely to impress the reader.
You are expect De to type your essay using size twelve font . If its to be submitted in hard copy ACH line should be double spaced and generous margins (say 4 should be provided to allow comments. Remember include your stun dent details on the front page and number your pages . For electronic submissions, also include your details in the file name (see your unit specific instructions/requirements) w rite at least one draft of your essay before preparing your paper to be subs edited Leave it alone one or two day preferably a week and then read it again.
You may be able to improve Once you have completed your final draft, spell check and p roof read it to correct any omissions ND grammatical errors. Punctuation is e specially important: omission of a single comma can turn a useful sentence into an ambiguous and perplexing one. These considerations are critical and inattention to them is viewed very seriously by marker Capitalization, punctuation, paragraphing entente construction must conform to the usual conventions of English grammar.
If you are not fully conversant with English spelling and grammar, please ask someone to your manuscript and help you correct any mistakes before you hand it in You may alls o ask the staff from the Andrew Library for advice n any form of writing Formal generic and specific names must be italicized (or underlined), and the name of the genus started with a capital letter, e. G. Eucalyptus regnant, but names used informally should be given thus: eucalyptus. Once the name of the genus has been indicated, and it is quite clear to which genus a species belongs, it is permissible to use the format: E. Aegean. Family names used as nouns begin wit h a capital letter but lower case is used when they are adjectives (e. G. Duplicate becomes difficult worms). T is standard to spell out the numbers one through nine essays , but use Arabic numerals for 10 and above, unless they come at the beginning of a sentence. Another e exception to this rule occurs when a measurement is followed by its standard unit, e. G. , ‘1 m In these cases Arabic numerals are always used. Headings are not necessary, but sometimes help clarity and the organizations of the essay they are used appropriately.
Headings refer to the content, not the stage of the essay, e. G. Not ‘Development of Subject Matter’, or ‘Introduction’ Be careful not to use too many headings and subheadings. For instance in an essay of 1000 words it eight be appropriate to include 2 headings , whereas an essay that’s 2500 words in length may be appropriate to use more accessing source material It is important that you use high quality references ( specialized scientific books and Journal articles). Reporting the information for the first time.
Books, in most cases, are secondary sources and include the authors’ interpretations of the primary literature. Such interpretations may not always be the only interpretations hence the n deed to consult primary literature. Journal articles have been refereed by other scientists, I. E. Hey have been sent to other scientists for critical comments prior to publication. This is important in maintaining high standards in scientific literature. Encyclopedias, newspapers and popular magazines are acceptable sources.
They are rarely written by scientists and have not been refereed for the scientific validity of their contents. Nor is much of the information that you will find on the internet. En you read this type of information , ask yourself questions about the material that is presented . Be critical of all you read and always check for consistency of argument. Avoid using web eased information unless o have been specifically advised by your lecturer that it is acceptable Check first! o are using refereed scientific journals . Journal articles are electronically than their traditional hard copy form. For instance, many that can be found in the e library are also available on the be. Make sure you give the proper Journal citation for these (see the section on citations and referencing below) and not the web address Remember to attend a library tutorial on how to use search databases such Biological abstracts . This is an essential skill if you wish to continue with any tertiary study!