Classroom Observation Report Assignment

Classroom Observation Report Assignment Words: 2808

Classroom management has become the most common concern cited by student teachers as well as beginning and experienced teachers. Even a talented teacher would have difficulty teaching in an environment filled with interruptions and distractions. Classroom management techniques reduce the likelihood of interruptions during class, and include effective responses for any distractions that do occur. Classroom management includes the skills of organization, classroom layout, discipline, teaching strategy and respectful interaction among teachers and students.

According to Brooch and Good (1 986), classroom studies of effective teaching have emphasized the behavioral aspects of teaching and highlighted classroom management as one of the most critical features of good teaching. However, to be an effective teacher who able to manage a classroom well can be difficult. Teachers play various roles in a typical classroom, but surely one of the most important is that of classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom.

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Effective teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels regardless of he levels of heterogeneity in their classes. If the teacher is ineffective, students under that teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically, regardless of how similar or different they are regarding their academic achievement. There are many ways for a teacher to implement classroom management. Some are highly effective, some may need to be re- addressed.

What is crucial is that all teachers have some form of behavior management system in place which will enable them to not only control their class, but will also allow for a healthy and productive learning environment. 2. 0 Methodology 2. Participant The participants in the observation were 25 pre-school children, from the age of 5 to 6 years old and their teacher at Thanks Banning pre-school on the 1 lath of February 2014. Preschool Education is a Malaysian program that provides learning for children aged 4 + to 6 years in a period of one year or more before entering into Year One.

Pre-school education aims to nourish the potential of students in all aspects of development, master basic skills and develop a positive attitude as preparation for entry into primary school. 2. 2 Proceed re In an effort to integrate theory with practice, approximately 66 5 PIPES Program Isaiah Saran Mud Pending) student teachers from four TEST classes were given an assignment for the subject of Managing the Primary SSL classroom, which required them to observe a veteran teacher teaching and managing students in a real classroom setting.

The observation was an individual task, but it was carried out as a class. It was conducted On a half-an- hour lesson. Before the observation was carried out, the student teachers were given a checklist (as listed in Table 1) as a guiding tool to assist the observation. It helped them to focus on certain key areas. However, it was not dewed as the sole guiding tool, they were expected to modify it to meet individual needs. Table 1 Guiding Tool (Checklist) As the teacher was teaching in front, the student teachers sat behind and started to observe.

During the observation, they were instructed to write down notes and tick on the Classroom Management Checklist for any criteria seen and met during the lesson. 3. 0 Analysis After the observation was conducted, there were four main questions that needed to be addressed in relation to the previous observation. They were A) What did the teacher do well in keeping the pupils stay on tasks and maintain lass in order? Relate to the classroom management theories, B) What could the teacher do to improve the classroom? ND C) Give justification to B supported by classroom management theories. 4. 0 Findings Today, we know more about teaching than we ever have before. Research has shown us that teachers’ actions in their classrooms have twice the impact on student achievement as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement. We also know that one of the classroom teacher’s most important jobs is managing the classroom effectively. Of all the variables, classroom management has the largest effect on student achievement.

This makes intuitive sense-students cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom. There are several key factors that need to be considered in managing a classroom. 4. 1 Physical Arrangement The physical arrangement of the classroom refers to how students are seated, how they move around in the room, and the overall atmosphere of a classroom. A research suggests that classrooms should be organized to accommodate a variety of activities throughout the day and to meet the teacher’s instructional goals (Alberta & Trumann, 2006).

Albert and Trumann (1986) emphasized that the ability of teachers to provide a conducive environment for learning by cooperatively managing time, space, resources, and pupil roles and behaviors is the essence of classroom management A clean, safe, attractive, and comfortable classroom will help build a classroom community and stimulate learning. Picture 1 seating arrangement For the class that have been observed, the seating arrangement (Picture 1 ) was properly planned. It was suitable for pre-schooled, as it promotes cooperative learning. May, 1 937) found that people who cooperate and work gather to achieve shared goals, were more successful in attaining outcomes, than those who strives independently to complete the same goals. Furthermore, they found that independent achievers had a greater likelihood of displaying competitive behaviors. Dewey believed it was important that students develop knowledge and social skills that could be used outside of the classroom, and in the democratic society (Shoran, 2010).

This theory portrayed students as active recipients of knowledge by discussing information and answers in groups, engaging in the learning process together ether than being passive receivers of information (e. G. , teacher talking, students listening 4. 1. 1 Books and Materials Shelves As seen in Table 2, shelves for materials and books are not clearly labeled. It should be as it makes children feel comfortable returning them to their proper places and it helps the classroom to look neat, comfortable and organism. However, from the observation, the children are aware of where books and materials belong.

Picture 2 The handling and distribution of materials in the classroom can take a significant amount of time. Thus, it is important to teach them early the importance of organization and make them responsible for as much of their organization as possible. To maximize learning time, teacher should prepare materials ahead of time. To avoid disorientation, teacher may develop places for convenient storage of frequently used materials. Teacher should also establish and practice procedures for handing out and picking up learning materials and student papers.

For example, one student from each row might be assigned to pick up materials and distribute them to the other students in the row. This causes less traffic and confusion than all students ongoing at once to pick up materials and uses less time than having the teacher distribute all materials. It is important that the student be taught to follow this procedure and have ample opportunity to practice carrying it out correctly. A classroom should be arranged to promote efficient learning and minimize behavior problems.

Students must be able to see and hear instruction and have efficient access to learning materials. The teacher should be able to easily monitor students (witnesses), according to Jacob Cousin, witnesses is the skill to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times; thing is missed. “Within” teachers respond immediately to student misbehaver and know who started what. A major component of witnesses is scanning the class frequently, establishing eye contact with individual students, and having eyes in the back your head. Within” teachers don’t make timing errors (waiting too long before intervening) or target errors (blaming the wrong person and letting the real perpetrators escape responsibility for misbehaver). “Within” teachers prevent minor disruptions from becoming major and know who the instigator is in a problem situation. 4. 1. 2 Temperature and Lighting . 12. 1 Lighting A classroom’s lighting and temperature affect student achievement. They should be should be comfortable and conducive for teaching and learning activities. Picture 3: sighting As seen in Picture 3, the lighting in the room is adequate.

The main source of light are the windows. Lighting is a critical physical characteristic in the classroom (Phillips,1992). Thus, it should be carefully considered. It affects learners’ ability to perceive visual stimuli and affects their mental attitude, and thus, performance. 4. 1. 2. 3 Temperature The classroom temperature is moderate. According to Salesman and Rockwell (1981), the human body strives to maintain a temperature of 98. 6 degrees Fahrenheit. The four basic factors that affect body temperature are air temperature, radiant temperature, humidity, and air movement.

Salesman and Rockwell (1981) also concluded that the ideal temperature for learners was a temperature of 69-OFF, a relative humidity of 40-60%, and air movement of 20-40 feet per minute. They also stated that learners in these thermal conditions acquire knowledge better than the children in environments with poor ventilation, over heating, and uncontrolled humidity (Salesman & Rockwell, 1981). According to Sustainable Building Industry Council (2001), temperature that is too warm or too cold or too humid reduce the attention spans of children and limit their productivity.

Excessively high humidity levels can also contribute to mold and mildew, causing a whole host of other physical symptoms in children that may interfere with learning. The Sustainable Building Industry Council (2001 ) provided some ideas for improving the thermal climate of the classroom. They recommend providing natural ventilation by opening the windows to the classroom. Teachers may ant to provide shading for the windows with drapes or blinds to avoid ‘hot spots’ caused by direct sunlight. 4. 2 Behavioral Consideration 4. 2. Clear Parameters of Acceptable Classroom Behavior During the observation, the teacher stated clearly what she expected from her pre-schooled. Before they were conducting an activity that required cooperation, she mentioned the word ‘carmakers’ (cooperation) several times in several forms (e. G “pap yang penning? carmakers”) The teacher also responded to pupils who met her behavioral expectations with praises (e. G “good job”, “painting,”, etc). However, expectations regarding behavior are not posted clearly. According to Spencer Kananga, learners should play an active role in setting classroom rules.

Kananga also believed that there should be no more than five rules and they should be short worded for clear understanding. By allowing them to help create the rules and expectations, they are participating in classroom community building. Everyone is working together and is able to clearly understand the rules and expectations. The rules and expectations are to be posted on the wall so that students are always aware of what is expected. The teacher also encouraged her pupils, “painting oakum, certainly oakum” (you are clever, you are smart).

She values and appreciates her students. This is parallel with the work of Rudolf Deriders. Rudolf Deriders emphasis on classroom management was, “that students-indeed all humans-have a powerful inborn need for belonging. He believed that when students in school are unable to satisfy this prime need (the genuine goal of their behavior) they turn by default to certain mistaken goals such as attention-seeking, power-seeking, revenge-seeking and withdrawal” (Charles, 2011 Deriders also believed that learning occurred est. in a democratic classroom.

He urged teachers to speak positively, be encouraging focus on strengths, and to provide students with the skills they need to be independent and responsible. Deriders though that encouragement was more effective than praise in the long run. Lastly, he believed that community in the classroom was vital. All students should feel safe and valued. He urged teachers to discuss the behavior problem with the student and to have the student create goals to improve their behavior. Lastly, Deriders thought a student needed to show responsibility for him/her, but also for a group of people.

As students learned to make responsible decisions he believed that the student gained self-discipline (Charles, 2011 ) The teacher also used congruent communication with her pupils. She used what is called I-messages to her pupils, “dad swan-swan kit yang knack butt kicks seeds” Sane messages and I-messages were first introduced by Him Gingko. He put an emphasis on congruent communication. He described congruent communication, “to mean communication that is harmonious with students’ feelings about situations and themselves” (Charles, 2011 ) 42. 2 Reinforcement The teacher used merit-demerit system in one of the group activities inducted.

Group that behaved well and finished the activity first was given stars as merits. This is called reinforcement, a key term that was used by Skinner in his behavior modification theory. The basis of this approach is the assumptions that pupils will change their behavior in order to get desired rewards (Lorraine, 2009)Teachers who adopt this approach believe that pupil behavior can be changed by altering the consequences that follow their actions and behaviors. They use reinforcement principles systematically to change some aspect of educational practice or pupil behavior.

Generally pupils can receive three types of consequences for their actions: positive and negative reinforcement to maintain or increase the occurrence of a desired behavior; and punishments to discourage them from inappropriate actions. The teacher also used whistle to indicate ‘game time’, thus whenever the whistle is blown, the pupils know what they have to do. This is another key idea of Skinner in his Operant Conditioning Theory. It is is defined as the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. “To put it very simply, behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences tends to be updated and thus learned.

Behavior that is followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated and thus not learned” (Alberta & Trumann, 2006)Operant conditioning is specifically limited to voluntary behavior, that is, emitted responses, which distinguishes it from respondent or Bolivian conditioning, which is limited to reflexive behavior (or elicited responses). Lee and Marlene Canter also agreed in their Assertive Theory that teacher should declare good behaviors. Teachers, according to Canters, fall into one of three categories regarding to their response styles to misbehaver of their students.

These response-style categories are assertive, hostile and non-assertive. From the observation, it was clear that the teacher is assertive. According to Canters, assertive teachers protect the rights of both the teacher and the student. With this style, they make their expectations known to students in a calm and businesslike manner. They back up their words with actions when necessary. Assertive teachers also act in a calm, confident and businesslike manner. They let their discipline plan do all of the work. The response they desire is clearly communicated. 4. 3 Instructional Strategies 4. 3.

Group Work Group work is one pedagogical strategy that promotes participation and interaction. It fosters a deeper and more active learning process, and it also provides instructors with valuable demonstrations of the degree to which students understand particular topics or concepts. In addition to exposing students to different approaches and ways of thinking, working with other students in groups can promote a sense of belonging that combats the anonymity and isolation (Barley, 2005) The teacher used group work in the classroom during the observation and she made sure everyone is actively involved.

This is supported by Jacob Cousin, he believed that teachers need to be attentive to all aspects of the classroom. He believes that effective teachers keep students attentive and actively involved. According to Cousin, if the teacher can create little chaos between activities, keep on task, and utilize good time management skills they are modeling effective group management. All educators should be able to maintain group alertness, as well as hold each member of the group accountable for understanding the content of the lesson. Cousin believes that by doing this, all students have a hence for optimal learning.

In order to avoid students getting bored or uninterested, the teacher should give assignments and tasks that provide the students with a feeling of progress or accomplishment when completing the assigned work. Cousin also stresses the importance of creating a diverse curriculum, as well as a change in environment every now and then 5. 0 conclusion Teachers play various roles in a typical classroom, but surely one of the most important is that of classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom.

If students are disorderly ND disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm. In these situations, both teachers and students suffer. Teachers struggle to teach, and students most likely learn much less than they should. In contrast, well-managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish. But a well-managed classroom doses ‘t just appear out of nowhere. It takes a good deal of effort to create?and the person who is most responsible for creating it is the teacher.

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