The National education policy of Bangladesh and Pakistan (A comparative analysis over the issue of female education) Introduction God has created both man and woman who have similar contribution in building the civilization. He has bestowed them with same qualities. So both man and woman should get the similar treatment from the society. The Holistic development Of a nation much depends on the equal contribution of both men and women. Regarding to this education is the backbone of a nation.
Napoleon once said: “Give me an educated mother; in return I will give you an educated nation” Explaining how vital a role is played by education in the prosperity of a nation. There is no alternative to education in the development of a strong nation. Education is the light that removes the darkness of ignorance. It is a mental and moral training that makes a man a complete citizen. It teaches a man to choose the right thing in life. It also helps man to become aware of his duties and responsibilities. Female education means the education of the girls.
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Women constitute half of the total population of our country. Without the proper development of the women, no progress of our country is possible. So to develop the condition of the girls, the necessity of education needs no telling. An educated mother can make an educated child and an educated nation. At present women play significant role in our society. Though they have to do household chores, they are coming out of the boundaries of their houses. They are now being engaged in various professions and earning money.
Thus they are contributing to family income as well as to the economic growth of the country. In relation to this different countries emphasize female education in their national education policy. Bangladesh and Pakistan both are the leading Muslim democratic countries in south Asia. Historically both shares some common ideology and cultural and religious values. In fulfillment to the commitment to the general people, Pakistan Government introduced its National education policy in the year of 2009. While Bangladesh govt; introduced its 1st education policy in the year of 2010.
This assignment is a little affords to understand the content and contextual perspective of these policies regarding to women education. Bangladesh and Pakistan (Introductory phase) In 2011, Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen said, “Bangladesh is now doing better on almost every one of these social indicators than India is doing”. Bangladesh, officially the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma (Myanmar) to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south.
The capital (and largest city) is Dhaka; also it is the hub of all cultural, political and religious affairs. It got Her Independence after a Nine month War against Pakistan on 16 December, 1971. Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy, with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. The population of Bangladesh at 15/03/2011 is 142. 3 million (census 2011). The GDP growth is about 6%. Per capita is $641. Poverty rate is almost 31%. Nearly all Bangladeshis speak Bangla as their mother tongue and it is the official language English is used as a second language among the middle and upper classes.
English is also widely used in higher education and the legal system. The literacy rate in Bangladesh rose to 56. 5% in 2009. There is some gender disparity, though, as literacy rates are 62% among men and 51% among women, according to a 2008 UNICEF estimate. The main religion practiced in Bangladesh is Islam (89. 6%), but a significant percentage of the population adheres to Hinduism (9. 3%). The majority of Muslims are Sunni. Many people in Bangladesh practice Sufism, historically Islam was brought to the region by Sufi saints.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign country in South Asia. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India in the east; Afghanistan and Iran in the west; and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. In addition, Oman is also located in maritime vicinity and shares a marine border with Pakistan. Strategically, Pakistan is situated at the crossroads of the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.
Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire in 1947, after a struggle for independence led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah that sought the partition of British India and a new independent state for the Muslim majority populations of the eastern and western regions of India. Initially a dominion, with the adoption of its constitution in 1956 Pakistan became an Islamic republic. In 1971, an armed conflict in East Pakistan resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories.
With a population exceeding 170 million people, it is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia. The country faces challenging problems including terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption. Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic with Islam as the state religion. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973 – suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985 – is the country’s most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.
Pakistan is a federation of four provinces; Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)) and Balochistan, as well as a capital territory and a group of federally administered tribal areas including the Frontier Regions. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy. The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund and significant debt-relief from the United States.
Pakistan’s gross domestic product, as measured by purchasing power parity, is estimated to be $475. 4 billion while its per capita income stands at $2,942. The poverty rate in Pakistan is estimated to be between 23% and 28%. After Islam, Hinduism and Christianity are the largest religion in Pakistan, each with 2,800,000 (1. 6%) adherents; they are followed by Sikhism with 20,000 (0. 001%) adherents. Parsis, Buddhists, Jews, Baha’is and Animists (mainly the Kalasha of Chitral) also resides in minorities in Pakistan.
Pakistani society is largely hierarchical, with high regard for traditional Islamic values which govern the personal and political lives of people. The basic family unit is extended family, although there has been a growing trend towards nuclear family because of the socio-economic constraints. Education Policy 2010(Bangladesh) Since the Independence of Bangladesh, it has not been possible for us to implement any Education Policy in the last four decades. Although all the govt form different regimes tries to bring out education policy but their effort results nothing due to political instability.
Therefore with the victory of ninth Parliamentary election Govt declare its vision 2o21. And in relation to this it implement the countries 1st education policy in the year of 2010. The important aspect of this Education Policy is that it emphasizes religion, science and technical education. This Policy attaches importance to the natural sensitivity of people and also to the delivery of education that helps find employment in the material world. The country will move ahead, with the acquisition of the knowledge of modern science and technology.
Two things need to be stated clearly regarding the policy- 1) This is not an education policy of any particular political party – it reflects the aspiration and expectations of the entire nation; 2) This policy is not an absolute entity and the scope for changes and amendment will always be there and errors can always be rectified. The National Education Policy embodies the nation’s verdict and aspirations, the spirit of Liberation war and independence; it reflects people’s goals and values and thereby follows the basic Constitutional guideline.
The object to ensure the rights and the opportunities for education for all eradicating all differences has been selected as the rationale for this education policy. Ensuring education for all children is a fundamental issue. It is crucial for our future generation to acquire quality, modern and updated knowledge of science and technology and evolve as a skilled human resource so that they may contribute to eradicate poverty, illiteracy, corruption, communalism and backwardness and build up a developed and prosperous Bangladesh.
On the whole, to achieve quality, modern and updated education, it is important to acquire and apply knowledge based on information technology. Language, mathematics, history, science, Information technology – technical knowledge and education, and a society with learning at its Base is all matters of priority. The major aim is to ensure that the next generation is provided with real education and Knowledge of science and technology and thereby they will develop into an efficient and skilled Human resource, respectful and committed to people and inspired by patriotic pirit. Total education policy is divided into 28 chapters defining the aims and objective of education, Different types of education sector, different types of education, responsibilities of the teacher as well as the administration. This education policy gives clear identification about female education and the way to ensure this. That is lies in the 16 chapter of the policy. Here is the description of it; Aims and Objectives OF Female education: Education is the founding stone for the development of the country and society.
A large number of women of the country are deprived of education for various social, economic and cultural reasons. Women constitute half of the country’s population. Women’s scope of work is usually limited to family welfare, child care and domestic chores. Women are generally allotted a passive role in national development. This existing trend must be changed. Emphasis will be given on women’s education to ensure women’s comprehensive development and empowerment and women’s participation in a balanced social advancement. The main aims and objectives of women’s education are: To foster awareness and confidence among women and to strengthen women’s outlook in favor of demanding equal rights; • To motivate women at all levels to acquire skills in order to participate in the affairs of running the country; • To ensure women’s participation in poverty alleviation and socio-economic development Programs; • To strengthen them in a way that they can play their roles in the socio-economic Development of the country through self-employment or being employed in various Positions; • To change their existing subordinate position and to empower them to take strong steps to Ensure equal rights and to resist dowry as well as violence against women. Strategies 1. There will be special allocation for women’s education in the budget. A special fund will to be mobilized to promote women’s education at all levels. Steps will be taken to encourage private initiative and financing in this regard. 2. Steps will be taken to minimize the dropout rate of girl students and to find ways to get them back in mainstream education. Those who cannot be put back within the system will be accommodated within the vocational programs. 3. Attention will be given to create opportunities for women for education of part-time, vocational, non-formal and technical nature. 4.
More girls will be included in institutional education. They will be motivated to go for higher/professional education. In view of this, positive opportunities for women’s education will be created in various educational institutions. Proper steps will be taken to raise Awareness among people irrespective of sex. 5. The curriculum of the primary level will reflect a positive and progressive image of women. It will include the issue of equal rights. This may help bring up a change in the social behavior and mindset of all students. 6. The course contents at primary and second levels will include in larger volume the biographies of great women and pieces written by women. 7.
The secondary level curriculum of last two years will include gender studies and issues of reproductive health. 8. All students, irrespective of their sex, must have equal liberty to choose their courses of studies at the secondary level and equal importance will be attached to all subjects. Girls will not be persuaded to take up some specific courses like home economics. 9. Commuting to schools will be made safe for the girls so that they do not encounter any difficulty. Necessary transport will be arranged and where necessary, safe girls’ hostel will be established. 10. Girls will be encouraged to study science and professional subjects (i. e engineering, medical, law and business studies). 11. There are four women’s polytechnics in the country.
In order to include more girls within the technical or vocational education net, if necessary, more polytechnics for women will be established. Women’s enrollment in the proposed upazila level technical schools will be encouraged. Adequate opportunities will be created for them. 12. Special stipends will be provided for the poor and meritorious girl students to pursue higher education and undertake research. Provision will be made for interest free/ low-interest bank loans at soft terms for women’s education. 13. Women’s participation must be ensured at all levels of policy and decision-making, namely, in matters of primary, secondary and higher education. 14.
The regulations for punishment relating to sexual harassment and repression on women must be strictly followed in the educational institutions. Content and contextual analysis of Bangladesh education policy Education is the light that removes the darkness of ignorance. It is a mental and moral training that makes a man a complete citizen. It teaches a man to choose the right thing in life. It also helps man to become aware of his duties and responsibilities. Female education means the education of the girls. Women constitute half of the total population of our country. Without the proper development of the women, no progress of our country is possible. So to develop the condition of the girls, the necessity of education needs no telling.
Realizing the true every ruling regime tries to bring out a successful education policy. But due to many reason lots of policy has been proposed but not implemented. In the year of 2010 Bangladesh got her 1st national education policy. This policy is definitely a land mark for us specially in promoting female education. Here is the content and contextual analysis of education policy; Social structure based on cultural values: Reflecting the long history of the region, Bangladesh has a culture that encompasses elements both old and new. Although being a Muslim country strict amplification of religious values found relatively less in forming social structure.
This allows free access to female education. Form of govt: After the Independence Bangladesh had experienced about 15 years of military rule. In the year of 1991 it return to democratic form of govt. Democracy promises to people’s demand which leads every elected govt to take initiatives towards female education. Terrorism: terrorism has less flourished here. Even in tribal areas schools are found promote girls education. Strict religious groups failed to pressurize the govt or any institution for not taking any initiative that accelerate female education. Cultural development: historically women education was much developed in this region of sub continent.
Bethun college was the 1s school for women established in British India. Begum Rokeya was one of the pioneers in promoting female education in Bengal in 18th century. Economic status: Bangladesh is one of the most developing countries in the worlds. But in recent times its conditions are improving. The poverty rate is about 31; (2010) and per capita is about 614$. The dependency on foreign aid is now about 2%. IN annual budget allocation, education is one of the prime sectors. Huge investment on female education leads tremendous change in female education at today. Political culture: The political culture of BD is highly favorable to women empowerment.
The political culture regarding to women involvement developed historically. Pritilota Wddar was a leading leader in British India. At present the chief leader of the two political parties are women. Which also helps in female education? Role of NGOs: after independence NGO sector developed for reconstructing the war affected country. But with the passage of time now it emphasizes on women empowerment and promoting female education. IT works at remote area and spread the importance of female education. It started different schools of formal and informal patterns of education. And thus also pressurize the govt to take initiatives in policy regarding female education. Education Policy 2009(Pakistan)
According to the constitution of Pakistan, it is the state’s responsibility to provide free primary education. At the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of the Punjab, founded in 1882 in Lahore. Pakistan now has more than 132 universities, of which 73 are public universities and 59 are private universities. Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programmers’ leading to graduate and advanced degrees.
After years of military rules in the year of 2008 newly elected govt started its journey. As a promise to general people in the year of 2009 it Implement its education policy. 1. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2009 (the “Policy”) comes in a series of education policies dating back to the very inception of the country in 1947. The review process for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was initiated in 2005 and the first document, the White Paper was finalized in March 2007. The White Paper became the basis for development of the Policy document. The lag in finalization of the draft owes to lot of factors including the process of consultations adopted as well as significant political changes in the country. 2.
Two main reasons prompted the Ministry of Education (MoE) to launch the review in 2005 well before the time horizon of the existing policy framework (1998 -2010)1 had approached. Firstly, the policy framework has not served as a satisfactory guide, as the policies pursued under that framework had not produced the desired educational results. Performance of the education sector has been deficient in several key aspects, most notably in access rates, and in quality and equity of educational opportunities. 3. Secondly, new international challenges like Millennium Development and Dakar Education for All (EFA) goals, have gained greater momentum in the intervening years and demanded fresh consideration.
These challenges are triggered by globalization and nation’s quest for becoming a “knowledge society”. Besides, some compelling domestic pressures such as devolution of powers, economic development and demographic transformations have necessitated a renewed commitment to proliferation of quality education for all. 4. The Policy is based on a lengthy process of consultation initiated in 2005, in line with the roadmap endorsed by the Inter-provincial Education Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference. The review exercise was conducted in close co-operation with all stakeholders, particularly the Provincial, Area and District governments. Several in depth research studies were commissioned to feed into the process.
To garner focused discussions, a series of 23 green papers were prepared on different topics by the National Education Policy Review (NEPR) team and widely disseminated to stimulate discussion and get feedback. The process included field visits to 31 representative districts, one national and seven provincial/area education conferences, ten issues based focused group discussions and extensive consultations with educationists from all over Pakistan. With further consultations, the results were summarized in a pre policy ‘White Paper2’ and circulated for comments. The final policy document benefits from a further round of comments from all stakeholders including the Provincial and Area Governments.
The findings and recommendations represent the view of the majority of the stakeholders consulted across the country. 5. The document is organized into eleven chapters. Chapter 1 lays out the current state of Pakistan’s education sector. Available indicators are assessed against data in comparable countries. Chapter 2 describes overarching challenges and responses. Chapter 3 identifies two fundamental causes that lie behind the deficiencies in performance, and outlines the way forward that consists of system-wide and subsector level reforms. Chapters 4 and 5 chart out ways of improving performance at the sector-wide or system level, while Chapters 6 to 9 outline reforms and policy actions to be taken at the sub-sector level.
Chapter 10 deals with Financing of Education and last Chapter 11 broadly suggests a framework for Implementation Action Plan of this Policy document. 6. Many of the areas discussed in this document have also been part of previous policy documents prepared in the country and apparently many of the problems continue. A new policy document on its own will not rectify the situation. However the document does recognize two deficits of previous documents, which if redressed, can alter results for the present one: governance reform and an implementation roadmap. 7. On governance, the policy discusses the issue of inter-tier responsibilities wherein the respective roles and functions of the federal-provincial-district governments continue to be unclear.
Confusion has been compounded, especially, at the provincial-district levels after the ‘Devolution Plan’ mainly because the latter was not supported by a clear articulation of strategies. The other issue identified for governance reforms is the fragmentation of ministries, institutions etc. for management of various sub-sectors of education as well as, at times, within each subsector. Problems of management and planning have also been discussed and recommendations prepared. 8. On implementation, the Policy document includes a chapter that describes the implementation framework. The framework recognizes the centrality of the federating units in implementation of education.
The role of the Federal Ministry of Education will be that of a coordinator and facilitator so as to ensure sectoral and geographic uniformity in achievement of educational goals nationally. A shift has been made by making national policy a truly ‘national’ rather than a federal matter. For this, it has been recommended that the Inter-provincial Education Ministers’ Conference, with representation of all the federating units, will be the highest body to oversee progress of education in the country. In this respect the Federal-Provincial collaborative effort, already initiated, remains the key to success. 9. It has also been proposed to make the document a living one that will be subjected to change whenever a requirement is felt. The IPEM will approve all such changes which can be proposed by any of the federating units. 10.
The purpose of the Policy is to chart out a national strategy for guiding education development in Pakistan. Many of the policy actions outlined have already been initiated in reforms during the process, most notably in the domains of curriculum development, textbook/learning materials policy, provision of missing facilities and a number of initiatives already being implemented by the provincial and area governments. The Policy takes account of these ongoing reforms and integrates them into its recommendations. Content and Contextual Analysis of Pakistan’s education policy Education is surely the back bone of development in any county, In Pakistan the educational policy commute very often.
The constitution of Pakistan provides full participation of women in all spheres of life constituting more than 50% of the total population, but the literacy rate in females is just 36% as compared to men that is 64%. The ratio of primary schools for girls and boys is 4 and 10 respectively. Every government strives to implement different practices with the aim to raise the standard of education. However there are still huge discriminations about the exposure of education among different segments of society. Unfortunately every education policy implemented in Pakistan has failed to come up with one standard level of curriculum for all students especially to girls. A lot of factors are responsible for it.
Here is the description of the content and contextual aspects of Pakistan’s education policy towards girls. Poverty: One of the major obstacles that Pakistani women face to get an education is poverty. A low level of income results in lack of access to education. Due to the lack of resources to survive women is force by their parents to watch upon working instead of education. Parents force them to concentrate on the informal education, giving them sew or cooking skills or on the sector of the labor market. On one side, educating females contributes to creating wealth its impact on economic level but because of the economic limitation that parents face, parents prefer to invest more one as son’s education than of a girl.
Parent insisted that a boy education must be a priority as they have to shoulder economic responsibilities of the family (The future of girls’ education in Pakistan). In other words, poverty leaves parents in a crucible towards their kids. A family having more number of children and less income will prefer to educate the boys of the family, while girls are left to the house duties, and deprived of the chance to have a better future by getting an education. Rural Urban Distance: The discrepancy between rural and urban areas is even more marked. In 1981 only 7 percent of women in rural areas were literate, compared with 35 percent in urban areas. Among men, these rates were 27 and 57 percent, respectively.
Pakistan’s low female literacy rates are particularly confounding because these rates are analogous to those of some of the poorest countries in the world. Social structure based on Religious values: Pakistan is a democratic Muslim country. Religious practices are so strict in female education. In most areas girls are not allowed to have education. One of the most deplorable aspects is that in some places, particularly northern tribal areas, the education of girls is strictly prohibited on religious grounds. This is a gross misinterpretation of Islam, the dominant religion in Pakistan (96 per cent of the population), which like all religions urges men and women to acquire education.
The situation is the most critical in NWFP and Baluchistan, where the female literacy rate stands between 3 per cent and 8 per cent. Form of government: The policy context much depends on the form of govt. Pakistan has a long experience of military rule that forbid it to response towards girls demands. Although the constitution has provides clear provision for female education but itself suspended by different military ruler. The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973 – suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985. Terrorism In tribal areas: Pakistan now days One of the most terrorist affected country.
In it tribal areas international terrorist group like Taleban locates and as a strict oppose to female education, destroy many female schools. In the fear of them most parents at tribal areas feel unsafe to send their girls to school. Historical Culture: The female education in Pakistan never flourishes. Pakistan inherited it from the history. After 1857 when Sir Syed came on the surface with the slogan of educational improvement of the Muslims but the women were ignored. At that time books like “Bahishti Zaiwar”, “Miratul Uroos” popped up to identify the limits for the women. The object of these books was the negation of awareness to women and their confinement to the family only.
Economic status: Pakistan is one of the leading developing countries in south Asia. The poverty rate in Pakistan is estimated to be between 23%- 28%. But it invests less in female education. The total investment in GDP is about 2 %. Pakistan having huge foreign debt also forbids it from investing to female education. Which less represent at national policy. Administrative difficulties: Pakistan is a federation of four provinces; Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)) and Balochistan. But most of the facilities are remain in urban areas. The discrepancy between rural and urban areas is even more marked.
In 1981 only 7 percent of women in rural areas were literate, compared with 35 percent in urban areas. Among men, these rates were 27 and 57 percent, respectively. System Failure: the system that the government provides over education is another fact which contributes to women illiteracy. The government of Pakistan provided policies on the textbooks that shows the preference of men over women, “the emphasis was, and still remains, on the male figure, the skills he needs to be successful in the society” (A critical analysis of school enrollment and literacy rates of girls and women in Pakistan). Furthermore, more girls than boys are deprived of education due to government policies, “the government has done not much to help girls go to school.
The textbooks picture a boy or man as a powerful, strong, and one who dominates every field of life, whereas the books depict a girl or a woman submissive, timid and one who is confined to the house and children” (A critical analysis of school… ). As a result, girls lose the interest to get an education due to the humiliated pressure over them and end up leaving from school. Conclusion God has created both man and woman who have similar contribution in building the civilization. He has bestowed them with same qualities. So both man and woman should get the similar treatment from the society. At present women play significant role in our society. Bangladesh and Pakistan are two leading countries in south Asia. Pakistan’s East and West wings opened in 1947 with a combined population of 70 million, when India was partitioned.
East Pakistan comprised largely the area formerly known as East Bengal. Its geographical separation from West Pakistan by 1,000 miles of Indian Territory was reinforced by linguistic, cultural and political differences, which led to a successful struggle to become the independent nation of Bangladesh at the end of 1971. Despite their differences, the two countries have many comparable features. In 1999 their largely Muslim populations are both in the 130-150 million ranges and each growing by some four million per year, having quadrupled since 1947. Through more than two millennia, both have participated in northern Indian history, languages and cultures.
Both have economies dominated by agriculture and globally ranking in the poorest quartile, and an unsettled recent political history in which military men have been prominent. Pakistan’s Gross National Product in recent years, around US $ 460 per capita, has been roughly double that of Bangladesh, and a much smaller proportion of its population falls below the poverty line (28% against 31%). But in question relating to female education BD is much better position than Pakistan. Though both country formulate and implement then national education policy but emphasizes on female education was less discussed by Pakistan’s education policy. The contextual difference was easy. Because Pakistan practice religious values much strictly then BD. The religious pressure group is stronger then BD.
Flourishing of terrorism in tribal areas left its women’s remaining uneducated. Even in mater of investment in female education was less emphasized by Pakistan govt. All these resulting a poor reflection of the need of female education in national education policy. While Bangladesh achieves better place in ensuring female education. Today’s girls are tomorrow’s mothers. So every girl should be educated properly. Which lead to an educated skilled generation, Generation that leads the country to prosperity? And prosperity comes along with the equal participation of men and women. So every country should give priorities female education. And its priority will be reflecting through its National education policy.