Ap World History Semester Traditions Encounters Assignment

Ap World History Semester Traditions Encounters Assignment Words: 14014

Describe Nomadic Society and its effects on trade.
-two social classes: nobles and commoners
-nobles did little governing, tribes looked after own affairs and resented interference
-during time of war nobles wielded absolute authority and dealt swiftly with disobeyers
-leaders passed noble status to heirs but heirs could lose their status if they did not provide appropriate leadership
-commoners could win recognition as leaders with courageous behavior during war
-nomads sought to trade with settled people as early as the classical era
-commerce was small scale since nomads wanted agricultural products and manufactured goods
-nomads also participated in long distance trade
-During and after postclassical era nomads lead caravans across central asia and linked settled societies from China to Mediterranean Basin
● Analyze Turkish military expansion including that of the Seljuks.
-nomadic leaders organized vast alliances of all people to a khan
-Khans didn’t rule directly but through leaders of allied tribes
-nomads had massive military power because of outstanding cavalry forces/superior equestrian skills/organization
-accurate arrows and coordinated movement to overwhelm opponents
-Turkish nomads began in the tenth century to seize settler societies and build imperial states in the regions surrounding central asia
● Explain how Chinggis Khan (universal ruler) attained so much power.
-real name: Temujin
-made an alliance with a prominent mongol clan leader
-mastered steppe diplomacy
-showing personal courage in battle, willingness to betray allies or superiors for selfish reasons, ability to entice tribes into relationships
-strengthened position by forging alliances, conquering contenders for power, turning against an ally
-brought the mongol tribe into a single confederation
-in 1206 after an assembly of mongol leaders, he was named Chinggis Khan
● Describe Mongolian rule under Kublai Khan.
-actively promoted Buddhism but supported Daoists, Muslims, and Christians
-extended mongol rule over all of China
-had a base in Khanbaliq, attacked Song dynasty in southern China
-Song capital(Hangzhou) fell to mongol forces in 1276
-in 1279 he established Yuan dynasty that ruled China until collapse in 1368
-launched invasions in Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java
-forces did not adapt well to the humid southeast Asia
-pasture lands inadequate for horses
-horsemen unable to cope with guerilla tactics of defenders
-in 1274 and 1281 seaborne invasions to Japan failed because of typhoons
● Compare the differences of Mongolian khanates.
Chinggis Khan
○ learned the art of steppe diplomacy and made alliances
○ unified mongol tribes through alliance and conquests
○ leaders claimed him Chinggis Khan (universal ruler)
○ sought to open trade and diplomatic relations
○ died in 1227, laid foundation for a might empire
● Khubilai Khan
○ Chinggis Khan’s grandson, consolidated Mongol rule in China
○ Promoted Buddhism, supported Daoists, Muslims and Christians
○ extended Mongol rule to all of China
○ established Yuan dynasty in 1279
● The Golden Horde
○ Group of Mongols led by Chinggis Khan’s cousins and brothers
○ overran Russia between 1237 and 1241 and Poland, Hungary, eastern Germany between 1241 and 1242
○ maintained hegemony in Russia until the mid 15th century
● The Ilkanate of Persia
○ ruled by Khubilai’s brother, Hulegu, who captured Baghdad in 1258
○ conquered the Abbasid empire
○ established the Mongol ilkanate in Persia after great massacre
○ further ventured into Syria
○ never became comfortable with their role as administrators and most of their conquest fell out of their hands within a century
● Describe Mongolian decline.
-mongols faced serious trouble governing Persia and China
-Persia:excessive spending and overuse of peasantry
-paper money was introduced and accepted for all debts so that the government could get the precious metals
-merchants simply closed shops rather than accept paper money
-after 1335, ruler died without heir and ilkhanate collapsed
-Persian government was demoted to local levels until arrival of Turkish
-Mongols in China used paper money also used during Tang and Song
-did not maintain enough reserves of bullion that backed up the notes
-prices rose sharply
-in 1320’s there were power struggles, imperial assassinations, civil war
-During the 1330’s, the Bubonic plague erupted in southwestern China
-spread throughout China and central Asia
-by 1340’s reached Europe and SW Asia(known here as black death)
-depopulation and labor shortages weakened empire in China
-Persia’s ilkhanate had already collapsed before the plague’s arrival
-in 1368 rebels captured Khanbaliq and Mongols departed China, returning to the steppes
Chapter 18 States and Societies of Sub-Sahara Africa
● Summarize the Bantu migration.
-Bantu originated around modern Nigeria as early as 2000 BC
-earlier migrants had an economy based agriculturally
-staple foods like yams, millet, sorghum, vegetables, and meat
-agriculture helped Bantus to increase more rapidly than hunters and gatherers
-groups of Bantu sometimes left (because of pressure on resources) parent societies and moved to territory, repeating the process
-Bantu viewpoints showed hunters and gatherers like pygmies as inferior and subhuman
-some stories show how hunting, gathering, fishing helped Bantus learn to cope with environments
-many other groups intermarried with Bantu peoples, adopted Bantu languages and joined Bantu society
-iron production might have been introduced by merchants from north Africa, or may have been discovered independently
-iron tools helped Bantu clear land and expand agriculture efficiently bringing population growth
-intro of bananas, first domesticated in SE Asia
-entered Africa by sea lanes across Indian Ocean
-Malay seafarers sailed to India and explored E African coasts
-between 300-500CE they colonized and established banana cultivation in Madagascar
-provided nutritious supplement to Bantu diets
-let Bantus expand into forested regions here yams and millet do not grow
● Analyze trade patterns of both Mali and East African territories.
Mali Trade
-Trans Saharan Trade
-Provided lodging, protection, and comforts along Caravan routes for Muslim merchants
-Mansa Musa depreciated the value of gold with the travels and trade he took part in
-Timbuktu, Niani, and Gao
-Mali taxed all trade through their region of Africa
Swahili states
-also taxed trade
-Kilwans created coins to help trading throughout Swahili citystates
-Mogadishu, Kilwa, Mozambique, Zanzibar
-Traded heavily with india and asia
● Explain the travels of Mansa Musa.
-Sundiata’s grand-nephew, ruled from 1312-1337
-made a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324-1325
-bestowed gifts to those who hosted him along the way
-during 3 month visit to Cairo he gave out so much gold the value dropped 25%
-built mosques on his return to Mali especially in trading cities
-sent students to N Africa to study with distinguished Islamic scholars
-established religious classes with Arabian and N African teachers including 4 descendants of Muhammad
-by 15th century Songhay empire had taken over Mali, ensuring Islam would have a prominent place in W African society
● Describe the blend of religions with domestic animistic beliefs.
-recognized a superior male creator God with different names
-this deity created earth and humankind and was the source of order
-did not participate in day to day affairs, but established principles that governed its development
-lesser Gods and spirits were associated with natural features
-participated actively in the workings of the world, could bring favor or injury
-souls of ancestors could shape events/bring advantage or misfortune
-rituals included prayers, animal sacrifices, ceremonies marking important stages of life(birth, marriage, death)
-diviners could mediate between humanity and supernatural beings
-were consulted when people were afflicted with illness, sterility, crop failure, disaster
-diviners consulted oracles to identify cause and prescribes medicine, ritual, or sacrifice
-African religion did not concern with matters of theology
-strongly emphasized morality and proper behavior essential for an orderly world
-failure to observe high moral standards would displease deities ensuring misfortune
Chapter 19 High Middle Ages of Western Europe
● Explain the relationship of Holy Roman Emperors and the Popes.
-popes crowned medieval emperors, but relationship was usually tense
-relationship more strained when emperors wanted to influence selection of church officials and extend authority to Italy(where popes provided political leadership)
-popes able to prevent powerful imperial state
-Investiture Contest: controversy over appointment of church officials
-proved capacity of papacy to weaken the empire
-from early days, imperial authorities named church officials to their positions since higher clergy provided political/religious services
-Pope Gregory stopped practice of lay investiture(selection and installation of church officials by lay rulers like emperors
-Emperor Henry challenged pope’s policy, Gregory excommunicated him, adn released his subjects from duty to obey him
-German princes took opportunity to rebel against emperor
-after Henry beseeched for Gregory’s mercy, he regained diminished authority popes and emperors clashed over conflicting interests in Italy and appointment of church officials Frederick I aka Frederick Barbarossa reigned from 1152-1190 wanted region of Lombardy in N Italy
integration of Lombardy and his ancestral lands in S Germany would let Barbarossa control German princes, build powerful state, dominate Europe popes marshaled support from other European states and by end of reign, emperor had to give up his rights in Lombardy
Holy Roman Empire did not restore imperial unity to W Europe
● Explain the development of Regional States in England, France and Italy.
-in France and England princes established regional monarchies on basis of feudal relationships between lords and vassals
-In France after the Carolingians died, Hugh Capet, a noble, served as king
-held only small territory around Paris
-no position to change vassals, some more powerful than him
-next three centuries, his descendants(Capetian kings) added resources, expanded political influence
-absorbed territories of vassals who died without an heir, established right to administer justice
-By 14th century, Capetian kings centralized authority and power in France
-England was found my Normans(descendants of Vikings)
-dukes of Normandy pursued own interests even though they were under Carolingian and later Capetian rule
-within Normandy dukes built centralized states
-all authority stemmed from dukes, who also retained all land
-strictly limited the right of vassals to grant land to subvassals
-in 1066 Duke William of Normandy invaded England, introduced Norman style feudalism
-Norman kings rules over more centralized realm than Capetian kings of France
-both Capetians and Normans faced vassals seeking independent power and also external challenges(sometimes fighting each other)
-in Italy ecclesiastical states(city-states) and principalities compete for power
-popes provided political leadership in central Italy since Carolingian era
-ruled territory known as the papal state
-N Italy also had much church influence, since bishops organized public life in regions
-high middle ages, cities became wealthy(trade and manufacturing), lay classes challenged bishops and displaced them as ruling authorities
-in 12century, prosperous city-states dominated in N Italy
-in S Italy. norman adventurers invaded territories claimed by Byzantine and Muslims
-with papal approval, they overcame the Byzantine and the muslims
-S Italy was brought to the orbit of Roman Catholic Christianity, and Kingdom of Naples emerged
● Describe how agriculture contributed to the economy and development of cities and towns.
-increased agricultural production: opening of new lands for cultivation, improved agricultural techniques, use of new tools and technologies, introduction of new crops
-in late 10th century, Europe experienced population pressure
-serfs and monks cleared cleared forests, drained swamps, increased agriculture land
-feudal lords at first opposed efforts because this meant less land for game preserves-where nobles enjoyed hunting wild animals
-later they found that expanding agricultural production would yield higher taxes and increase own wealth
-during high middle ages European cultivators improved techniques for larger yields
-experimented new crops with different crop rotation to ensure abundant harvests
-increased cultivation of beans which provided protein and fixed nitrogen in soil
-kept domestic animals that became sources of food and enriched fields with poop
-discovery of these methods circulated Europe through books and treatises
-Europeans expanded use of watermills and heavy plows
-horseshoe and horse collar made it possible to increase amount of land cultivators could work on
-helped prevent hooves on moist european soil
-placed burden on chest and shoulders not neck, so horse could pull heavy plows
-meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, beans, peas became prominent, grains still stayed a staple food
-rapid demographic growth helped stimulate revival of towns and trade
-with large supplies of food, artisans, craftsmen, merchants, professionals could be supported
-peasants and surfs flocked from countrysides to cities
-cities like Paris, London, Toledo became thriving centers for government and business
-urban centers emerged from venice(N Italy) to Bergen(W coast of Norway)
-specialization of labor resulted in expansion of manufacturing and trade
-manufacturing concentrated on wool textiles
-Italy and Flanders: spinning, weaving, dying
-Amalfi and Venice served as ports for merchants trading with Byzantine/muslims in E Mediterranean
-Italian merchants exchanged salt, olive oil, wine, wool, fabrics, leather products, and glass for luxury goods like gems, spices, silk and other goods from India, SE Asia, China
-Italian merchants established colonies in major ports/commerce centers of Black Sea and Mediterranean
-Baltic Sea and North Sea (and its trade networks) were known as Hanseatic League
-trading sites from Novgorod to London, embracing commerce centers including Poland, N Germany, Scandinavia
-Hansa(Hanseatic League) dominated trade in grain, fish, furs, timber, and pitch from N Europe
-fairs of Champagne, Danube, Rhine and other rivers linked Hansa with Mediterranean
-bankers issued letters of credit to merchants traveling to distant markets, free from risk of carrying cash
-without credit and banking large scale trade would have been impossible
-merchants entered into partnerships with other merchants, stimulating economy
● Describe the Estate System.
-European society embraced three estates or classes: those who pray, those who fight, those who work
-those who prayed were clergy of Roman Catholic Church
-clergy was a spiritual estate owing loyalty to church not secular rulers
-fighters came from ranks of feudal nobles
-inherited positions in society
-received education focused on equestrian skills, military arts
-those who worked cultivated land as peasants (vast majority of population)
-society was marked by political, social, economic inequality
-those who prayed and fought enjoyed rights and honors that those who worked did not
-if clerics became involved in legal difficulties, they normally faced courts of law administered by church not secular rulers
-nobles lived off production of dependent peasants and serfs
-emphasis on chivalry and courtly behavior introduced expectations of high ethical standards and refined manners
-encouraged warriors to be cultivated leaders of society
-by 12th century when young man was initiated into feudal nobility as a knight, he placed his sword upon a church altar, pledged his service to God
-rather than seek wealth and power, noble would observe chivalric code and devote himself to order, piety, Christian faith
-women promoted refined behavior and respectful relations between sexes
● Analyze development in Christianity from Cathedral Schools to the thoughts of St. Thomas Aquinas.
-in 11th century, bishops and archbishops in France and N Italy organized schools in cathedrals and invited well-known scholars to serve as teachers
-schools in cathedrals of Paris, Chartres, Bologna attracted students all over Europe
-by 12th century, cathedral schools established a curricula based on writings in Latin (official language of Roman Catholic Church)
-concentrated on liberal arts(esp. literature and philosophy)
-students read bible, and works of church fathers and a few works of Plato and Aristotle in Latin translation
-some cathedral schools offered advanced instruction in law, medicine, theology
-by 12th century academic guilds were organized, persuaded political authorities to grant charters guaranteeing rights
-student guilds demanded fair treatment for students from townspeople who sometimes charged excessively for room and board
-faculty guilds sought to vest teachers the right to bestow academic degrees(licenses to teach)
-guilds transformed cathedral schools into universities
-first universities were in Bologna, Paris, Salerno
-as commerce and communication increased between Byzantine Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christians, western Europeans learned about Aristotle’s thoughts adn obtained Latin translations from Byzantine philosophers
-W European scholars also learned about Aristotle through Muslims who translated it into Arabic
-Christian and Jewish scholars in Sicily and Spain retranslated into Latin
-Scholastic Theology(Scholasticism): synthesizing beliefs of Christianity with logical rigor of Greek philosophy
-St. Thomas Aquinas was a scholastic theologian who believed Aristotle understood workings of the world better than anyone, taught university of Paris
-Aristotle provided the most powerful analysis of the world according to human reason while Christianity explained the world and human life as the results of a divine plan-by combining both, it formulated the most truthful and persuasive system of thought possible
● Summarize the ideals of the Dominicans and Franciscans.
-individuals organized movements designed to champion spiritual over materialistic values like St. Dominic and St. Francis
-founded orders of mendicants or beggars(dominicans/franciscan friars)
-have no personal possessions, begged for food/needs from audiences to whom they preached
-active in towns and cities
-combat heterodox movements and persuade heretics to return to Roman Catholic Church
● Evaluate the impact of European expansion from Vikings, reconquista and the Crusades.
Vikings (Scandinavians)
-Established colonies in Iceland, Greenland, and North America (for a short time). They settled in Vinland (Present day Canada).
-Many raids during the 9th and 10th century.
-Showed the growing capacity for Europeans to venture into a larger world
-Norman warriors returned Sicily from Islam to Roman Catholic Christianity.
-Reconquista took much longer in Spain.
-Converted some Muslims by using the teachings of Aristotle.
Crusades (“Holy war”)
-Overall purpose is to recapture Palestine and Jerusalem
-Pope Urban II launched the crusades in 1095
-The crusades encouraged Turks, Egyptians, and other Muslims to settle their differences and European Christians from the eastern Mediterranean.
-Byzantine empire never fully recovered from the 4th crusade.
-Economic gain: Helped reintegrate Europe into the Eastern hemisphere economy through trading
Chapter 20 The Americas and Oceania
● Summarize Aztec rule and society.
-Aztec people called themselves the Mexica
-drawn to central mexico from northwestern regions beginning middle of 13 century
-kidnapped women from nearby communities and seized land cultivated by others; made trouble
-settled in region of Lake Texcoco (island) in 1345, and Tenochtitlan became the capital (present day mexico city)
-lake harbored supplies of fish, frogs, waterfowl
-lake enabled Mexica to develop the chinampa system of agriculture
-in temperate climate, grew crops like maize, beans, squashes, tomatoes, peppers, chiles
-lake provided protection(natural defense)
-by early 15 century Mexica overcame neighbors and demanded tribute trade from new subjects
-launched campaigns of imperial expansion
-military elite ruled society
-under Itzcoatl(Obsidian Serpent) and Montezuma, they advanced to Oaxaca
-Mexica then turned attention to Gulf Coast and high plateaus in between
-joined forces with Texcoco and Tlacopan and imposed rule on most of mesoamerica(except a few northern and western arid regions)
-main objective of triple alliance: to exact tribute from subject peoples
-from nearby people, Mexica and allies received food crops, manufactured items(textiles, rabbit fur blankets, embroidered clothes, jewelry, obsidian knives)
-ruling elites sometimes gave tribute items to Mexica merchants who took them to distant lands and exchanged them for local products(jade, emeralds, tortoise shells, jaguar skins, parrot feathers, sea shells, game animals)
-topical lowlands provided cocao and vanilla beans
-no elaborate bureaucracy or administration, did not maintain military garrisons, did not keep permanent standing army
-assembled forces as needed, had reputation for military prowess
-high point in Aztec empire in 16 century, tribute from 489 subject territories
-principal market had separate sections for merchants dealing with gold, silver, slaves, henequen and cotten cloth, shoes, animal skins, turkeys, dogs, wild game, maize, beans, peppers, cocao, fruits
-society was rigidly hierarchical w/ public honors, rewards going mostly to military elite
-Mexica looked upon all males as potential warriors
-social standing could be improved by performance on battlefield
-mostly, military elite came from Mexica aristocracy
-men of noble birth receive the most careful instruction, intense training in military affairs, enjoy more opportunities to display talents on battlefield
-mexica showered wealth and honors on military elite
-accomplished warriors received land grants and tribute from commoners as support
-successful warriors formed a council who’s members selected ruler, discussed public issues, and filled government positions
-ate best foods: turkey, pheasant, duck, dear, boar, rabbit
-commoners required to wear coarse, burlap like garments made of henequen
-aristocrats draped themselves in cotton
-warriors wore colored capes, lipplugs, and eagle feathers after capturing enemies on battlefield
-women played no public role in society dominated by military values
-enjoyed high honor of being mothers of warriors
-influence within families
-did not inherit property or hold official positions
-prominent in marketplaces and crafts, yet prodded toward motherhood/homemaking
-Mexica values taught that a woman’s principal function was to bear children, esp. men
-women who died giving birth received same fame as warrior who died in battle
-priests received special education in calendrical and ritual lore, presided over religious ceremonies(essential to continuation of world)
-read omens and explained forces that drove world
-some priests even became superior rulers, they are usually advisors to rulers
-most of population lived in hamlets and cultivated chinampas and fields
-worked on lands awarded to aristocrats/warriors, worked on construction on palaces, temples, roads, irrigation systems
-delivered payments to state agents, who gave some to elite and stored rest in state granaries and warehouses
-most slaves were not foreign, but mexica
-forced into slavery for criminal behavior
-younger members sold into servitude of financial distress
-skilled craftsmen destined for consumption by elite enjoyed prestige
merchants specializing in long distance trade occupied important but more tenuous position
-merchants supplied exotic products and provided political/military intelligence about lands they visited
● Describe pre-Columbian North America.
-depended on hunting, fishing, collecting edible plants
-people in coastal regions consumed fish but people in internal regions ate animals like bison and dear
-nuts, berries, roots and grasses supplemented meat
-people built societies on a relatively small scale since food resources in the wild would not support dense populations
-in some places, agricultural economies enabled people to maintain societies with larger populations
-Pueblo and Navajo tapped river waters to irrigate maize(80% of diets), beans, squash, sunflowers
-hot dry environment brought drought and famine periodically
-by 700 CE they began to construct stone and adobe buildings
-Iroquois peoples emerged from the Owasco society.
-be 1400, five nations emerged: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca
-women in charge of Iroquois villages and longhouses(several related families lived together)
-supervised cultivation of surrounding fields
-men took responsibility of affairs beyond village (hunting, fishing, war)
-earthen mounds of woodland peoples were used as stages for ceremonies/rituals, platforms for dwellings, and occasionally burial sites
-mound at Cahokia: Cahokia society was at it’s height in 900-1250 CE
-Burial sites reveal that these people recognized social classes: bestowed goods of different qualities/quantities on their departed kin
-trade linked separated regions and people of N America
-stones from rocky mountains, copper from great lakes, seashells from florida, minerals from upper mississippi river, mina from S Appalachian mountains
● Summarize Incan rule and society.
-small kingdom in the valley of Cuzco at first (later, the capital)
-Incas settled around Lake Titicaca in mid thirteenth century
-Pachacuti(1438-1471) launched military campaigns that expanded authority
-Chimu empire also had to submit to Incas when the Incas took control of waters that supplied the irrigation system
-Incas ruled as a military and administrative elite
-led armies mostly made up of conquered peoples
-staffed bureaucracy that managed empire’s political affairs
-often took hostages from ruling class and forced them to live at capital
-when conquered peoples became uncooperative, Incas sent loyal subjects as colonists, provided them with land and economic benefits to maintain order
-when conquered peoples rebelled, Incas forced them to leave and resettle in distant parts
-administration rested with large class of bureaucrats who relied on mnemonic aid known as Quipu to keep track of responsibilities
-consisted of small cords of different colors and lengths suspended from a thick cord, to help them remember certain information
-quipu recorded statistical info like population, state property, taxes, labor services that communities owed to central government
-Cuzco’s population was mostly Inca rulers, high nobility, high priests, and hostages of conquered peoples who lived with families, under Inca guardians
-road system enabled central government at Cuzco to communicate with all parts of empire, and dispatch military forces to distant trouble spots
-two roads linked Inca realm from north to south-through the mountains and another along the coast
-official runners carried messages along roads so news could travel internally faster
-roads increased centralization: it facilitated spread of the Quechua language and the religious cult focusing on the sun
-Inca society did not generate a large classes of merchants and skilled craftsmen
-on the local level, Incas exchanged surplus agricultural production and handcrafted goods
-Inca state did not permit individuals to become independent
-classes in Inca society: rulers, aristocrats, priests, and peasant cultivators of common birth
-Incas considered their chief ruler to be a descendent from the sun god
-Inca rulers retained prestige after death: regarded departed kings as intermediaries with the Gods and descendants mummified royal remains
-Inca god-kings allocated land to subjects who cultivated it on behalf of state
-aristocrats and priests led privileged lives
-aristocrats had the right to wear ear spools that distended their lobes(spanish conquerors referred to them as “big ears”)
-priests often came from royal aristocratic families
-led ascetic lives, deeply influenced society because of education and responsibility for seeing religious rituals
-temples supported priests and virgin women who devoted divine service and prepared ceremonial meals and wove ritual garments for priestly staff
-cultivators worked on lands and delivered portions of production to bureaucrats
-commoners also owed compulsory labor services to the Inca state
● Summarize society of New Guinea, Australia and Polynesia.
-aboriginal peoples of Australia did not turn to agriculture
-Torres strait separates Australia from New Guinea
-maintained nomadic, foraging societies until Europeans arrive in 19/20 centuries
-groups regularly exchanged surplus food and items where they went, since Australia has climatic and ecological diversity, different people had access to different things others were unaware of
-instead of using trade routes, goods passed from one aboriginal community to another
-pearly oyster shells were one of the most popular trade items, traded for stone clubs, decorative trinkets, iron axes
-root vegetables were to perishable for exchange
-traditions did not diffuse beyond regions inhabited by individual societies
-aboriginal peoples paid close attention to prominent geographical features and made stories and myths out of them
-culture and religious traditions focused on local matters, did not appeal to other peoples
-in the first millennium, migrants ventured to islands of New Zealand
-regional trade networks facilitated exchanges of useful goods like axes and pottery, shells, ornaments, yams
-regional trade within individual islands helped rulers establish and maintain relations with each other
-inhabitants of Tonga, Samoa, and Fiji traded mats and canoes
-intermarried, creating political and social relations
-remote islands had little to no contact with people of other societies until European mariners ventured in Pacific Ocean
-E Pacific and New Zealand built society isolated
-cultivated taro, yams, sweet potatoes, bananas, breadfruit, coconuts and domisticated pigs and dogs
-establishment of agricultural and fishing societies let to rapid population growth in larger groups like Samoa, Tonga, and Society Islands including Tahiti, and Hawaii
-Hawaii, the most heavily populated Polynesian Island groups
-beginning in thirteenth century, workers became more specialized
-some concentrated on cultivating certain crops, others fished and produced axes or canoes
-classes emerged as elites decided public affairs and extracted agricultural surplus
-Tonga, Tahiti, and Hawaii had sharp distinctions between various classes of high chiefs, lesser chiefs, and commoners
-Hawaiian society recognized classes distinct of priests and skilled craftsmen(between chiefly and common classes)
-ruling chiefs oversaw public affairs
-In Tonga and Hawaii high chiefs launched campaigns to control other islands and create centralized states
-rarely overcame geographical and logistical difficulties
-high chiefs in polynesia allocated lands to families, mobilized labor for construction, organized men to military forces
-In Hawaii, high chiefs intermarried, ate the best fish and other foods that were taboo to commoners, wore bright yellow and red bird feather cloaks
Chapter 21 Cross Cultural Interaction
1. Analyze major components of post 1000 A.D. long distance trade considering diplomacy and missionary impulse.
-Trade was either with luxury goods (silks & precious stones) or bulky items (steel & stone)
-Land was linked by the Silk Road (from Asia to Europe) and Trans-Saharan caravans (from Africa to Asia)
-Seaports around Indian Ocean in SE Asia,  India, Arabia, and E Africa while S China Sea accessed China, Korea, and Japan
-as long as cities did not impose high taxes on trade, port/trade cities experienced large growth
-Marco Polo (1253-1324) was a famous long distance trader from Italy who brought back tales of China to Europe after his adventures
2. Compare the missions of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta.
-Ibn Battuta was muslim. E went through India, Maldives, And Swahili city states of east Africa and the mali empire while marco polo was more through asia and he was Christian.
-was a qadi (Judge) and an advisor to the sultan of delhi. He enforced Islamic law and sought to redeem its values in Africa. Harsh sometimes.
-Marco Polo traveled through the mongol lands between 1260 and 1269.
-Khubilai allowed marco to persue his mercantile interests in Mongolian lands because he liked Marco Polo spent 17 years in china, and when back to venice in 1295.
-Captured as a pow in Italy and relayed stories of his travels to prisonmates.
-One was a writer who compiled his stories into a famous volume in Europe. The polos were some of the first Europeans to travel to china but inspired many more to come after them.
Marco Polo More Explorer and Merchant Ibn battuta relligiously driven
3. Summarize the impact of the bubonic plague.
-Plague infects rodents
-When rodents die, fleas seek other live bodies
-Thus transferred to humans
-Mongol military helped spread the plague
-Thrived at trade ports
– Went from black sea to western Europe
-Caused population decline
-Chinese down 10 million
-Europe down 25%
-Massive shortages of workers turned into social unrest
-Ended in a series of rebellions
4.     Describe the centralization process of Hongwu and Yongle.
-The ming government sponsored expeditions that took place from 1405-1433
-Emperor Yongle organized these expeditions to impose imperial control over foreign trade with China and to impress foreign people with the power and might that the Ming dynasty had restored to China
-These expeditions also extended the tributary system, where Chinese people recognized foreign peoples, to lands in the Indian ocean basin
-Zheng He was a muslim from Yunnan in southwestern China who became a trusted advisor of Yongle after raising through the ranks of Eunuch administrators
-He embarked on each voyage with an awesome fleet of vessels, large enough to overcome resistance at any port where the expedition was called
-First voyage, he had 317 ships with 28,000 armed troops
-Ships were “treasure ships” with four decks that were able to carry more than 500 passengers, and store cargo
-by far largest marine craft the world ever saw
-First three voyages, He went to SE Asia, India, and Ceylon
-Fourth expedition, He went to the Persian gulf and Arabia
-Later expeditions, He went down to the east African Coast to ports as far as Malindi and present day Kenya
-Zheng He gave gifts from China like silk and porcelain
-In return, he received gifts like African zebras and giraffes
-He and his companions paid respect to local deities and customs that they encountered
-In Ceylon, He and his companions erected a monument honoring Buddha, Allah, and Vishnu
-Zheng He generally sought to attain his goals through diplomacy
-because of his large force, for the most part he never had to use hostility to overawe his hosts, but he did use force to impress foreign people, with China’s military might
-He suppressed pirates who had been long known to plague Chinese and southeast Asian waters
-In order to establish authority in Ceylon, He intervened in a civil disturbance
-when local officials in east Africa and Arabia threatened his fleet, He displayed military force
-When He returned from his fourth voyage, he brought thirty envoys from different states who paid respects at the Ming Dynasty
-Established a Chinese presence and reputation in the Indian Ocean Basin
-in mid-1430’s, Ming empire stopped funding expeditions
-Confucian ministers said money for the voyages should be spent on agriculture
-in the early 1400’s, Mongols posed a military threat, land forces needed financial support
-1433, seventh voyage ended
-Chinese merchants still traded in Japan and SE Asia
-Nautical charts that Zheng He carefully created and maintained were destroyed by imperial officers
-treasure ships stayed in the harbor till they rotted
-Craftsmen forgot how to make such large vessels overtime
-These voyages proved that China could exercise military, political, and economic influence through the Indian ocean basin
Describe the centralization process of Hongwu and Yongle
-Hongwu reestablished the Confucian educational and civil services system to ensure a supply of talented officials and bureaucrats
-in 1380 he suspected his chief minister of being involved in a treasonous plot
-Hongwu executed the minister and his allies and abolished the position of chief minister as a whole
-Ming emperors ruled directly and closely supervised imperial affairs
-Ming dynasty relied heavily on mandarins, a special class of powerful officials that were sent out as emissaries of the central government to ensure that local officials were implementing imperial policies
-Eunuchs also helped in governmental services
-the fortunes of Eunuchs depended on the emperor’s favor, so eunuchs would work especially diligently to advance the emperor’s interests
-Manchus retained the administrative framework of the Ming state
-the rebuilding of irrigation systems that fell into disrepair unified the land
-trade in other lands was not actively promoted
-Hongwu tried to eradicate all signs of recent occupation
-discouraged mongol names and dresses
-actively promoted Chinese cultural traditions, in Confucian schools particularly
-Yongle was Hongwu’s successor
Yongle prepared an encyclopedia with all the significant works of chinese history, philosophy, and literature
-The Yongle Encyclopedia signaled the interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions
-Yongle also organized expeditions
-to impose imperial rule over foreign trade with China and impress foreign peoples with the power and might that the Ming dynasty had restored to China

5.     Analyze how taxation and standing armies created European greatness.
-demographic recovery strengthened states in western europe
-the kinds of France and England sparred constantly over lands claimed by both resulting in the Hundred Years’ War
-state building efforts through direct taxes and standing armies
-new taxes levied on directly on citizens and subjects supplemented the income that rulers received from their feudal subordinates
-the maintenance of large standing armies composed of mercenary forces and equipped with gunpowder weapons supported by state funds
-Italian States
-city states flourished from industries and trade
-needed large numbers of officials and armies
-levied direct taxes
-France and England
-imposed direct taxes to compensate enormous expenses of Hundred Years’ War
-asserted authority of central government over feudal nobility
-unlike france, England did not maintain a standing army
-Marriage of Fernando and Isabel strengthened the state
-sales taxes supported a powerful standing army
-completed the reconquista by conquering Granada
-sponsered colombus’ quest for a western route to China
6. Describe the humanist concept of the Rennaissance.
○ Scholars interested in humanities
■ literature, history, & moral philosophy
○ Deeply committed to Christianity
○ Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam
■ 1446-1536
■ published 1st edition of Greek New Testament
○ Florentine Francesco Petrarca
■ 1304-1374
■ searched for manuscripts of classical works
○ Drew inspirations from classical authors that said it was possible to live a morally virtuous life while participating actively in world affairs
○ Reconcile Christian values & ethics with increasingly urban & commercial society of Renaissance Europe
7. Explain how economic escalation was a result of the Rennessance.
Taxes and Armies
o   Foundations were laid for monarchies in the 15th century
o   New taxes supplemented the income that rulers received
o   Maintenance of large standing armies were developed
o   Italians levied taxes and issued long term bonds to strengthen their authority
o   French and English applied taxes and powerful armies
■ English did not have a standing army, but could provide a strong one if needed
■ France had an army of 15,000 troops, many professional mercenaries
o   Spain army was supported by taxes
o   Competition between European states intensified as authority was strengthened
■ Encouraged rapid development of military and naval technology
■ Improvement of weapons, sails, and ships
8. Describe the voyages of Zheng He.
● The Ming Emperor allowed foreign trade in Quanzhou and Ghanzhou
● Zheng He was a Muslim from Yunnan who was a trusted advisor of Yongle
● Zheng He left China with an armed force that protected his men from any adversity on his journey
○ First voyage had 317 ships with 28,000 armed troops
○ Most  vessels were “treasure ships” with four decks able to have 500 or more passengers and massive stores of cargo
■ 124 meters long and 51 meters wide
● Zheng’s ships were the largest marine vessels in the world (at the time)
● First three voyages went to southeast Asia, India, and Ceylon
○ Fourth trip went to Persian Gulf, Arabia, and later down the east African coast
● Dispersed Chinese silk, porcelain, and other goods
○ Received rich and unusual presents from his hosts
○ Paid respect to local deities and customs
● Often did not need to engage in hostilities but would engage in it if necessary
○ Suppressed pirates and intervened a civil war to establish authority in Ceylon
○ Displayed military force when local officials threatened his fleet in Arabia and east Africa
● Voyages established Chinese presence and reputation in Indian Ocean basin
● Brought back envoys from thirty states who paid respects at Ming court
● The voyages ended mid 1430s when the emperors ended the expeditions
○ Confucian ministers believed the money for the voyages should go to agriculture
○ Mongols posed a threat and land forces needed financial support
9. Evaluate the impact of Christopher Columbus.
● He believed that when he crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he reached Asia, however,he only made it to the Bahamas.
● He opened the door for other mariners to explore the Caribbeans and Americas enough to realize that the Western hemisphere contained a world apart from Europe, Asia, and Africa.
● Gave an opportunity for Spain to conquer the Americas.
● Introduced the New World to western civilization and Christianity.
Chapter 22
1. Describe how the quest for resources, new trade routes and missionary impulse created new nautical achievements that led to the exploration of the globe.
● From 1400-1800 European merchants and leaders funded exploration to other lands in order to map the world and create global connections for profit
● Driven by desire to find land to grow cash crops on, establish new trade routes to Asia, and spread Christianity (ie god, gold, and glory)
● Portuguese Exploration started in 13th cent in Atlantic Ocean
○ looking for fish, seals, whales, timber, land for growing crops
○ est. plantations on Azores, Madieras, and Canary (inhabited by Guanches) islands-later expanded to Sao Tome, Principe, Cape Verde, Fernando Po
● The Lure of Trade-Europeans wanted more and cheaper Asian goods(inc spices)
○ Europeans couldn’t trade on Silk Road anymore bc of Bubonic Plague
○ Didn’t like the high prices Muslims in Cairo charged for goods
● Missionary Efforts-Christianity is a missionary religion (as ordered by the New Testament)
○ Franciscan and Dominican missionaries travelled to E Asia
○ Europeans fought with Muslims over Crusades and Reconquista
○ Christians introduced religion to peoples of unexplored native lands
2. Explain the contributions of Henry the Navigator.
● Dom Henrique of Portugal (1394-1460) promoted exploration of W Africa
○ to enter the gold trade, find profitable new trade routes, gain intelligence about Muslim converts, win Christian converts, and make alliances against Muslims with other leaders
● In 1415, he conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored voyages down the W African coast
● New trading posts in places like Sao Jorge de Mina (in present Ghana) where Portuguese and Africans could exchange European horses, leather, textiles, and metalwares for gold and slaves
3. Analyze the depth of the Portuguese Trade Port Empire.
● Portuguese built the first trading post empire in the E Hemisphere
● built more than 50 trading posts from W Africa to E Asia by mid-16th century to control the trade there
○ slaves at the post in Sao Jorge, gold in Mozambique, Hormuz gave them controlled access  to the Persian Gulf, Indian pepper in Goa, oversaw shipping to South China Sea and Indian Ocean
○ controlled/est all their ports with superior naval technology
● Alfonso d’Alboquerque was the commander of Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean, capturing Hormuz in 1508, Goa in 1510, and Melaka in 1511
○ controlled trade in Indian Ocean by forcing all merchant ships to buy safe-conduct passes to present at Portuguese ports
○ However, Portuguese just didn’t have enough men to enforce this with everyone, so many ships bypassed the system
● Portugal lost its foothold bc of its small population
○ crews on Portuguese ships were often Spanish, English, and Dutch
○ sailors left as their home countries began to fund expeditions
4. Describe the incursion of the Spanish and Dutch into Southeast Asia
● Earliest trading post empires
● Didn’t want to conquer, wanted to control trade
● First established trading post in 1498 (Vasco de Gama)
● Built more than 50 trading posts before mid 16th century
o   Between Africa and Asia
o   Held posts into 20th century
● Alfonso d’Alboquerque
o   Commander of Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean during early 16th century
o   Aggressive
● Seized control of Hormuz(1508), Goa(1510), and Melaka(1511) to control Indian ocean trade
o   Forced all merchants to pay safe-conduct passes
● Without them, ships were confiscated
o   Didn’t have the power to back upp everything he did
● Arab, Indian and Malay merchants still had a powerful part in trade
● Built trading posts to control trade in Asia
● Didn’t try to control trade on high seas
● Occasionally took over Portuguese trading posts
o   Took Melaka in 1641
● Operated from Cape Town, Colombo and Batavia
● Had faster, cheaper and more powerful ships when compared to Portuguese ships
o   Gave them military and economic edge
● Joint-stock companies
o   Enabled investors to get lots of money with minimal risk
o   VOC(Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie)
● Established in 1602
o   Private merchants gave them money to trade with and outfitted them with ships and crews
o   Had government support, but government was not directly involved
o   Had rights to buy, sell, build trading posts and even start wars
o   First Dutch expedition doubled the investments made
o   Contributed to early formation of global trade
5. Evaluate the importance of the 7 Years War.
● Commercial rivalries and political differences clashed in the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763.) This war was a global conflict that took place in many geographical areas including Europe, India, the Caribbean and North America.
● In Europe, the war was fought between Britain/Prussia and France/Austria. In India, British and French forces allied with local rulers and engaged in a contest for hegemony in the Indian Ocean.
● Spanish forces joined with the French to limit British expansion in the western hemisphere. In North America, where the Seven Years’ War conflicted with the French and Indian War, British and French Armies made separate alliances with native people in order to outmaneuver each other.
● British forces fought little in Europe where their Prussia allies held armies, wanting to surround and crush the Prussian state. In other areas, British armies ousted French merchants from India and took control of French colonies in Canada, however they allowed French authorities to retain most of their Caribbean possessions.
● The British also allowed Spanish forces to retain Cuba but took Florida from the Spanish empire. Victory in the war placed Britain in a position to dominate world trade, and the “the great war for empire” set the establishment of the British empire in the 19th century.
6. Evaluate the Columbian Exchange.
● Biological Exchanges
● “Columbian Exchange” – global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human population and disease pathogens after mariners came
● European voyages of exploraion set of a round of biological exchange that altered human and natural geography
● Epidemic Disease
● Decreased population of Natives of America and Pacific islands
● smallpos was the worst, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenza (mostly people under 10 years died quickly)
● 10 – 15% of population died (of Europeanz i think not sure about this one)
● survivors in Europe gained resistance against the diseases but natives had never had it before
● Population losses
● in 1519, smallpox ravaged Aztec empire and the population of natives of Mexico declined by 95%
● imported diseases happened in Aztec and Inca empires but also took place in North and South America
● by 1530, smallpox traveled from the Great lakes  – to Mexico – to Argentina
● Food Crops and Animals
● Columbian exchange increased rather than diminished human population because of the global spread of food crops and animals
● wheat, vines, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats came to the Americas
● wheat grew in North America and Argentina but could not grow maize in winter
● American Crops
● maize and potatoes helped nourish the Europeans (18th century i believe)
● American crop that took root from Africa, Asia and Europe like tomatoes, corn, potatoes, peanuts and cacao
● Population Growth
● world population rose because of increased nutritional value of diets from food crops and animals
● Migrations
● spread of human populations through transoceanic migration both forced and voluntary
● enslaved Africans went to Caribbean and Americans
● Europeans traveled to Africa, Pacific islands, Australia and Americas

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Ch. 23
1. Analyze the Protestant Reformation.
● Martin Luther attacked the church’s sale of indulgences in 1517 and wrote many works against the Roman Catholic Church; because of the rise of the printing press, his woks were widely distributed and read.
● In Germany Luther’s works fueled a movement to reform the church; in the 1520s and 30s important German cities passed laws prohibiting RCC observances and mandating Protestant religious services. HRE princes converted for personal and political reasons. By the mid-16th century half of the German population was Protestant.
● In the 1520s Swiss cities developed Protestant churches and appeal spread to the Low Countries
● King Henry VIII created the Anglican church and made himself and English pope after the pope refused to grant him a divorce. His successors replaced the church’s RCC doctrines with Protestant doctrines, and by 1560 England had left the RC community permanently.
● John Calvin was a French lawyer and Protestant who migrated to the french-speaking Geneva, Switzerland and organized a model Protestant community. Calvin wrote an influential book, Institutes of Modern Christianity, that present Protestantism as a coherent package.
● Calvinist missionaries spread to France, Germany, the Low Countries, England, Scotland, and Hungary, establishing churches in all of these lands and having the most success in the Netherlands and Scotland

2. Explain the Catholic counter Reformation.
● In response to the Protestant reformation RCC authorities undertook a massive reform effort in their church; while some efforts were a reaction the the Protestant’s success the changes also sought to clarify difference between the churches, win back followers, and deepen the sense of spiritual and religious commitment in their community
● The Council of Trent, a society of high church officials, had meetings between 1545 and 1563 to address doctrine reform, drawing heavily on 13th century scholar St. Thomas Aquinas, who had drawn on Aristotle. The council acknowledged abuses and took steps to reform the church, demanding strict standards of morality and requiring proper training for priests.
● The Society of Jesus went on the offensive and tried to expand the church’s boundaries. The society was founded in 1540 by St. Ignatius Loyola, a a Basque nobleman who resolved to pursue religious work while recovering from injuries.
● Members of the Society, known as Jesuits, were required to complete a rigorous and advanced education containing all subjects , making them extraordinarily effective missionaries. They were able to outargue their opponents and often served in high positions as royal counsellors, wielding influence the used to benefit the RCC. After the discovery of new worlds, The Jesuits also attracted converts in India, China, Japan, the Philippines and the Americas.

3. Evaluate the importance of the Treaty of Westphalia.
● In an effort to save their society, European states enacted the Peace of Westphalia
● By the treaty’s terms, they regarded each other as sovereign equals and mutually recognized their rights to control their own domestic and religious affairs, as opposed to recognizing a supreme religious authority.
● European religious unity had disappeared and the era of the sovereign state had arrived
● War did not end and was in fact a constant part of early modern Europe; some notable wars were the seven years war and the wars of Louis XIV. Shifting alliances illustrated the principal foundation of early European diplomacy- the balance of power
● When one state became strong, others would build a coalition against it, and though this was a cyclical process, it repressed empire and ensured that Europe was a land of independent, competing states
● because European states were always fighting they developed expert military arsenals and equipment. Later on, their superior armies allowed them to conquer foreign lands that had not had the competition incentive to develop their armies.

4. Analyze the actions of Loius XIV and his impact on Europe.
● Louis XIV was an absolute monarch and best displayed royal absolutism, stating that he himself was the state and that he ruled by divine right; he was called the ‘sun king’.
● He built and moved to an elaborate court at Versailles with 230 acres of gardens and 1600 fountains, in the late 17th century. 1
● The Sun King encouraged nobles to move to the court, where he could keep an eye on them, and the ambitious nobles came. While the nobles learnt court intricacies Louis and his ministers ran the state- effectively exchanging with the nobles endless entertainment for absolute rule.
● Louis and his ministers made a huge standing army, promoted economic development, and waged wars that established France as a preeminent power.
● Rulers in Austria, Prussia, and Russia looked to France for a model for centralized government.

5. Explain the concept of Constitutionalism.
● Constitutional states existed in England and the Netherlands. In England, a constitutional monarchy in 1649 was the result of a civil war.
● Constitutional states were characterized by limited powers, individual rights, and representative institutions
● The English and Dutch both had a prominent merchant class and enjoyed unusual prosperity; they built commercial empires overseas with minimal state interference

6. Describe the development of Capitalism.
● A rapidly expanding population and economy encouraged the development of capitalism, which led to the restructuring of economies and society
● Private parties own everything and decide what they want to produce. The center of a capitalist system is the free market. For several 1000 years prior, merchants had undertaken private ventures to realize profits.
● Business took advantage of transportation and communication systems, creating cross-continental setups and making huge profits.
● Private parties began several things to support early capitalism, such as banks in every city and business newsletters. Stock exchanges rose.
● Joint-stock companies like the English East India Company and its Dutch counterpart, VOC organized commercial ventures on a larger scale than possible before. They were the principal foundations of the global economy and ancestors of multinational corporations
● Government recognized and protected individuals’ rights to possess property, enforced contracts and settled disputes. Govs also chartered joint-stock companies and authorized them to explore.

7. Describe the Scientific Revolution.
● As evidence accumulated, astronomers abandoned the Ptolemaic in favor of the Copernican model of the universe
● Johannes Kepler demonstrated planetary orbits to be elliptical, and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 built on this work. With a telescope, Galileo saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter, mountains of the moon. Galileo’s theory of velocity of falling bodies anticipated the modern law of inertia
● Isaac Newton (1642-1727) offered mathematical explanations of laws that govern movements of bodies, published in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in 1686
● Newton’s work relied on direct observation and mathematical reasoning, two tenets of the scientific revolution

8) Evaluate the idealistic change of the Enlightenment.
● Newton’s rational analysis of human behavior and human establishments lead to curiosity towards humans as well as the natural world that surrounds them.
● During this enlightenment, human thought in places including Scotland, Moscow, Europe, changed. Aristotelian and Christian beliefs and theories were set aside after being predominantly recognized and conventional. The human world was held accountable to purely rational analysis. Thinkers started to discover natural laws that governed human society.
● For example, the English philosopher John Locke identified principles of psychology and said that all human knowledge derives from sense perspectives.
● The Scottish philosopher Adam Smith dealt with economic affairs and discovered that laws regarding supply and demand ran the market.
● Philosophes were public intellectuals who made others’ ideas popularized. The focused on religious, moral, and political issues.
● Francois-Marie Arouet wrote under the pen name Voltaire and published his first book at age seventeen. He died at age 84 with many accomplishments including 70 volumes consisting of wit, and bitter irony. He attacked institutions with intolerant and oppressive policies (like the French Monarchy and the Roman Catholic church).
● Arouet believed that the Roman Catholic church were responsible for intolerance, and human suffering. His slogan was ecrasez l’infame (aka. Crush that damned thing).
● Some Christian turned into atheists, some became deists: believed in existence of God but did not accept the supernatural teachings of Christianity. Deists believed the world was an orderly realm. They believed God set the universe in motion and created natural laws that acted to govern but did not take personal interest because the world operated by itself.
● Philophes were generally optimistic about the future.
● Progress became an ideology, and science was thought to lead to greater human control over the world.
● The science of affairs was thought to lead to a prosperous, just, equitable society. The enlightenment, overall, encouraged leaders to question society in terms of a rational analysis and get involved in affairs and interests promoting progress and prosperity.

Ch. 24
1. Summarize the interaction the people of the Caribbean, Aztec, and Inca had with the exploring Europeans.
● Europeans had far superior military technology; in addition, they were responsible for epidemics that wiped out/weakened native populations
● Spanish toppled Inca and Aztec empires and imposed their own rule
● After establishing Hispaniola in the Caribbean and realizing that the Caribbean offered no good for the European market, settlers began to support their society by mining gold.The Tainos, Caribbean natives, were recruited for this task through often-harsh encomiendas, a system which let settlers compel Tainos to work for them as long as the settlers looked after the workers heath, welfare, and religious conversion.
● With the arrival of smallpox Taino population went from six million in 1942 to a few thousand in the 1540s. Tainos lost their culture.
● During the 17th century Dutch, French and English setters brought in African slaves to work their sugar plantations, and by the mid 17th century Caribbean society consisted of a small class of European administrators and a lot of African slaves
● Hernana Cortes used both a superior military and indigenous infighting to capture the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. Epidemic disease also helped.
● In Peru, Francisco Pizzaro and his troops called all the Inca leaders to a conference in the capital of Cuzco and then killed them. Epidemic diseases had already weakened the Inca.

2. Describe the Spanish Imperial rule over its new founded territory of Latin America.
● By 1570 the Spanish government officially ruled the conquistadors’ lands.
● Spanish admins established 2 centers of authority- Mexico City (built over Tenochtitlan) in Mexico, and the new Lima in Peru. While Cuzco was at inconvenient heights, Lima was low land and had access to the coastline. Each was government by a viceroy who was responsible to the king of spain.
● The viceroys were subjected to audiencias, reviews of their policies and decisions, to make sure they did not become strong enough to overthrow the king. However, because Spain was so far away the viceroys largely determined their own policies w/o the interference of the king
● As the number of Spanish migrants grew cities grew and new cities popped up.

3. Explain the schism between the Spanish and Portuguese and how it involved the pope.
● Spanish missionaries introduced Christianity to the Americas
● They established schools and churches
● Portuguese and Spanish settlers were both Catholic
● If anyone has anything to add…

4. Analyze how Dutch and English colonization techniques were different then the Spanish.
● Iberian colonies had royal backing, whereas private investors controlled most of Dutch/English colonies
● Though the colonies were subject to royal authority, they had no viceroys of audiencias
● Individuals paid to sponsor the expeditions
● Dutch/English settlers had a larger population of women settlers, so they mixed with natives far less than the Spanish

5. Describe the ethnic creations and division as a result of Spanish male colonization.
● The vast majority of Spanish settlers were men, so settlers mated with native women, creating a mestizo (mixed0 society)
● Criolles were spanish born in America of Iberian parents, mestizos were spanish and native people, and zambos were portegeuse and african people
● Peninsulars, those from Spain, came first in the social hierachy, followed by criolles, followed by mestizos.
● At first mestizos lived on the fringe of society, but as their population grew they became more socially excepted

6. Analyze the economic system developed by the silver trade.
● Silver outweighed gold in quantity & value
○ Basis of New World Spain wealth
○ Conquistadors melted down Inca & Aztec silver & gold fashioning them into ingots
○ Silver production concentratInca system of draft labor
○ got individuals from local officials, who dispatched individuals to work for several months in the mines
● growth mines = demand in labor
● population boom (1545-1600)
● The mining industries in Mexico and Peru powered the Spanish economy and stimulated world trade
● The Spanish crown received 1/5 of the silver production, a 1/5 known as the quinto, and was the principal revenue the crown got from its colonies
● American silver went across the Atlantic to Spain and markets in Europe, from where European merchants traded it for silk, spices, and porcelain in Asia
● Some silver went to Acapulco on Mexico’s west coast, across the Pacific in the Manila Galleons and from there to Asian markets

7. Describe the impact long lasting effects of sugar plantations.
● In Portuguese Brazil, sugar was the main export.
● Portuguese nobles and entrepreneurs, established plantations in regions w/o enough administration to recruit native workers, and so used African slaves. Africans became the majority of Brazil.
● Engenho, sugar mill, was sued to refer to the entire complex of sugar production-related things. Unlike other crops, sugarcane required extensive processing to yield profit, so engenhos relied on both agriculture and industry- demanding both heavy labor and specialized skilled labor.
● The Portuguese planters became landed nobles with strog royal support yet had to behave like businessmen
● Braziian natives resisted efforts to be recruited into sugar labor, so the Portuguese began using African slaves, starting in the 1530s and becoming heavily reliant in the 1580s
● Bad labor conditions and tropical heat made engenhos lose 5 to 10 percent of their slaves annually.
● Because more slaves died than were born, there was a constant demand for more.
● Plantation owners had no economic inventive to improve conditions for slaves. Every ton of sweet substance cost one life.

8. Summarize the exploration of the Pacific by James Cook.
● After James Cook charted Australia in 1770 Europeans became serious about colonization, with the British sending a fleet of settlers
● Cook’s exploration of Australia and New Zealand added New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and Hawaii to European Maps and led to the establishment of European colonies
● Cook also learnt about the culture of Artic people, and was killed by natives in Hawaii

Ch. 25

1. Describe African interaction with Europeans from Timbuktu to the Kongo to Cape Town.
● Portuguese and Dutch mariners landed at the Cape of Good Hope; the Dutch built a trading post in Cape Town in 1652
● Increasing numbers of Dutch settlers drove away the native Khoikhoi by 1700- South Africa became a European colony
● The kings of the Kongo converted to Christianity to strengthen ties with the Portuguese, but ultimately the Portuguese destroyed their kingdom by undermining the authority of the kings
● In 1665 the kings of the Kongo and the Portuguese went o war; the Portuguese won, killed the kings, and began to withdraw from the Kongo in search of somewhere more profitable, next conquering Angola and defeating Queen Nzinga, who fought against them for 40 years
● Portuguese merchants traded textiles, weapons, advisors and craftsmen in exchange for gold, ivory, and slaves
● Islamic merchants traded in Timbuktu

2. Describe the development of Christianity in the Kongo.
● King Alfonso I was a devout Catholic. The capital of Kongo, Mbanza, had so many churches it was referred to as ‘the kongo of the bell’
● The kings of Kongo converted to Christianity to develop trade with the Portuguese and Portuguese missionaries
● However, beyond the ruling courts Christianity blended with African religions to form syncretic cults
● One such cult was the Antonian movement in Kongo, which began in 1704 with Dona Beatriz, a priestess who claimed to have gotten messages from 13th century Franciscan missionary St. Anthony of Padua, and taught that Jesus had been a black African man

3. Analyze the motivating and enabling factors of the slave trade.
● Portuguese in Brazil and other Europeans in the Americas needed slaves for a source of labor
● African traded firearms for slaves
● · Slaves began as the ranks of war captives and criminals
● · African society considered wealth as how many slaves were owned
● · Slaves were purchased to enlarge families
● · Some males bought slaves to keep as mistresses
● · Some nobles bought slaves and made them part of the family in order to get them freedom within a century.

4. Summarize population shift and its effects of the African Diaspora.
● The Atlantic slave trade started in 1441 with the Portuguese, but before 1600 operated on a modest scale
● On average 2,000 slaves left Africa for America during the 15th and 16th centuries
● High points during 1780s slave trade reached 88,000 per year, sometimes 100,000
● 12 million slaves were brought to the Americas- 4 million of these died in resisting seizure or during captivity
● In all, 16 million people were taken as slaves- not including several million from the Islamic slave trade
● 2/3 of slaves taken were men, resulting in polygamy and women having to take on things like working in the fields, that men used to do

Ch. 26

1) Describe how the Ming struggled with the quest for stability.
· Emperor Hongwu defeated the Mongols and made a tightly centralized state
· He used mandarins, imperial officials who traveled through the country and made sure federal policy was put into place, as well as eunuchs, since they couldn’t have children and build a power base to challenge him
· As the military weakened in the late 15th century Mongols began massacring Chinese armies. In response, they began building the great wall of china.
· From 1520 to 1570, pirates and smugglers operated on the east coast of China. The ming navy was weak, and conflicts with pirates disrupted communities
· Suppression of pirates took 40 years since the government had become inept; the later emperors lived richly in the Forbidden City, only receiving news of the outside world from their servants. Often, they put their own desires above the countries.
· For example, Emperor refuses to talk to government officials, consulting only with his eunuchs while indulging his taste for wine and opium. The eunuchs consequently became over-powerful and corrupt
· When famine struck China in the early 17th century, the Ming couldn’t organize a relief effort. During the 1630s peasants organized revolts and one city after another withdrew loyalty from the Ming. Manchu invaders allied with the rebels and in the early 1640s the Manchus took the capital of Beijing, where the emperor committed suicide.

2) Explain the economic system used by the Ming.
● Had a tightly centralized system based on the earlier Chinese dynasties with regulation
● Traded silk, porcelain, tea in exchange for spices, birds, animals, money, and silver
● Had lots of trade, influences by Americas
● Launched expensive naval and wall-building ventures, and the later emperors lived extravagantly

3) Describe Ming society especially considering gender roles.
● The Chinese people were one big family – hierarchical, patriarchal, and authoritarian.
-Grouped into clans by patrilineal descent.
● Filial piety-not only implied duties of children to their fathers but also loyalties of subjects to their emperors.
● Veneration of ancestors.
-Women, when married, honored only the male line of descent and forsook their own.
● Females were subordinate to men. Parents preferred boys over girls because girls were considered a financial and social liability.
● Widows strongly discouraged from remarrying. Instead were encouraged to honor their husbands memory or even commit suicide
● Foot binding
● Marriage’s purpose = continue male line of descent
-Wife was subservient to husband.

4) Describe the rule of the Ming rulers
● The Manchus: Started the Qing dynasty. Nurchai(1616-1626) unified Manchu tribes and created a centralized state, created laws and oranized military. The Manchu army captured Mongolia and Korea 1630s and China in 1644. Manchus were the ruling elite and were schooled in Chinese and Confucian thought. They prevented intermarriage between Machus and Chinese.
● Kangxi: helped Manchus have a stronger hold on China. He was a Confucian scholar and an enlightened ruler. He enforced Confucian thought through the betterment of his country and through generous donations to Confucian schools and academies. He was a conquerer. Constructed Taiwan.
● Qianlong: Height of the Qing dynasty. During his reign the imperial treasury had a lot of money, so much to the point where tax collections were cancelled four times. Just like his grandfather he also helped expand China by adding Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal into the equation

5) Explain the issues surrounding the growth of Christianity in China
● With the outbreak of plague and the collapse of the Yuan empire in the 14th century Christianity disappeared from China
● When missionaries returned in the 16th century they had to start converting from scratch
● The most prominent missionaries were the Jesuits, and Matteo Ricci, who was learned in Chinese, led them. Ricci and his followers wowed the Chinese with European science, technology, and mechanical gadgetry. Ricci argued that Christianity was the purest form of Confucianism and showed respect for Chinese culture.
● Chinese didn’t adopt Christianity because of its exclusivity; for centuries Chinese had followed Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism all together
● The mission fell apart due to squabbles between the Jesuits and their jealous fellow missionaries. The Franciscan and Dominican missionaries in China complained to the pope about the Jesuits’ tolerance of ancestor veneration and Chinese-language services; the pope concurred and in the early 18th century issued an edict ordering missionaries to suppress ancestor veneration and conduct services according to European standards
● In response, the emperor Kangxi banned preaching in China, and the missions had come to an end by the mid-18th century
● Though the Roman Catholic mission did not attract many converts, it had a large cultural impact, stimulating European interest in China

6) Describe the rule of the Tokugawa
● The Tokugawa was governed by a group of shoguns
○ Shoguns: highly disciplined military leaders
○ Known as the Tokugawa Shogunate
○ Ieyasu was an important shogun
● Tokugawa’s purpose was to bring stability to Japan (after 1600)
○ Japan soon divided into individual feudal entities
○ Ieyasu established the bakufu (military government)
● Daimyo ( Powerful local leaders)
○ Each daimyo was the absolute ruler in his territory
○ The Tokugawa shoguns made the Daimyo live every other year at Edo
○ The bafuki controlled all marriage, travel, etc of the daimyo
● Foreign Relations:
○ (1630s): The shoguns wanted to be isolated from the rest of the world, so they adopted a policy to do so
○ Due to this policy trade was tightly restricted at the port of Nagasaki
○ The policy proved to be futile, and Japan was never fully isolated from the world.

7) Explain the cultural practice of the Japanese
The cultural practices of Japan were significantly influenced by the Chinese throughout the Tokugawa era. For example, formal education began with the study of Chinese language and literature. Many scholarly works were written in Chinese as well. The common people of Japan practiced Buddhism, which came to Japan from China along with Confucianism which was the most influential philosophical system. However, during the 18th century, scholars of native learning scorned neo Confucianism and Buddhism and focused on the importance of folk traditions including the indegenious Shinto religion for Japanese identity. The emergence of a prosperous merchant class encouraged the development of a vibrant popular culture. The centers of Tokugawa urban culture were the “floating worlds”, entertainment and pleasure quarters where teahouses, theaters, brothels and public baths offered escape from social responsibilities. Ihara Saikaku helped create a new genre of prose literature around the theme of love. In the early 17th century two new forms of drama, the kabuki theater and bunraku, became very popular.

Ch. 27

1. Summarize the expansion of the Ottoman Empire.
● Osman Bey founded the Ottoman empire in 1289. He also led the muslim warriors known as ghazi
● In 1326 they captured Bursa, an Anatolian city which became the capital In 1352 they established a foothold in Europe with the capture of the fortress of Gallipoli.
● Edrine became a second capital and served as a base for expansion into the Balkans. Ghazi settled frontier areas and pushed their boundaries forward.
● Military leaders divided the ghazi into two (eventually four) parts; a light cavalry and a volunteer infantry. With time, they added a professional cavalry force equipped with heavy armor, financed by land grants. In the Balkans, they created a very important slave troop force called the devshirme.
● Christians in the Balkans were forced to give their sons to the devshirme, who received special training, converted to Islam and learnt Turkish, after which according to individual ability they either entered they entered the civilian administration or became Janissary soldiers.
● In addition to having effective soldiers, the Ottomans effectively used gunpowder weapons

2. Describe the use of the Janissary Corps.
● Christians in the Balkans were forced to give their sons to the devshirme, who received special training, converted to Islam and learnt Turkish, after which according to individual ability they either entered they entered the civilian administration or the military
● The soldiers were known as Janissaries, and were renown loyalty to the sultan and their readiness to use military technology

3. Explain the how Suleymane rules during the height of the Ottoman Empire.
● Suleyman the magnificent reigned from 1520-1566.
● he mainly expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe.
● in 1534 he conquered Baghdad and added the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys to the Ottoman domain.
● he kept the rival Habsburg empire on the defensive while he ruled.
● in 1521, he captured Belgrade and defeated and killed the king of Hungary at the battle of Mohacs in 1526.
● he also consolidated Ottoman power north of the Danube. in 1529 he subjected the prized city of the Habsburg empire, Vienna in a terrifying seige.
● under his rule, a new major naval power came to be. the Ottomans had inherited the navy of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt.
● The Turkish corsair, Khayr al-Din Barbarossa Pasha, had placed his pirate fleet under the Ottoman flag and he also became Suleyman’s leading admiral.
● the Ottomans, during his rule, sieged the island of Rhodes from the Knights of John, besieged Malta, secured Yemen and Aden, and also dispatched a squadron to attack the Portuguese fleet at Diu in India.

4. Describe what Twelver Shiism is.
● Holds that there are 12 infallible imams after Muhammed, beginning with the prophet’s son-in-law, Ali.
● The twelfth, ‘hidden’ imam went into hiding to escape persecution, but Twelvers believe that he is still alive and will return some day to spread his true religion.
● Ismail’s father told his Turkish followers to wear a red hat w 12 pleats for the 12 imams; they became known as the qizilbash (red heads)
● Safavid propaganda suggested that Ismail was the twelfth imam, and though most Muslims, including Shiites, thought this suggestion was blasphemous, the qizilbash accepted it, since it resembled traditional Turkish conceptions of leadership that associated divinity with military leaders

5. Analyze the rule of the Safavids.
● The Safavids were Turkish conquerors of Persia and Mesopotamia
○ Founder Shah Ismail (reigned 1501-1524) claimed ancient Persian title of shah.
○ Proclaimed Twelver Shiism the official religion; imposed it on Sunni population
○ Followers known as qizilbash (or “Red Hats”)
● Battle of Chaldiran (1514)
○ Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empire
○ Qizilbash considered firearms unmanly; were crushed by Ottomans at Chadiran
● Shah Abbas the Great (1588-1629) revitalized the Safavid empire
○ modernized military; sought European alliances against Ottomans
○ new capital at Isfahan; centralized administration

6. Summarize the rule of Mughal rulers.
● Babur (1523-1530), founder of Mughal (“Mongol”) dynasty in India
○ Central Asian Turkish adventurer invaded India in 1523, seized Delhi in 1526
○ By his death in 1530, Mughal empire embraced most of India
● Akbar (think Hrithrik Roshan) (reigned 1556-1605), a brilliant charismatic ruler
○ Created a centralized, absolutist government
○ Expanded to Gujurat, Bengal, and southern India
○ Encouraged religious tolerance between Muslims and Hindus
○ Developed a syncretic religion called “divine faith”
● Aurangzeb (1659-1707)
○ Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinent
○ Revoked policies of toleration: Hindus taxed, temples destroyed
○ His rule troubled by religious tensions and hostility

7. Describe steppe diplomacy and Islamic Imperial Society.
● Despite many differences, there were several similarities between the development of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. They had all relied on bureaucracies that drew inspiration from the steppe traditions of the Turkish and the Mongol peoples and from the heritage of Islam.
● The early emperors of the Mughal, Ottoman, and Safavid empires did as they pleased, irrespective of religious and social norms.
● the ottoman sultans for example, uninlaterally issued numerous ledal edicts. The greatest of these were the laws or kanun issued by Suleyman the Magnificent.
● Safavid and Mughal emperors went even further than what the Ottoman sultans did and asserted their spiritual authority on practically everything. Shah Ismail forced his Shiite religion on his subjects without any hesitation. Akbar promoted his own eclectic religion and and issued a decree in 1579 claiming broad authority in religious matters.
● there were numerous problems regarding royal succession.
● in the Mughal empire, there were family controversies on who was in line for the throne. this resulted in conflicts among the Mughal princes and rebellions between fathers and sons.
● the Safavids also had battles when it came to the heir of the throne as well. The struggles went as far as being murderous. One main example is Shah Abbas who lived in fear of one of his relatives challenging him. Therefore, kept his sons confined and killed any who he thought was suspicious.
● Ottoman rulers could legally kill their brothers after taking the throne.

8. Describe how trade and interaction created challenges to Islamic society.
● Failure to develop trade and industries resulted in the Europeans to lose initiative.
● Even though the Ottomans expanded the privileges enjoyed by foreign merchants, and the Mughals had encouraged the establishment of Dutch and English trading outposts and welcomed the expansion of their businesses in India, none of the empires made serious efforts to establish commercial stations abroad.
● Does anyone have anything to add?

9. Evaluate the causes for decline in all three empires.
● Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, all three Islamic empires underwent extreme changes.
● The Safavid empire had disappeared completely.
● In 1722, a band of Afghan tribesmen marched all the way to Isfahan, blockaded the city until its remaining inhabitants who were starving resorted to cannibalism. They also forced the shah to abdicate, and they executed thousands of Safavid officials and many members of the royal families.
● Following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, Mughal India had experienced provincial rebellions and foreign invasions.
● By the mid century, the subcontinent had fallen under British imperial rule.
● the Ottomans had also were on the defensive in the 1700s. the sultans had lost control over the remote provinces of Egypt and Lebanon . Also during the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, European and Russian states had placed political, military, and economic pressure on the shrinking Ottoman realm.
● Eventually all three empires, had fallen under the hands of incompetent rulers who only worried about gaining money for them to spend on personal pleasures than in tending to affairs of the state.

Ch. 28
1. Describe the concept of “Gathering of Land”.
● In 1480 Ivan the Great, the prince of Moscow, stopped paying tribute to the Mongol Khan and in effect declared Russian independence
● The princes of Moscow had been ‘gathering land’ since the early 14th century, expanding their holdings from the small Moscow to new territories by war, marriage, and even purchase
● Ivan III continued the policy of ‘gathering of land’. Muscovy, the principality ruled by Moscow, tripled in size under his rule.
● Novgorod, a prosperous and autonomous fur trading city that had strong ties to Poland and Lithuania, was the most important addition to Ivan’s territory. The merchants organized an uprising in 1478 that Ivan defeated.
● Ivan consolidated his land by offering peasants freedom for moving into new lands- these freed peasants were known as Cossacks.

2. Analyze the rule of Ivan IV “The Terrible”.
● Though Ivan III had claimed divine-right rule, the tsarist court still encountered oppositions- particularly from the boyars, the powerful military elite who ruled minor principalities and didn’t want to be absorbed and centralized into the Muscovite state
● This resistance reached its crux during the rule of Ivan VI, known as Ivan the Terrible for his response.
● Ivan began to rule at the age of 16, when he also married into the Romanov boyar clan. Ivan ruled with the help of the Chosen Council, advisors chosen based on their talents rather than their families, and began calling ‘assemblies of the land’, where representatives informed him of local situations throughout Russia. This made the government much more effective
● He blamed the boyars for killing his wife Anastasia in 1660. In 1664 he abdicated the throne and returned only on the condition that he receive powers to deal with the boyars as well as control over a large part of Muscovite territory, called the oprichnina, which he confiscated and redistributed among the oprichniki, a new aristocracy he made.
● The oprichniki were employed to lay waste to numerous civilian population, including that of Novogorod, in cruel ways such as frying and skinning victims.
● The oprichnina had weakened Russia, but Ivan turned on the oprichniki, subjecting them to the same cruel punishments.
● In 1584, Ivan died with no heir (he had killed his first son himself) and Russia was plunged into civil war and faced invasions by the polish and Swedish- this ‘time of troubles’ lasted 15 years

3. Explain the westernization process under Peter The Great.
● Peter the Great grew up in Russian Germantown, where the majority of Europeans in Russia lived,, where he became fascinated with technology
● He worked to establish Russian industries on the most advances science and technology, and also sent Russians abroad to study. Peter himself took a tour of Western Europe in disguise and decided to model Russia on the policies he observed- though not representative government.
● He reformed the army and created a navy
● He overhauled the bureaucracy and established the Table of Ranks, which let officials move along 14 classes based on merit
● He abolished terems, Russian harems, and encouraged mixing of the sexes
● He imposed western-wear and made boyars pay a tax to keep their beards (after attempting to ban beards and failing)
● He built St. Petersburg as a ‘window in the west’ in 1702 and moved government offices there.

4. Evaluate Catherine’s reactions to maintaining the old order and trying to introduce enlightened concepts.
● Catherine was the grand daughter in law of Peter the Great and continued the policy of Westernization, appointing officials with modern, European educations
● was interested in philosophe of the Enlightenment; considered the philosophes’ ideas for liberal social reform, but was too autocratic to put them in place, like Peter; thought of herself as an enlightened despot
● she sought to devise policies that would improve her subjects’ lives without detracting from her own power and authority
● she sought to eliminate common penalties such as torture, beating, and the mutilation of individuals by cutting off their noses, ears or tongues

5) Explain how Russian expansion was a challenge to the Concert of Europe.
● tsars sought to recapture territories associated with the Kieven state and return Russia to dominance in E Europe
● biggest target of expansive effort was Poland
● Lithuania united with Poland in a kingdom that stretched from Baltic Sea to Black Sea
● separate administrative and legal systems, but ruled in common by elected king and parliament through Ivan the 4th’s reign
● Lithuania and Poland were Roman Catholic
● Slavic territories like Ukraine feared Roman Catholic influence
● Animosity against Poland united Ukraine and Russia
● Bogdan Khmelnitsky, to get revenge for the murder of his son, united with Ukraine peasants and sought union with Moscow on basis of orthodox faith against polish rulers
● ended with partition of Ukraine and returning of Kiev to original empire
● one negative vote in parliament could prevent legislation
● generated instability, Polish states could not defend themselves
● Polish resentment kept historical memory alive, Poles regained independence from Russia in 1918
● Poland institutionalized tolerance of Jews in 1265
● safe for Jews until Nazi conquest
● Russia later expanded to Ottoman territories in Europe
● Tsarists pushed into Balkan regions that Ottomans could not defend and made common cause with Greek Orthodox Christians who resented Turkish overlords
● Russia annexed the Crimea and made plans to march to Istanbul
● to prevent the Russian military of getting access to the mediterranean and to prevent further expansion, British and French diplomats cooperated
● Slavic people of Russia and Balkans forged a relationship that influenced history of Balkan peninsula

6) Describe Russian society
● Peter the Great modernized Russian society, abolishing terems (russian harems), encouraging the mixing of the sexes, and imposing western-wear on his citizens- this also meant Russian men (and women, if they happened to swing that way) had to pay an extra tax to keep their beards. No in all seriousness I doubt the Russian were very pro-LGBTQ+, don’t say that.
● There were 26 indigenous ethnic groups in Siberia, all with differing religious and lingual traditions. Some began trade with the Russians and some fought them- these were defeated.
● Though Peter the Great sponsored factory creation, most of Russian society remained a rural and agricultural society
● Agricultural society revolved around the peasant village:
● Peasants lived with their extended families and
● The male heads of families gathered periodically to make decisions for the entire village; they allocated village ands negotiated with noble landowners and with agents of the tsar, such as tax collectors and military recruiters.
● Peasant women were responsible for domestic duties as well as for arranging marriages; this gave them an amount of influence since marriages could create alliances between communities. Russian peasant women also retained control of their dowries after their marriage, which gave them financial independence few women in the world had.
● Though some peasant, such as in Siberia where the government had encouraged immigration by giving lands to migrants, were free, most were serfs working under noble landowners. In 1649 the government passed a law to put serfs under strict control of their landlords, and some nobles even began to sell serfs as private property.
● The 1649 law also established a caste-like class order in Russian society, requiring artisan and merchants to train their offspring into their professions.

7. Evaluate how religious tensions helped develop the Russian Orthodox Church and its relationship with the Tsars.
● During the seventeenth century the Russian Orthodox church experienced a bitter dispute between reformers who sought to adapt ritual and liturgy from eastern European and Greek Orthodox churches for use in Russia.
● The spirit of reform and regulation that inspired official Russia also influenced church leaders, some of whom wanted to revise liturgy and rituals. The reforms were also anxious to standardize ritual practices and they sought to reform authentic practices of Orthodox Christians in Greece and eastern europe.
● The leader of the reformers was a strong willed monk named Nikon who was the spiritual head of the Russian orthodox church. His reforms were supported by the tsars.
● Religious conservatives who did not accept Nikon reforms were led by the priest named Avvakum. Him and his followers were afraid that the reformed rituals would compensate the community’s eligibility to receive the grace of God and would result in the threatening of eternal salvation. They blamed the cosmic foe of God who appeared in the apocalyptic book of Revelation in the New Testament. Avvakum’s sectarianism was known as the old belief which the tsarist government outlawed.
● in 1681, the tsar condemned Avvakum to the execution and the next year he announced all old belief treasonous and punishable the death.
● the old belief had split to many sects and never established a coherent technology.
● the schism weakened the Russian Orthodox church and detracted from the authority of religious leaders.
● the tsars progressively slowly increased their control over the church until Peter the Great made it essentially a department of religious affairs in his government.
● as the empire expanded, church and political leaders cooperated in many ways, but wealth and economic power also brought the church problems.
● by the eighteenth century the tsarist autocracy had effectively turned the Russian Orthodox Church into a department of the state government.

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